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Full text of "British Association, Dundee, 1912. Handbook and guide to Dundee and district. Prepared for the members of the British Association for the Advancement of Science on the occasion of their visit to Dundee under the direction of the Local Publications Committee. A.W. Paton, editor of Section 1 and Convener of Committee. A.H. Millar, editor of Section 2"

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BRITISH 



1ATION, 



DUNDEE MEETING, 1912 




HANDBOOK 





to 



of the 



of tftoronta 



Mrs. Temple Blackwood 




ALBERT INSTITUTE 

AND VICTORIA ART GALLERIES 

(WHERE CENTRAL RECEPTION OFFICE is SITUATED). 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION, 

DUNDEE 1912. 



HANDBOOK AND GUIDE 



TO 



DUNDEE AND DISTRICT 

"Prepared for the {Members of the " British Association for the 

Advancement of Science" on the occasion of their 

visit to Dundee, under the direction of the 

Local "Publications Committee. 



A. W. PATON, F.I.P.S., F.C.I., F.E.I. S., 

Editor of Section I. and Convener of Committee. 

A. H. MILLAR, LL.D., F.S.A. (SCOT)., F.R.S.A., 

Editor of Section II. 

\~ - rfr^Vv^ 

' d - ^<V' 

y < 




DUNDEE : 

DAVID WINTER AND SON, 
24 CASTLE STREET. 



To the British Association, 

Dundee Meeting, 1912. 



WELCOME. 



We worship at the shrine, where Knowledge lifts 

A Venerable head ; here, in this town, 

This temple, where we lay our willing gifts. 

So now we welcome those of true renown 

To share our city's life and history. 

This is an age of Reason, yet we know 

That Science is the serf of Mystery, 

For, as she lays succeeding curtains low, 

Still larger aisles are opened to our gaze, 

vind still more glorious destinies for men. 

Thus Science gladly every barrier lays 

To bring some nobler truth within our ken. 

We worship at this shrine, so that we may 

TSoth give and taf^e the gifts Truth has in store 

They are no strangers who their treasures /ay 

Upon this altar : Welcome to our shore ! 

W. C. K. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION I. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION - The Convener - 

DUNDEE: As it was A. H. Millar, LL.D. - i 

As it is J. H. Martin, J.P. - 28 

As it may be - A. W. Paton, F.E.I.S. - 34 

SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Dundee Royal Infirmary - - 43 

H. E. Eraser, M.D. 

City Hospitals - - 49 

C. Templeman, M.D., D.Sc. 

Care of the Children - - 54 

Jas. S. Y. Rogers, M.B., CM. 

Blind Citizens - - 64 

Colin Macdonald. 

Work among Women - - 69 

Miss M. L. Walker. 

Welfare of Youth Work - - 77 

D. Latto. 

The Dwellings of Dundee - - 85 

Rev. W. Walsh, D.D. 

What Dundee Contributes to the Empire - 98 

H. T. Templeton. 

Social and Philanthropic Institutions - - 121 

T. M. Davidson, M.A., B.Sc., and J. Armstrong Barry. 

PUBLIC SERVICES. 

Introduction - -133 

The Editor. 

Public Health - 136 

C. Templeman, M.D., D.Sc. 

Sanitation and Pure Air - 147 

T. Kinnear. 

Public Parks and Cemeteries - 153 

J. Carnochan and A. Macrae. 

Markets and Slaughter-Houses - 159 

J. A. Baxter and J. Walker. 



VI. CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Water Supply - - 165 

George Baxter, M. Inst. C.E. 
Gas Supply - - - 170 

Alex. Yuill. 

Electricity 175 

H. Richardson, M.I.E.E. 

Corporation Tramways - 180 

Peter Fisher. 

Libraries, Museums, and Art Galleries - 183 

J. Duncan, F.S.A. (Scot.). 

Under the Poor Law - - 188 

R. Allan. 

City Finances 191 

John M. Sou tar. 

As AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

St. Andrews University - 195 

Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.D. 

University College - 210 

Principal;. Yule Mackay, M.D., LL.D. 

Provincial Training College - - 222 

J. Malloch, M.A., F.S.A. (Scot.)., F.E.I.S. 

Technical College and School of Art - - 229 

J. S. Lumsden, D.Sc., Ph.D. 

High School - - 235 

J. Maclennan, M.A. 

Primary, Secondary, and Continuation Schools - - 247 

John E. Williams. 

Voluntary Schools . 257 

Very Rev. Provost Holder. 

Private Schools . . 260 

The Editor. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Introduction - - - .' . 26- 

The Editor. 

Textiles (Jute, Flax, and Hemp) :>"* 266 

David Ritchie. 

Spinning and Weaving - 1 283 

Thomas Woodhouse. 

Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering . 288 

W. S. Thompson. 

Mechanical Engineering . 207 

Angus R. Fulton, B.Sc., A.M. Inst. CE. 



CONTENTS. vii. 

PAGE 

Electrical Engineering - 37 

Wm. C. Keay. 

Printing and Publishing 3H 

D. T. Sandeman, FJ.I. 

Preserves, Confectionery, and Biscuits - 324 

W. Forwell, J.P. 
Fishing, Trawling, and Whaling - 326 

W. High, J.P. 

Banking 3 2 9 

W. G. Leggat. 

Insurance (Marine) - - 334 

R. Kinnison and D. S. Nicoll. 

Insurance (Life, Fire, and Accident) - - 335 

R. M. Noble. 

Distilling and Brewing - - 33 6 

J. H. Stewart. 

As a Shopping Centre - - 339 

Miss A. S. Maxwell. 

Trades Organisations - 343 

R. Stirton, J.P. 

As a Centre of Investment - 347 

C. H. Marshall, S.S.C. 

Progress and Development ofjthe Harbour - - 357 

J. Hannay Thompson, M.Sc., M. Inst. C.E., F.R.S.E. 

Agriculture - - 3^7 

James Cameron. 

SECTION II. 

Ecclesiastical Architecture - 377 

P. H. Thorns, F.R.I.B.A. 

Public Buildings - 389 

James Thomson, C.E. 

The Auld Howff - - 394 

A. H. Millar, LL.D. 

Ancient Trades and Incorporations 403 

Joseph Wilkie. 

Scientific and Literary Institutions 408 

John Paul. 

BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Charles Lyell and Forfarshirc Geology 416 

Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., D.C.L., /".R.S. 

George Don 423 

G. Claridge Druce, Hon. M.A. (Oxon.)., F.L.S. 



viii. CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Patrick Blair, M.D., F.R.S. - 441 

A. P. Stevenson. 

William Gardiner - 447 

A. P. Stevenson. 

Patrick Matthew of Gourdiehill - - -451 

W. T. Caiman, D.Sc. 

Robert Brown and other Botanists 458 

Lieut. -Col. Sir David Prain, F.R.S. 

Famous Men and Women of Forfarshire - 464 

D. T. Sandeman, F.J.I. 

James Bowman Lindsay - - 491 

A. H. Millar, LL.D. 

Roll of Burgesses and Portraits - - - - 515 

W. H. Blyth Martin. 

SCIENTIFIC. 

Foreland and Hinterland of Dundee - - 1523 

Easton S. Valentine, M.A. 

Geology of the Country round Dundee - - 535 

R. M. Craig, M.A., B.Sc., and D. Balsillie, B.Sc. 

The Fossil Fishes of Dura Den - - - COA 

A. S. Woodward. 

The Flora of Forfarshire . 597 

Jas. Brebner, M.A. 

The Mosses of Forfarshire . 61 1 

Jas. Fulton. 

Birds of the Tay . . . 618 

Jas. B. Corr. 

Evolution of Race in Forfarshire - . 626 

D. Lennox, M.D., F.S.A. (Scot.). 



Art in Dundee .... - 66" 

A. H. Millar, LL.D. 

The Drama in Dundee - . 6 72 

Frank Boyd. 

Music in Dundee, 1867-1912 . 577 

James Buchan. 



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Botanical Survey Map of Fifeshire and Forfarshire in Cover Pocket 

Geological Map of Dundee and District - do. 

General Plan of Dundee Harbour do. 

Plan of Roads in Dundee - - 36 

Map of " Greater Dundee " - 40 

Map of Clova and Caenlochan (Botanical) - 600 

Albert Institute - Frontispiece 

High Street (showing Town House) - 28 

Submarine Naval Base - - 32 

Royal Infirmary t -43 

Institution for the Blind - - 65 

Physics Laboratory (University College) - - 112 

Cainperdown House - 112 

Indian Jute Mill (Interior) - 118 

Middle Walk, Baxter Park - 152 

A Scene in Balgay Park - - J 56 

Coldside Branch Library - - 184 

University College (as it will appear when completed) - - 216 

Provincial Training College (as it will appear when completed) - 224 

Mayfield Hostel (Provincial Committee) - - 228 

Technical College - 232 

Stobswell Supplementary School - - 232 

Boys' High School - 236 

Girls' High School - 240 

Morgan Academy - 248 

Dens Road Public School - 256 

Jute and Flax Manufacture Interior Views 272, 276, 280, 284, 288 

Victoria Dock, Dundee Harbour - - 360 

Deep Water Wharves, Dundee Harbour - 364 

City Churches (showing Old Steeple) - - 377 

View in Howff Burial Ground - - 400 

Plate in " Osteographia Elephantina" : - - 441 

Patrick Matthew - - 456 

Mains Castle, near Dundee 526 

Carses of Earn and Tay - - 532 

Rock and Spindle, near St. Andrews - - 572 



INTRODUCTION. 



FORTY-FIVE years ago, to be exact as to date, on the 4th 
September 1867, the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science last opened its meetings in Dundee. Since 
then the city has shown a remarkable advance in popula- 
tion, in public health, and in all directions which affect 
the comfort, the wellbeing, or the enlightenment of its 
citizens. Whether arising from the generous impulse 
given to local life and thought by these meetings, or from 
other causes, it is to be noted that in the immediately 
ensuing years important movements took rise which 
materially affected for the better our communal life. 
While many names familiar in those days still figure 
on the local Committees in connection with the present 
meetings including Baxters, Ogilvies, Walkers, Coxes, 
Dons, Lengs, and Hendersons only one member of that 
Executive Committee now remains with us in the much 
respected person of Mr (now Lord) Armitstead. 

Acting on the suggestion of Professor D'Arcy Thompson, 
the Lord Provost convened a meeting of the Town Council 
and citizens of Dundee on 2nd March 1910 with the view 
of considering whether an invitation should not be given 
to the Association to visit Dundee, and from that meeting 
generated a cordial and unanimous movement to secure 
the presence of this important body with us in the present 
memorable year. Those at the meeting constituted them- 
selves into a general Committee, which was subsequently 
reinforced by the addition of the names of most of our 
leading citizens. At a meeting of this general Committee, 
held on i4th June, Lord Provost Urquhart, Sir George 
Baxter, LL.D., Professor Thompson, Dr. Sinclair, Mr 
Win'.: Mackenzie (then President of the Chamber of 
Commerce), Dr. A. H. Millar, and the Town Clerk were 
appointed to attend the Annual Meeting of the British 
Association at Sheffield, and convey Dundee's invitation 
for 1912. This was done, and the Association having 
accepted the invitation, immediate steps were taken to 
ensure that all local arrangements would be carried out in 
a manner becoming the importance of the occasion and 
the dignity of the city. 



xii. INTRODUCTION. 

An adequate guarantee fund had already been raised to 
meet the local expenses, and strong Executive and Sub- 
Committees were appointed. The local Executive Com- 
mittee was presided over by the Honourable the Lord 
Provost (James Urquhart, Esq., LL.D.), while Professor 
D'Arcy Thompson, Dr. A. H. Millar, and Mr W. H. Blyth 
Martin, Town Clerk, acted as Hon. Secretaries, and Mr 
W. G. Leggat as Hon. Treasurer. The following Sub- 
Committees were also formed : 

PUBLICATIONS 

Convener, Ex-Bailie Paton. 

RAILWAY FACILITIES 

Convener, Lord Provost Urquhart. 

HOSPITALITY 

Joint Conveners, Dr. Mncgillivray and Wm. 
Henderson, Esq., D.L. 

LADIES 

Joint Conveners, Mrs Urquhart and Lady Baxter. 

EXCURSIONS AND ENTERTAINMENTS 

Convener, Wm. Henderson, Esq., D.L. 

RECEPTION AND SECTION ROOMS 
Convener, Bailie Melville. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Convener, Lord Provost Urquhart. 
FINE ART 

Convener, R. B. Don, Esq., M.A. 

That all of these Committees have efficiently carried out 
the work entrusted to them, I have no doubt, will be more 
apparent in the results than in anything I can say as to 
what they have done. 

On the occasion of the last Dundee meeting a special 
Committee was formed on " Local Industries," with a 
view to the compilation of a publication descriptive of 
these. Ultimately, however, its work took the shape of 
the preparation of several valuable papers, read at the 
Statistical Section of the Association, and subsequently 
published in an interesting memorial volume issued after 
the meetings by the local Executive. On the present 
occasion the work of the Publications Committee took a 



INTRODUCTION. xiii. 

different shape, and in its completed form is now respect- 
fully submitted to the Association. 

After several meetings and considerable discussion, it 
was decided to compile a Handbook for presentation to 
the members, consisting of two parts, descriptive of the 
city's life and interests, as follows : 

(1) A Historical and General Survey of City and 

District: its Institutions, Industries, and Social 
Conditions the work of editorship being 
assigned to myself. 

(2) Archaeological, Literary, and Scientific Sketches 

of City and District the editorial duties on 
which were entrusted to my erudite colleague, 
Dr. A. H. Millar. 

A draft index was drawn up, with suggestions as to writers 
on various subjects, aud this was approved by the Com- 
mittee ; in the main the work has been compiled almost 
identically as originally outlined. 

PART L, it will be observed, is divided clearly into 
Sections, the first being historical, and consisting of a 
composite paper by three writers ; the second, " City 
Problems and Social Service " incorporates 9 papers ; 
"Public Services" take up 12 papers; "Education" 8; 
and "Industrial and Commercial Life" 17; 49 papers in 
all are contained in the 374 pages of space, illustrations 
being additional. PART II. comprises 24 papers in all, 9 of 
which are devoted to Biography, and 6 to more strictly 
Scientific subjects. 

While it would be invidious to single out any writer in 
a publication where all the contributions are good, one 
cannot forego referring to the fact that Sir Archibald 
Geikie, who was himself a member and present at the 
1867 meeting, has favoured us with some reminiscences 
of Sir Charles Lyell, one of our great county-men and 
then a leading worker in the scientific field. 

One must also refer to the very handsome and valuable 
maps which are incorporated in the volume ; not only the 
plan of the Harbour, kindly presented by the Harbour 
Trust, but also the Botanical and Geological maps in 



XIV. INTRODUCTION. 

colour, which cannot but prove of special value to the 
student of these important sciences. 

The 73 papers comprised in the book will, we believe, 
every one of them be found most readable and interesting. 
They may not interest all alike, but each reader is sure to 
find something in the book well worthy of preservation. 
It presents a bird's-eye view of the City's life and interests 
which it is believed has never before been compiled, and 
looking into the future it cannot but prove of immense 
value when some 45 years from now the British As- 
sociation which lives on, even though its members pass 
away and, it may be, are forgotten, in the course of its 
itinerary once more honours our city with its presence. 

I need scarcely add that the Handbook represents a 
very considerable amount ot hard, painstaking, and dis- 
interested work. To the writers of the various papers, to 
those who have helped them in the acquiring of information 
for same, and to all, not forgetting the printers, who have 
in any way helped to make the book a worthy memento of 
this occasion, I tender the Committee's very cordial and 
hearty thanks. Nor can I, on behalf of my colleague and 
myself, neglect to record our special thanks to the small 
Advisory Committee, consisting of Rev. G. R. MacPhail, 
Ex-Bailies Martin and Eraser, Messrs John Mitchell, 
Alex. Urquhart, and D. T. Sandeman ; these gentlemen 
have been of material assistance to us in carrying 
through the preparation of the volume. 

We bespeak for it a welcome, not only from the dis- 
tinguished visitors in whose honour it has more immedi- 
ately been compiled, but from our fellow townsmen who 
may, on reading the historical, scientific, industrial, and 
social records, be stimulated to a closer study, and be 
further strengthened in their feelings of local patriotism 
and towards endeavour to raise the standard of life and 
thought in our community, and to aid all movements 
which aim at upholding the dignity, the standing, and 
the importance of a city which we are proud to claim as 
the place of our habitation. 

A. W. PATON, 

Convener of Publications Committee. 
16/8/12. 



SECTION 



Dundee : As it was. 

By A. H. Millar, LL.D., 

Librarian and Curator, Dundee Libraries, 

Art Galleries, and Museums. 

THE position which Dundee occupied in prehistoric times 
is faintly indicated by the relics that have been found in 
the vicinity. During the past hundred years many in- 
teresting discoveries have been made at the Stannergate, 
consisting of urns of unburnt clay, stone coffins with 
human remains, and similar proofs of early occupancy. 
Perhaps the most valuable archaeological find was the 
disclosure of a large shell-bed or " kitchen-midden," which 
was exposed during the operation of excavating between 
the river and the railway in 1878 to provide materials for 
the embankment of a timber pond that formed an exten- 
sion of the Dundee harbour. This deposit, which measured 
one hundred feet by sixty feet, contained a large number 
of the shells of edible molluscs, mixed with a quantity of 
burned wood, pieces of bone artificially split, porpoise 
bones, deers' horns, and stone implements. These relics 
plainly showed that a colony of fishermen had resided at 
this spot. That the time of its occupancy was a very 
remote one is suggested by the fact that superincumbent 
earth, either detritus or the result of a landslip, had covered 
the deposit about twelve feet. The date was very pro- 
bably long anterior to the Eoman occupation of Scotland, 
since twelve cists or stone coffins of the latter era had 
been interred eight feet above the shell-bed. Ages must 
have elapsed between the time when the Stannergate 
was inhabited by these early fishermen and the period 
when the interments took place. Specimens of the 
materials composing the shell-bed, and of urns found in 
this locality, were placed in the collection of the Dundee 
Naturalists' Society, Albert Institute Museum. 



2 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

The western part of modern Dundee has also afforded 
proofs of the existence of prehistoric inhabitants. While 
a lair was being dug in the Western Cemetery on 26th 
October 1881, a crematory urn was found, containing 
human bones and a small piece of oxidized bronze, which 
is preserved in the Dundee Museum, and stone coffins of 
a later date have been discovered at Menzieshill, Inver- 
gowrie. Traditionally it is asserted that a great contest 
took place near Dundee between Alpin, King of Scots, 
and Brude, King of the Picts ; and the place of the 
interment of the defeated Alpin is still known as Pitalpin, 
a spot near King's Cross Road, about a quarter of a mile 
north-west of the Law. In 1732 a " Snake Bracelet" was 
found near this spot, and is now in the Museum of the 
Society of Antiquaries at Edinburgh. Excavations made 
at Pitalpin at the end of last century resulted in the 
discovery of eight or ten graves with stone coffins con- 
taining human bones. Thus it is seen that the country 
for a considerable distance around the present site of 
Dundee was peopled by numerous small colonies in pre- 
historic times. Assuming that the nucleus of Dundee 
was formed near the shore, these relics suggest that it 
could claim hoary antiquity. 

No very satisfactory theory has been 
Name of advanced as to the derivation of the name 
Dundee. "Dundee." Some theorists have maintained 

that it is a corruption of the Celtic Dun- 
Tay, the descriptive designation of the hill fort on the 
Tay, and they have pointed to the remains of a vitrified 
fort on the summit of the Law Hill as giving the reason 
for this appellation. Hector Boece, in his Chronicles 
written about 1525, gives an ecclesiastical derivation 
transforming the name into Deidonum, which he inter- 
prets " the Gift of God." He further mentions that the 
ancient name of the place was Alectum, to which he gives 
the signification of " beautiful." Neither of these names 
is to be found in unquestionable documents referring to 
Dundee. It has been asserted that the oldest Latin form 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 6 

of the name was Taodunum, which is supposed to be the 
equivalent of the Celtic Dun-Tay. An examination of the 
earliest charters relating to the burgh does not support 
either of the theories last referred to. The oldest form of 
the name that has been found in documents dating from 
the middle of the eleventh century is simply that of 
Dunde, and this form, with slight variations, has con- 
tinued till the present day. 

There is a current tradition that Malcolm 

Early Canmore had a residence in Dundee, and it 

History. is related by Andrew Wyntoun in his 

" Cronykil of Scotland," and by Fordoun, 
that Malcolm's son and successor, Edgar, died in Dundee 
in 1107, and was carried thence and solemnly interred at 
Dunfermline. Edgar was succeeded by his brother, 
Alexander L, who reigned till 1124. He had a dwelling 
of some kind at Invergowrie, and intended to build a 
" palace " there. It is incredible that a monarch in those 
lawless times would have built his dwelling elsewhere 
than near some centre of civilization such as Dundee then 
was. This confirms the idea of the early importance of 
the burgh. These inferences regarding Dundee become 
certainties when we approach the period of William the 
Lion, who ascended the throne in 1165, and reigned till 
1214. From the confirming charter of Eobert the Bruce 
(4th March 1327) it is evident that the inhabitants of 
Dundee had enjoyed burghal rights and privileges in the 
time of King William, and before the burgh had been 
conferred by that monarch upon his brother, David, Earl 
of Huntingdon. 

There is a well-known tradition which 

David, ascribes the foundation of the Church of 

Earl of St. Mary of Dundee to the gratitude of 

Huntingdon. Earl David for his rescue from the dangers 

of the deep on his return from the Crusades 

circa 1190. That the burgh had a corporate existence 

before this time is shown lay the statement in Fordoun's 



4 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

" Crony kil" that King William gave to David the Earldom of 
Huntingdon, " likewise the Earldom of Garviach, the town 
of Dundee, the town of Inverbervie, and the lordship of 
Lanforgonde," after the King returned to Scotland in 
1174 This statement coincides with the similar assertion 
made by Balfour in his " Annales," and by the " Acts of 
the Parliament of Scotland." Hence the founding of the 
church must have taken place at least fifteen years after 
Dundee had become "Earl David's burgh." This does 
not militate against the statement that the Church of St. 
Mary was founded by the Earl; and it is certain that 
when he erected the Abbey of Lindores in 1178, he 
included in his foundation charter the Church of Dundee 
as one of the gifts. The importance of Dundee is 
incidentally confirmed by a document now preserved in 
the Chancery Office, London, and dated 26th October 
1199, whereby King John of England "grants to the 
burgesses of Earl David, brother of the King of Scotland, 
of Dundee, freedom from toll, and all other customs of the 
Crown, except in the City of London." This is probably 
the earliest instance of commercial intercourse between 
Scotland and England that has been recorded. That this 
privilege was not a mere empty honour is proved by a 
document of 1212-13, wherein it is stated that " Gilbert 
of London owes the third part of 40 for justice against 
Eichard of Bedford, Augustin of Danwiz, and Nicol, son 
of Agnes, burgesses of Dundee, in Scotland, that they may 
restore him 40." The title, "burgess of Dundee," 
appears frequently appended to the names of witnesses to 
charters about this period. The fishing village of early 
times had thus developed into a centre of commerce. The 
position which David, Earl of Huntingdon, occupied in 
the history of the time has not been fully understood. 
He is often regarded merely as a soldier of fortune, an 
unsuccessful Crusader, who owed to the charity of his 
brother, the King, the property of the burgh of Dundee, 
which was supposed to have been almost his only 
possession in Scotland. The obscurity which has hitherto 
enshrouded his existence has been cleared away to a large 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 5 

extent by the publication of Eecord Office documents. 
From these it appears that Earl David was a wealthy 
nobleman, holding large possessions in England, bearing 
an English title, the brother of the King of Scotland, and 
having the Duke of Brittany and the Count of Holland 
for his brothers-in-law, and the descendants of Henry I. 
for his near kinsmen. That the Earl had a mansion of 
some kind in the burgh can be proved beyond dispute, 
and its situation towards the close of the twelfth century 
can be approximately indicated. The place described in 
charters of that period as " Earl David's toft " (area domus) 
stood in the Nethergait, near Couttie's Wynd, and 
remains of this house were in existence in 1496, as a 
charter of that year refers to the gable of "Erie David 
Huntlentoun's Haw " as a boundary. It is almost certain 
that the Earl made this his occasional residence, and it 
was probably because he lived in Dundee that he founded 
here the Church of St. Mary to supersede the older 
Church of St. Clement of Dundee. There was another 
toft held by Earl David in Dundee, the locality of which 
cannot be so easily identified. It is recorded in the 
Kegister of the Priory of St. Andrews that he gave to 
that foundation " one full toft in my burgh of Dundee," 
together with an annual charge of one silver merk to be 
paid from the fermes of Dundee, which payment was 
continued for centuries. 

Not only did the Earl himself reside here, 

Competitors but there is ample evidence that all his 

for the married children had houses in the burgh. 

Scottish His eldest surviving son, John le Scot, 

Crown. succeeded to the title and estates of his 

father. His eldest daughter, Margaret, wife 

of Alan, Lord of Galloway, and mother of Devorgilla, who 

married John Balliol, also lived in Dundee ; his second 

daughter, Isobel, wife of Robert Bruce. Lord of Annandale, 

was proprietrix of Craigie ; and his third daughter, Ada, 

wife of Henry de Hastings, had a mansion in the vicinity. 

These statements can be proved on incontestable docu- 



6 DUNDEE : AS IT WAS. 

mentary evidence, and it is remarkable that the ancestors 
alike of John Balliol, John de Hastings, and Kobert Bruce, 
the three principal competitors for the Crown of Scotland, 
were burgesses of Dundee, arid frequently resided there. 

Though the recorded names of burgesses 
Dundee in confirm the idea of the importance of 
the Dundee in the beginning of the thirteenth 

Thirteenth century, they would afford us no information 
Century. as to the size of the burgh were it not 
possible to identify the positions of some of 
their houses. Fortunately this can be done, at least to 
some extent. The tenement furthest west in Dundee 
belonged to Thomas de Colville, who witnessed a charter 
of William the Lion anent the Church of Monikie circa 
1189. The house stood on the south side of the Nethergait, 
opposite the Church of St. Mary, and after his death came 
into the hands of the Monks of the Abbey of Coupar in 
Angus. In the rental book of the Abbey, at a later date, 
this property is described as their hospital and garden, 
and the tenant was " to uphold all the walls and the usual 
repairs of the garden." He was "to preserve the roofs 
free from rain by sufficient roofing and cement"; the 
cellarer was "to repair stairs and kitchen at the expense 
of the Monastery " ; and the Lord Abbot was " to have the 
usual privileges for himself and his officers on their arrival." 
Next to it on the eastern side was the tot't given by John 
le Scot, son of Earl David, to the Abbey of Balmeririo, and 
this property is described in successive charters so late as 
1748. At that date it is mentioned in a sasine as the 
"land formerly belonging to the Abbot of Balmerino." 
The ground given by Earl John was subdivided, two 
portions being tenanted in 1286 by Harvey, called Lamby, 
and an intervening toft being held at that time by Harvey 
de Dunde, Canon of Glasgow. The latter Harvey had 
built a house on his ground, and laid out a garden con- 
nected therewith, and by a charter, dated at Dundee, 10th 
August 1286, he bequeathed this edifice to the Abbey of 
Balmerino, reserving to himself the right to inhabit it 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 7 

during his lifetime. The name of Harvey, called Lamby, 
appears as a witness in several charters of this period. 
His property seems to have stood near the western side of 
Couttie's Wynd. Earl David's toft lay to the east of this 
property, and was separated from it by the passage known 
at one time as the " Abbottis-Wynd," at a later date as 
Spalding's Wynd, and now called Couttie's Wynd. There 
is no early record showing the proprietors between this 
point and the road called Castle Wynd, sometimes Eoger 
del Wend's Vennel, afterwards Skirting's Wynd, and now 
Tendall's Wynd. The "King's highway," called vicus 
major, latterly the Marketgait or High Street, extended 
between these two wynds ; and it is important to remember 
that the Seagait in early times ' began at the corner of 
Tendall's Wynd, and ran thence eastward. The Castle 
Burn crossed tbe Seagait, nearly on the line of South 
Commercial Street, and it is likely that the tenement of 
John of the Burn (de rivulo) was almost the eastmost 
house in Dundee in the thirteenth century. A property 
in Tendall's Wynd belonged to Norman of the Castle 
Wynd, and was given bv him to the Abbey of Balmerino 
previous to 1268. When the Abbot demitted this ground 
in feu-farm to William Welyeuyth, circa 1270, a special 
condition was imposed that he should provide sufficient 
" hostilage " for the Abbot and his successors, or any of 
the Monks of that foundation, when they should have 
occasion to visit Dundee. An adjoining property belonged 
at this time to Koger del Wend (of the Wynd), which 
remained in his family for several generations. The 
Castle Wynd in his charter was designated Eoger's 
Vennel, probably so-called because the frontage of hjs 
property impinged upon the Wynd. The tenement next 
to that of Roger belonged to Waryn Porrok early in the 
thirteenth century, and came from him to Lord Henry 
de Hastings, by whom it was granted to the Abbey of 
Balmerino, as formerly stated. It was afterwards held by 
Gregory de Schyrhame, tenant of the Abbey, whose wife 
or daughter, Marjorie de Schyrhame, in 1326, and for 
several years afterwards, held the high position of 



8 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

Custumar or Collector of the King's great customs, a 
position generally assigned to one of the leading burgesses. 
The rent paid by Gregory to the Abbey or "religious 
men " was 40 sol. sterling ; one-half at the Feast of 
Pentecost, and the other at Martinmas in winter. The 
property consisted of two perticates of burghal land with 
the pertinents, and was bounded on the east by the land 
of Harvey de Douny. It is likely that Gregory's property 
included the two gifts of land to Balmerino mentioned 
above. Harvey de Douny's land is quoted as a boundary 
in 1268, and also in 1317. Henry, called Hastings, son 
of Albert of Dundee (not to be confounded with Lord 
Henry de Hastings), had the tenement nearly adjoining 
on the east of that of Harvey de Douny in 1281 ; and he 
acquired at that date another toft on the eastern side 
thereof from John of the Burn. The latter place is 
distinctly described as "in the Seagait of Dundee." 
Another property to the east of this house which existed 
in the thirteenth century was that of Gilbert, called 
Gudgib, and his wife Emma, daughter of Peter of 
Whitefield. 

The properties described were clustered 
The Castle around the hill on which the Castle of 
of Dundee. Dundee was erected. 'No trace of this 
building now remains, and though from its 
history it is apparent that it was regarded in warlike 
times as a place of great importance, there are few clues 
afforded as to its extent or appearance. 1 1 is not known 
when it was built, nor whether it was the chosen residence 
of King Edgar, although it seems probable that in his 
time no monarch would have trusted himself in the 
undefended house of a burgess. As a matter of fact, the 
existence of the castle in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century is implied by the name of the Castle Wynd, and 
it is only natural to find that the burgesses erected their 
houses in close proximity to a place that would afford 
them refuge and defence. The earliest reference to the 
building is found in connection with the occupancy of 
Scotland by Edward I. In 1290 Brian de Fitz-Alan was 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 9 

Custodian of the Castles of Forfar and Dundee, and the 
accounts for the provisions received by him for the 
support of his soldiers are still extant. When the castle 
was besieged by Sir William Wallace, and the burgesses 
of Dundee were ordered to maintain the blockade of the 
citadel, Wallace was suddenly called away to another part 
of the country. Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus, 
succeeded Fitz-Alan in the office of Castellan, and on 
10th June 1291 Edward I. undertook to indemnify him 
for the surrender of the Castles of Dundee and Forfar, 
issuing a further order two days afterwards that he should 
not deliver these castles except to the King or his 
emissary. After Edward had decided the' contest for the 
Crown of Scotland in favour of John Balliol, he issued a 
mandate as Lord Superior to Brian de Fitz-Alan, dated 
18th November 1292, directing that the Castle of Dundee 
should be handed over to Balliol's custody as King of 
Scotland. In 1295 Balliol held this castle as an appanage 
of the Crown, and directed that it should be given as 
one of the warranties for the payment of 1,000 livres of 
annual rent, which he bestowed upon his eldest daughter 
on her marriage with the son of Charles, Earl of Valois. 
It is often stated that by Wallace's instructions the Castle 
of Dundee was totally destroyed about this time ; but this 
statement cannot be reconciled with the after history of 
the castle. If this had been the case, Wallace would not 
have granted a special charter to Sir Alexander Scrymgeour 
appointing him Constable of the Castle of Dundee on 
29th March 1298. Still further proof is afforded of the 
continued existence of the castle by a series of charters, 
now in the possession of the Earl of Lauderdale, confirming 
this office of the Scrymgeours in 1302 and 1303, wherein 
the Castle of Dundee is repeatedly mentioned. From 
various records of the time, but principally from the Rolls 
preserved in the Chancery Office, London, many par- 
ticulars as to the provisioning of the Castle of Dundee 
may be found. A few of these may here be noted, both 
as bearing upon the history of the castle and as illustrating 
the customs of the time. In June 1308 Sir Alexander 



10 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

Abernethy, Sir Edmond de Hastings, and Sir John de 
Fitz-Marmaduke were appointed " to be wardens beyond 
the Scottish sea, between the Forth and Orkeneye, with 
120 men-at-arms, besides garrisons, and that in their 
commissions each be bound to aid the other if need bo 
when required." On 12th May 1309 the King of England 
sent for the munition of the Castle of Dundee, then under 
the charge of Sir Edmond de Hastings, 500 stock-fish, 8 
bacons, 50 quarters of grain, 50 quarters of barley, 30 
quarters of beans and peas, and 30 jars of wine. 

The next Governor of Dundee whose name is found in 
connection with the castle was Sir Piers de Gravestone, 
Earl of Cornwall, the unfortunate favourite of Edward II., 
whose fate was one of the tragic incidents in the history 
of his time. In January and February 1 3 1 0- 1 1 , Sir Piers de 
Gravestone resided in the Castle of Dundee as Warden and 
Lieutenant of King Edward in Scotland north of the Forth. 

Two curious entries occur in the Exchequer documents 
of the reign of Edward II. which are suggestive as to the 
history of the Castle of Dundee. On 24th May 1311, it 
is recorded that 13 quarters 4 bushels of beans and pease 
were bought at 8s. 6d. per quarter from Thomas Tresk, 
merchant in the port of Dundee, by order of Sir Robert 
Umfraville, Earl of Angus, for the use of Edward's men 
in the district north of the Forth. This document was 
signed at Dundee. In January 1313-14, while Edward 
II. was preparing for his expedition to Scotland, an order 
was issued for payment of a quantity of malt and beans 
bought for him in the port of Dundee for the use of the 
garrison there. Before this account was paid the decisive 
Battle of Bannockburn had been fought, and even as late 
as May 1316 the hapless merchant who had effected the 
transaction was still claiming the account. 

After the departure of Piers de Gavestone 

Extent of f rom Dundee the custody of the castle was 

the Garrison, committed to Sir Alexander de Abernethy, 

whose fee for one year amounted to 186. 

The army list of the period gives full details of the 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 11 

number of men-at-arms that then formed the Castle 
of Dundee, and the distinctive marks and value of their 
horses. The fortress must have been of considerable 
extent since there were not less than 130 knights and 
horsemen maintained within its walls. The names of 
these soldiers show that many of them had been drawn 
from leading families in Fifeshire, Forfarshire, and Perth- 
shire; whilst the custodian of the castle was that Sir 
Alexander de Abernethy, already mentioned, who was a 
scion of an old Perthshire family. His lands were after- 
wards forfeited and conferred upon Robert Bruce, who 
was described as "son of Robert I." In 1312, William 
de Montfitchet was Warden north of the Forth, and 
commanded the garrison at Dundee, having David de 
Brechin, nephew of Robert I., conjoined with him as 
Warden. The Scottish soldiers had closely besieged the 
place, and Edward sent letters of commendation to the 
community, thanking them for their services on his 
behalf. Nevertheless the Castellan was so hopeless of 
maintaining the castle that he entered into a treaty with 
the Scots, whereby he undertook to surrender the place 
and release a number of Scottish prisoners within a given 
period. King Edward, who was then at York, at once 
repudiated this treaty, and sent peremptory orders to 
Montfitchet directing him to violate the truce and to 
preserve the town under threat of death and confiscation. 
Montfitchet was further commanded to warn the Scots 
that if any of the English prisoners were put to death a 
terrible revenge would be taken upon the Scottish 
prisoners whom the King held. To relieve the garrison 
Edward sent John Porlot as an emissary with instructions 
to Montfitchet to defend the town and the captives, and 
empowering him to retain the ransom money that might 
be paid for the release of prisoners. At the same time 
the King instructed the officials of Newcastle and Berwick 
to provide vessels and barges to transport men-at-arms 
and foot soldiers for the rescue of Dundee, and to carry 
with them "aketonis, hawberks, bacenittes, and victuals 
for the supply and defence of the aforesaid town of 



12 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

Dundee." Whether these reinforcements were too late in 
reaching the town, or whether Montfitchet adhered more 
faithfully to his plighted word than Edward desired, is 
not recorded; but it is certain that shortly after this 
time the Castle of Dundee was in the hands of Sir 
Edward Bruce, brother of the King of Scotland, and it is 
likely that the possession of this and other important 
strongholds made the Battle of Bannockburn possible. 

On reviewing all the available evidence 

Last Trace of relating to the Castle of Dundee, it seems 

the Castle, probable that this fortress was not destroyed 

by Wallace previous to the Battle of Falkirk, 
but was dismantled, though not utterly demolished, by Sir 
Edward Bruce when he razed other fortalices in Scotland, 
so that the whole of the Scottish forces might be concen- 
trated at Bannockburn. From the date of Bannockburn 
the Castle of Dundee disappears entirely from history. 
On the other hand, it is not at all improbable that the 
English forces, not receiving the support which they 
expected, abandoned the castle, destroying its fortifications 
and made their escape by sea. The Scrymgeours, who 
had faithfully adhered to Eobert Bruce throughout his 
struggle, had necessarily been deprived of their hereditary 
office of Constable of the "Castle of Dundee" during the 
English occupancy. But when Eobert I. regained his 
kingdom he was not unmindful of those who had served 
him with unwavering devotion. When peace had been 
restored the King granted a charter to Xicol Scrymgeour, 
dated 13th February 1317, whereby he confirmed to him 
the office of Constable of Dundee, and it is noteworthy 
that no mention is made in this charter of the Castle of 
Dundee, though the charter by William Wallace had 
appointed Alexander Scrymgeour to the Constdbularia 
Castri de Donde. It is a legitimate inference that the 
Castle had ceased to exist before 1317, and it is also 
remarkable that in the charter confirming the rights of 
the burgh, granted by Robert 1. in 1325, no reference 
whatever is made to the castle. Nevertheless, it appears 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 13 

that the office of Constable of Dundee was linked in some 
mysterious way with the site of the castle, for the 
Constables held their barony courts for centuries on the 
Castle Hill The name survived long after the building 
had disappeared. The Castle Wynd, the Castle Hill, the 
Castle Mills, and the Castle Burn, were constantly used 
to describe localities long after every vestige of the building 
had gone, and even to this day the name is perpetuated in 
Castle Street, which was so denominated nearly five 
hundred years after the castle had been demolished. 

The shipping and commercial history of 

Shipping and Dundee can be traced back for a very long 

Commerce, period. Keference might be made to the 

ships of Malcolm Canmore that entered the 
river in pursuit of Macbeth about 1040, and although no 
records of commerce exist regarding this period, it is 
certain that a river which was navigable for ships of war 
would afford equal facilities for those engaged in com- 
mercial enterprise. It is remarkable that the earliest 
charter to the burgh of Dundee viz., that given by 
William the Lion, and confirmed by Robert the Bruce 
granted a free harbour to the burgesses, thus implying 
that a harbour had been in existence before his time. 
The first reference in documents to the existence of an 
actual shipping harbour is found in connection with the 
Abbey of Coupar. Dundee was the port at which all 
merchandise arriving in Scotland for the use of the Abbey 
was received, and on llth April 1225 Alexander II. 
granted a license for a vessel to the Abbot of Coupar " to 
export wool and other merchandise to Flanders under the 
charge of Robert of Pert and Friar Gilbert, smith." The 
confirming charter of Robert the Bruce specially refers to 
the existence of a harbour in the time of Alexander III. 
That Dundee was used as a harbour for imports in the 
thirteenth century is amply proved by numerous entries 
in the Exchequer Rolls. In 1264 the wine which was 
brought to Scotland for use in the Castle of Forfar was 
landed at Dundee, and in the same year there was bought 



14 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

at the Fair of Dundee, for the King's use, cloth and furs, 
which must have been imported, The famous letter 
addressed by Andrew de Moravia and William Wallace 
to the Mayors of Liibeck and Hamburg, dated llth 
October 1297, by which they declared that all the ports 
of Scotland were open to trade, must have been of special 
value to Dundee, as that burgh was then one of the 
principal places engaged in foreign trade. Robert Brace's 
charter of 1327 not only confirmed earlier privileges to 
Dundee, but also forbade " foreign merchants disposing of 
goods brought by land or sea until they shall have landed 
and exposed them in the said burgh for sale, under pain 
of imprisonment and forfeiture of all the goods to the 
burgesses." 

The situation of Dundee, whilst making it a 

Naval convenient port for the development of 

Incidents. commerce, laid it under peculiar danger 

from the attacks of an enemy. However 
extensive might be the landward defences of the burgh, 
so far as approach by water was concerned, Dundee was 
what old chroniclers called a " nakit toun." The rapid 
growth of commerce has been already partially shown, 
and it may be convenient here to refer to the misfortunes 
that fell upon Dundee through the operations of her naval 
enemies. In 1332, when Edward Balliol led his troops 
through Fife, towards Perth, before the Battle of Dupplin, 
he directed that his ships should wait for him at the 
entrance of the River Tay, but his fleet was there attacked 
by John Crabbe, a Flemish mariner, who came with ten 
vessels to the mouth of the river and captured one of 
Balliol's ships belonging to Henry de Beaumont. Shortly 
afterwards, however, Crabbe's fleet was destroyed in a 
general engagement, and the disaster ultimately told 
severely against Dundee. When Edward III. invaded 
Scotland in 1335, the ships which he sent from Newcastle 
entered the Tay and burned the greater portion of Dundee, 
including part of the Franciscan Monastery that had been 
founded by the ancestress of Edward Balliol. In the 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 15 

" Chronicle of Lanercost " this incident is described as 
follows : " The ships of Newcastle burned the greater part 
of the town of Dundee, and the dormitories and schools of 
the Minorite Friars ; and the great Bell thereof they took 
away, and one Friar they burned, who in secular life had 
formerly been a soldier, but nevertheless a man of good 
parts and holy character. The bell they exposed for sale 
at Newcastle, which was bought by the Preaching Friars 
of Carlisle for ten merks ; the one not having the right to 
sell, nor the other the right to buy." A more patriotic 
incident in the history of Dundee is that recorded by 
Wyntoun, when he relates how Walter of Currie, William 
Fraser, and William Bullok, in 1341, provided a ship in 
Dundee, and embarked with the Knight of Liddesdale 
from the port with the intention of surprising and captur- 
ing Edinburgh Castle a project that was carried to a 
triumphant issue. In the various historical accounts that 
are given of this incident by Lord Hailes and others, 
Walter of Currie is described as a merchant of Dundee, 
the proprietor of the ship which carried the soldiers of 
Douglas and his companions. From the account of 
William Bullok as Chamberlain of Scotland, rendered at 
Dundee on llth June 1342, it appears that Walter de 
Currie and his comrade, William de Fairley, had received 
100 lib. from the Parliament which was held by David II. 
at Scone in that year. 

In 1378 the great schism took place in the Church of 
Rome, whereby Pope Urban VI. was deposed and Clement 
VII. appointed as Pope in his stead. In this dispute 
Scotland and England supported the rival claimants, the 
former country adhering to Pope Urban and the latter to 
the Anti-Pope. Robert II. of Scotland sent as his emissary 
to Rome, Duncan Petyte (Small), who set out from the 
harbour of Dundee, where he had been detained for a 
considerable time waiting for a ship. Although his mission 
was not successful in averting the division in the Romish 
Church, his services, both on this and later embassies, 
were acknowledged and rewarded by his royal master, and 
he ultimately became Chancellor of Scotland. 



16 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

There is one memorable incident connected with Dundee 
which appears to have been misunderstood by some of the 
historians. It is well known that in 1390 Sir David 
Lindsay of Glenesk, afterwards Earl of Crawford, challenged 
Sir John de Welles, an English knight, to a duel, under 
the auspices of Eichard II. of England. It has been 
alleged that Lindsay, with his retinue of twenty-nine 
esquires, men-at-arms, valets, and boys, with thirty horses, 
embarked at the Craig of Dundee to sail for London in the 
ship " St. Mary." This statement, however, is not sup- 
ported by the documents relating to this journey which 
are still preserved. It is certain that Eichard II. granted 
a safe conduct to Sir David Lindsay and his retinue on 
22nd January 1390, which was to extend for two months 
from 1st April in that year. The privilege had not been 
utilized, however, because Sir David twice obtained a 
renewal of it on 14th May, extending the time to 14th 
July, and then on 25th May, renewing the safe conduct 
for two months from 1st June. At the date of the last 
renewal, 25th May, a special privilege was granted by 
Eichard II. to the "'Seinte Marie,' ship of Dundee, 
whereof William Snell is master," to permit of the carry- 
ing of one whole suit of armour for Sir David Lindsay ; 
and this safe conduct also extended for two months from 
1st June. An examination of the dates of these documents 
discloses two errors regarding this famous duel that have 
hitherto been unnoticed. The date of the conflict is 
variously given by different writers. Wyntoun, in de- 
scribing the duel, distinctly states that it took place on 
6th May. Hector Boece, on the other hand, asserts that 
Sir John de Welles chose London Bridge as the place of 
the duel, and that Sir David de Lindsay selected the 
Feast of St. George the Martyr as the day of this en- 
counter ; and he further adds that it was in consequence 
of his victory that Lindsay founded his Altar to St.* 
George in the Church of Dundee. It is evident from the 
documents quoted that Sir David had not set out for 
London before 1st June 1390, and therefore could not 
have fought the duel on St. George's Day, which fell on 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 17 

23rd April. For the same reason Wyntoun's date is 
incorrect, and it is likely that he had only heard of the 
first safe conduct, in which the date of the duel was set 
down for 6th May. Boece's theory about the foundation 
of the altar is a mere afterthought, as the altar was not 
endowed by Sir David Lindsay until 1406, eight years 
after he had been made Earl of Crawford. 

A memorable incident in the naval history of Scotland 
is connected with the harbour of Dundee as it existed at 
the close of the fifteenth century. The famous Sir Andrew 
Wood of Largo, one of the most renowned of the naval 
heroes of the time, was a merchant trader originally in 
the burgh of Leith, who had extensive commercial relations 
with the Low Countries. In those days it was necessary 
for every trader to carry his merchandise in armed vessels 
capable of resisting the English pirates who infested the 
North Sea. There was then no Scottish navy, for the few 
ships that belonged to the King were usually hired to the 
merchants when they were not engaged in active warfare. 
The principal ships of war at this time were the " Yellow 
Carvel," the " Flower," the " Douglas," the " Cristofir," the 
"Jakat," the "Mary," and the "Eos." These vessels, 
though the property of the King, were hired to men like 
Sir Andrew Wood, Andrew and Kobert Barton, and others, 
who navigated the vessels containing their cargoes across 
the sea to Flanders, and defended them against the enemies 
of the nation. It is recorded that the barque " Douglas " 
and the ship " Cristofir " were both hired in 1496 from the 
King, the one for 45 per voyage, and the other for 100 
per annum. The "Yellow Carvel" was under the com- 
mand of Sir Andrew Wood, who had been knighted by 
James III., and was esteemed one of the bravest com- 
manders of the period. His services in suppressing 
English piracy were rewarded with a free gift of the 
lands of Largo in Fifeshire, and a curious charter con- 
firming this gift relates that the Tower of Largo was built 
for him by the English pirates whom he had captured. 
The crowning act of his career was the famous naval 
battle which he had in 1489 with Stephen Bull, an 

B 



18 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

Englishman, whom Henry VII. of England had sent to 
the north to molest the Scottish traders, though the two 
nations were then at peace. Stephen Bull having received 
intelligence that Sir Andrew Wood was returning to 
Scotland with a rich cargo from Holland, set out with 
three armed ships to lie in wait for him, and took up his 
position near the Isle of May. Sir Andrew had two ships 
under his charge, and was sailing homewards anticipating 
no interruption when he was suddenly surprised by the 
appearance of three hostile vessels that sailed down upon 
his little fleet, and endeavoured to take possession of his 
ships as prizes. By the exercise of superior nautical know- 
ledge Sir Andrew was able to offer a desperate resistance. 
The conflict was long and severe, and night found the 
combatants still fiercely engaged. In the leisurely manner 
of conducting warfare prevalent in those times the com- 
batants separated, but hostilities were renewed at early 
dawn. The ships meanwhile had drifted northwards to 
a part of the North Sea more familiar to Sir Andrew than 
to his opponent, and in a short space of time he had the 
English fleet entirely at his mercy. It is related that he 
towed the dismantled English vessels triumphantly into 
the harbour of Dundee, and sent Stephen Bull and the 
English pirates as prisoners to the King, who mag- 
nanimously despatched them to England, warning King 
Henry against making another attempt to break a 
-covenanted peace. 

Another historical event which shows the importance 
-of Dundee as a maritime burgh took place in 1547. 
Henry VIII. had cherished the project of securing the 
hand of the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, for his -son 
Edward, Prince of Wales, but his intentions had been 
thwarted, mainly by the policy of Cardinal Beaton. When 
that astute politician was violently removed in 1546, a 
peace was patched up between the Governor Arran and 
King Henry, and on 21st August of that year this peace 
was proclaimed at the Cross of Dundee; the mariners 
were forbidden to attack English ships, and it was 
ordained that no ship should go to sea equipped for war 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 19 

without a royal license. Before the death of Henry VII L, 
on 28th January 1547, however, this peace had been 
broken, for when he found that the youthful Queen was 
not easily to be gained by him he invaded Scotland, 
destroying many of the ecclesiastical houses. The 
Protector Somerset, to whose charge the young King 
Edward had been committed, carried on the invasion of 
Scotland, and defeated the army of the Queen Kegent at 
Pinkie Clench on 10th September 1547. The details of 
this campaign need not here be related, it is sufficient to 
say that the English entered the Tay, captured Broughty 
Castle, and ultimately obtained possession of the town of 
Dundee, which they fortified. Sir Andrew Dudley, who 
was Admiral of the English fleet, and commanded the 
ship called the " Panncy," protected the town from attack 
by sea in conjunction with Admiral Wyndham, and it was 
whilst the burgh was in their possession that the English 
landed on the southern shore of the Tay, and attacked and 
destroyed Balmerino Abbey. For eight days the English 
forces held Dundee, and began the erection of the first 
wall, which was intended to protect the town on the 
landward side. Meanwhile a portion of the army of the 
Queen Regent was sent from Leith under the command of 
Count Rhinegrave and the Seigneur D'Etanges. A con- 
temporary account of this campaign was written by Jean 
de Beaugue, and published at Paris in 1556. This work 
was translated into English and published in 1707, but 
some of the portions relating to Dundee are not literally 
in accordance with the original French. The following 
are several of the references which Beaugue* makes to 
Broughty Castle and Dundee : " It may seem possible to 
some that I have been too much in advance in the history 
of Scotland without having made fuller mention of Lord 
Gray. I would say, therefore, that this nobleman, willing 
to favour the English, had voluntarily given up one of his 
houses called Portygrcs (Port-on- Craig Broughty Castle) 
splendidly situated on the bank of the river Tay, one of 
the most navigable rivers in all Scotland, where ships of 
300 and 350 tons burden may enter from the sea and 



20 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

anchor at 100 or 120 paces from the Castle." After 
describing the unsuccessful siege of Broughty Castle by 
the Earl of Argyll and his " savages/' the writer goes on 
to explain that the English had built a small fort on a 
hill about 900 paces distant from Broughty, that they 
might defend the Tay ; " because they assured themselves 
that thereby they would have an easy entry into Scot- 
land." Alluding to Dundee he describes it as " one of the 
most beautiful and most populous towns of all the 
country," and states that "though it was situated in a 
quarter the richest and best built in all the realm, and 
could easily be rendered invincible, yet at all times the 
Scotch care so little for fortifying themselves that the 
inhabitants of Dundee have no other place of refuge nor 
fort to which tbey may retire save their own houses. In 
consequence of this defect the English found no great 
resistance," but when they had obtained possession they 
began the erection of defensive works. The advance of 
the foreign troops of the Queen Regent before these 
fortifications were completed forced the English to abandon 
Dundee, and having pillaged the town and set it on fire, 
they re tired to the refuge of Broughty Castle. Beaugue 
says that when the foreigners entered Dundee expecting 
to give battle to the English " they found no one there 
but some poor women and a few men who were striving 
to extinguish the fire which the English had applied to 
their houses." Ample proof of the devastation committed 
by the English may be found in charters relating to the 
latter half of the sixteenth century, wherein tenements 
are described as " wastit and brunt by oure auld innemyies 
of England." 

The next important historical event connected with the 
harbour of Dundee relates to the escape of the Earl of 
Bothwell in 1567, after the Battle of Carberry Hill. The 
exact route chosen by the Earl for his escape has never 
been clearly traced, but from references found in the 
Records of the Privy Council it is certain that he made 
his way to Dundee. For months there were rumours of 
the fugitive current along the east coast as far north as 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 21 

Shetland, and special instructions were issued to some of 
the Dundee shipowners to " serch and sek " for the Earl of 
Bothwell, and to bring him captive to Edinburgh. 
Amongst the Dundee shipmasters who were most active 
in this search were Thomas Crystell, master of the 
" James " ; Thomas Kinloch, master of the " Prymrose " ; 
and Alexander Strauchauchin, master of the "Bobert." 
Their quest was unsuccessful, and the hapless Earl paid 
the penalty of his misdeeds by expiring in the Castle of 
Malmoe, in Denmark, after ten years of miserable cap- 
tivity. Even after the Union of the Crowns the shipping 
was regarded as an important defence. In a proclamation 
by James I., given at Thetford on the 6th December 1608, 
it is said that " none ar igorant bot schipping within our 
dominionis is both necessarye for saiftie, as being one of 
the most principall bulwarkis and defenses of the lyland 
againe all forraine invasioun, and als is expedient and 
profitable for traffiqque, one of the great meanis of 
enriching the same." The few vessels of war that then 
formed the navy were unable to afford much assistance to 
the traders, and commerce was carried on under difficulties. 

As a maritime port the prosperity of 

The Harbour Dundee has ever been closely associated 

of Dundee, with the extension of its harbour. Allusion 

has already been made to the gradual 
development of a convenient harbour from the natural 
haven of prehistoric times. It is difficult to tell when 
the first built harbour came into existence, though the 
reference in the charter by Kobert I., dated 1329, to a 
"free harbour" existing in the time of Alexander III. 
shows that works of some kind had been erected in the 
thirteenth century. There are frequent references previous 
to 1329 to the sending of batelles from Dundee to Leith 
with victuals for the King's use, thus showing that Dundee 
was the principal port for the transmission of home pro- 
duce from the north to the south of the Forth. In 1447 
it was proposed that the harbour of Dundee should be 
repaired, and James II. gave letters patent ordaining that 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

money should be lifted for that purpose from vessels 
frequenting the port. A charter to that effect, ordering 
also the enlargement of the harbour, and sanctioning the 
impost, was granted by the King in 1458. This impost 
was afterwards known as " havin silver," and was regularly 
levied for centuries. Numerous allusions to the difficulties 
encountered by the Town Council in the maintaining of 
the haven and bulwarks are to be found in the earliest 
extant Minutes of the Council. That the authorities fully 
appreciated the importance to the burgh of the upholding 
of the harbour is amply shown by these records. Thus in 
1567 the following statute was made by the Guildry in 
conjunction with the Town Council. "It is prestly 
considderit be the saids Provest, Baillies, Cunsall, and 
deacones of crafts, and comitie of this Brugh hes found 
that the hewin Shoar and Bulwark of this Brugh, Qhilks 
are the princ 11 pairtes of the policy and common wiell of 
this brugh, are greatly decayit, ruined, And able to perish 
in short Tyme. Throw the qhilk, trafect and exchang of 
this Brugh be sea is able to be vterly lossed. Therfor, 
and Tor support of the saids places and policie, It is statut 
and ordainit that ilk Time of friemen's guides arryvand at 
this port, Qhilkes payes no small coustome, whither they 
be merchand craftesmen, skippers, or mariners, sail pay to 
the reparatione of the said Havin, Bulwark, Shoar, and 
pier, four pennies. And all vther goods con forme to the 
Tun to pay the said four pennies. And siclike that all 
awners of shipes, freemen of this -Brugh, That payes not 
the saids small coustomes, Shall pay for the uphold forsaid 
four pennies of every Tun fra hand in the sd. shippes. 
And that two Tunes sail only pay four pennies. And the 
Tun of aill and vther guides and geir wtout exception to 
pay the sd. four pennies. And this pres dewty to be 
Takin up for the space of Twa years allennarly." In 1574 
the City of Perth applied to the Privy Council complaining 
that the dues lifted by Dundee were far beyond what 
was required for the upkeep of the harbour, and after 
examination into the case the Privy Council ordained that 
the "towst" should still be levied by Dundee, and that 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 23 

Auchinlek of that ilk should see that the funds were duly 
applied for the purpose intended. A severe storm, which 
occurred in the winter of 1600, had destroyed the harbour 
so seriously that an application was made to James VI. 
for assistance. The petition thus described in detail the- 
damage done : " The pier of Dundee be occasioun of 
tempestuous wedder, inundations of fluds, vehement 
stormes, and grit streames, having become ruinous, the 
port and heavin thairof sua fillit with beildis of sand, 
grite craigis and rolling stanes, the small remanent of the 
eislair work thairof brocht sindrie and schaikin loose, sua 
that the samyn almaist appeiris to be utherlie rewynit 
and subvertit." The King was pleased to grant a letter 
under the Privy Seal to uplift a towst for three years 
from all ships using the harbour, that the necessary 
repairs might be made. The money thus obtained was 
found to be quite inadequate to defray the expenses, and 
accordingly a new application was made in 1607 for a 
continuance of the shore dues. The Privy Council 
renewed the towst for five years, and arranged the tariff 
of charges to be exacted. On the expiry of this term in 
1612 it was again granted by the Privy Council for nine- 
teen years. The important charter given to Dundee by 
Charles I. on 14th September 1641 not only confirmed 
the gifts made by the King's predecessors, but also defined 
the powers of the Town Council with reference to the 
loading and unloading of ships on both sides of the Tay, 
and granted a new imposition to enable them to erect 
sufficient buoys and signals to mark out the approach to 
the harbour. The extent of the harbour in those days is- 
not distinctly described in any documents of the period, 
but if the statement of Dr. Gumble, the biographer of 
General Monck, may be accepted, the harbour accom- 
modation must have been extensive. He relates that 
when Dundee was captured there were sixty ships of all 
sizes taken in the harbour, many of them containing the 
property of the southern Scottish nobles, who had removed 
their valuables to Dundee for safety. A more exact 
estimate of the extent/ of the harbour may be framed from 



24 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

Tucker's Keport of 1656, at which time there were ten 
vessels registered as belonging to the port, varying from 

25 to 120 tons burden. To this number, of course, should 
be added the foreign trading ships belonging to Norway, 
Holland, France, and Flanders, for which haven accom- 
modation must have been provided. In October 1658 the 
harbour was again seriously injured by a violent storm, 
which, following upon the devastation committed in 
September 1651 had reduced the town and impoverished 
its inhabitants. In the following year an Act of Parlia- 
ment was passed recommending " the condition of the said 
burgh of Dundee to the Archbishops, Bishops, and ministers 
of the gospel, and all incorporations within its Kingdome, 
for a Me and voluntar contribution to be collected and 
gathered for the helpe and supplie of the said burgh 
towards the reparation of their harbour and bulwark." 
It does not appear that this recommendation was of much 
service to the burgh, for in 1675 the Town Council found 
it necessary to reconstruct a great portion of the harbour 
works, taking away the "west goat," removing what is 
described as the " great stone haid," and using the stones 
thereof, directing that these " should be built upon the 
old foundatione wher they stood formerlie." This state- 
ment implies that an extensive alteration had been made 
upon the harbour at an earlier date, and had been found 
inconvenient. Some idea of the appearance of the harbour 
at this time may be formed from Slezer's picture of 
"Dundee from the East," which was drawn in 1678, and 
published in 1693. Subsequent to this date repeated 
attempts were made to have the upholding of the harbour 
defrayed by a suitable scale of dues, but the exposed 
situation of Dundee, and the damage frequently done by 
the Tay when in flood, made the task a serious one. In 
the edition of De Foe's "Tour" published in 1761 the 
following passage occurs : " The harbour of Dundee was 
formerly very good and safe ; but of late years it became 
so ruinous, and choked up with sand, that it would not 
contain, as antiently, ships of burden, except at the 
highest tides; and its piers were so out of repair that 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 25 

ships could not lie in it with safety. At the same time 
the Tol booth and public Gaol were so much decayed that 
they were obliged to be pulled down ; and the town being 
in debt besides could riot rebuild the same. Wherefore, 
to answer all these good purposes, and to pave the streets, 
discharge their debts, and provide salaries for school- 
masters to instruct their children, an Act was passed, 
anno 1731, for continuing the duties imposed by a former 
Act, then near expired, of two pennies Scots upon every 
pint of ale and beer sold within the town and its privileges 
for twenty-five years longer." Bishop Pococke, who 
visited Dundee in 1760, thus describes the harbour : 
41 We came to Dundee. The bay is called the Firth of 
Tay. This town is rather above it on Tay Kiver, well 
situated on a head of land where they have made what 
they call a Harbour, or rather a Basin, with two great 
piers, one to the east, the other to the west, and a pier in 
front, with an entrance on each side ; here a ship of 500 
tons can lye." The after history of the harbour need not 
here be detailed. The accommodation was found in- 
sufficient in 1814, and in the following year a Bill for 
the Improvement of the Harbour became law. The laying 
of the foundation stone of the extensive new works took 
place on 13th October 1815, and the local papers say that 
"We have never heard of such a day of rejoicing in 
Dundee." 

Though the very remote civic history of 
Civic Dundee is involved in obscurity, the de- 
Government, velopmeut of its local government can be 

readily traced for seven hundred years. 
That Dundee had a corporate existence in the twelfth 
century is shown by references to the burgesses which are 
found in documents about 1190. Towards the close of the 
succeeding century the civic government of the burgh was 
under the charge of a Provost, while a military Governor 
resided in the Castle. The charter of 1296 by Sir William 
Wallace appointed a hereditary Constable of Dundee, to 
whom the military defence of the burgh was committed. 



26 DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 

At a much later date the Constable sought to control the 
whole of the civic affairs, but his claim was successfully 
resisted by the Provost and Magistrates, who asserted their 
right to rule in time of peace. These civic rulers were 
chosen by the burgesses from amongst their own number. 
In 1442 the charge of the maintenance of the kirk fabric 
was committed to the Town Council, and thenceforth the 
Kirk-master became one of the municipal officials. After 
the institution of the Guildry in 1515 that corporation was 
empowered to have representatives in the Council. The 
Nine Incorporated Trades were also entitled to representa- 
tion at the Town Council, and the whole of the members 
of the Council held office for one year. The Harbour in 
the middle of the sixteenth century was under the charge 
of a special Councillor, designated Pier-master or Shore- 
master. The secularization of the church endowments in 
Dundee at the Reformation brought into existence another 
official called the Hospital-master. In course of time 
changes were made in the practice of election, by which, 
without special parliamentary ratification, the Town 
Council altered its constitution very considerably. In 
1708 the method of election was as follows: The Town 
Council was composed of twenty-one persons, including 
the Provost and four Bailies. The latter were chosen, 
together with the Dean of Guild and the Treasurer, from the 
Town Councillors of the preceding year Eight new Coun- 
cillors were selected, five of them from the Guildry, and 
three from any separate three of the Incorporated Trades, 
and the twenty-eight Councillors then proceeded to select 
the office-bearers for the ensuing year. The Provost had 
to be chosen from the Bailies of the preceding year ; the 
Bailies from former Councillors ; the Dean of Guild from 
the existing Bailies ; and the Treasurer from amongst the 
new and old Councillors. This method of election con- 
tinued in force for many years, but the opportunities for 
corruption in municipal government were so numerous 
that a reform was proposed towards the close of the 
eighteenth century. The Convention of Royal Burghs 
in 1784 obtained reports as to the setts of the principal 



DUNDEE: AS IT WAS. 27 

burghs, and the following is that which relates to Dundee: 
" The Council at present consists of twenty members. 
The old chooses the new Council. The old and new 
Council, with the Deacons of the Incorporations, elect a 
Provost, four Bailies, and a Treasurer." Various proposals 
were made at this time for the reform of the sett of the 
burgh, but no definite action resulted, and it remained in 
force until 1817. Another attempt was then made to 
improve the constitution of the Council, but the only 
change seems to have been the admission of the Convener 
of the Nine Trades as a Councillor ex officio. Two years 
afterwards an appeal was made to Parliament, and a 
Committee appointed to report to the House of Commons; 
but the recommendations were riot followed by legislation. 
It was riot until the Burgh Reform Act of 1834 came into 
operation that the old monopoly was effectually broken up. 
By this Act the right of election was vested in house- 
holders paying a clear annual rent of 10 and upwards ; 
the Councillors were elected to serve for three years ; the 
Council consisted of twenty-one persons, seven of whom 
retired annually in rotation, and they elected the Provost, 
Bailies, and other officials from the new Council. The 
franchise was extended in 1868 to include householders 
who were assessed for and had paid poor rates. In 1871 
a local Act was obtained whereby the Council was 
increased to twenty-eight members, being three members 
for each of the nine wards, with the addition of the Dean 
of Guild. On 26th January 1889 Queen Victoria granted 
a Royal Charter elevating Dundee to the rank of a city ; 
and on 12th February 1892 a Royal Warrant was issued 
decreeing that " for all time coming the Chief Magistrate 
of Dundee shall be known by the style and title of Lord 
Provost." By an Act of Parliament which came into 
force on 4th October 1894, Dundee was constituted a 
County of a City, the Lord Provost being ex officio Lord- 
Lieutenant. By this latest arrangement all possible 
disputes as to civic and military control are finally 
terminated, since the Lord Provost will henceforth act 
in both capacities within the boundaries ot' Dundee. 



28 



Dundee: As it is. 

By J. H. Martin, J.P., Ex-Magistrate of City 
of Dundee. 

WHETHER as Fishing Village or Burghal Town, Dundee has 
always been a place of considerable note. For many years 
it has maintained its position as third city in Scotland as 
regards population and second in commercial import- 
ance. From small and ancient beginnings it has been 
made by the activity of generations of its sons into a great 
and progressive modern City; and while not free from 
blemishes that attach to great communal aggregations, 
its natural situation and surroundings, combined with the 
lofty ideals of its leading citizens, bid fair to bring it in 
the near future into a premier position amongst the cities 
of the United Kingdom. Owing to the untoward indus- 
trial conditions of recent years, Dundee has meantime 
lost the rapidity of growth that characterised it in the 
mid-Victorian days ; but its progress in population has 
been an unbroken march for over a century, and in this 
connection it may be pointed out that whereas in 1867 its 
inhabitants numbered 104,000, the figures as ascertained 
in the census of last year stand at over 165,000. But 
striking as these figures are, they present an incomplete 
statement unless there be added to them the large number 
of persons (say 30,000) who reside in the outlying but con- 
tiguous townships, most of whom have a vital connection 
with Dundee, and will at a time not far distant be united 
with the larger section for purposes of local government 
and administration. It may also be noted that Dundee is 
in the midst of a progressive part of the country. In the 
adjacent Fifeshire coal area the population is rapidly 
increasing, and at present the combined inhabitants of 
Dundee and the surrounding district are set down as over 
600,000. 

Undoubtedly the great factor in the rapid rise of the 
population of Dundee was the Jute Industry. By laying 
hold of this commodity in the early stage of its develop- 



DUNDEE: AS IT IS. 29 

ment a practical monopoly of a world-wide demand was 
secured. At that period the City may be said to have 
advanced by leaps and bounds. In the twenty years from 
1861 to 1881 the population increased by 50,000, or at 
the rate of 2,500 per annum. In the forty years prior to 
1861 it did not increase by 900 per annum, whilst in the 
thirty years since 1881 the increase has averaged less than 
700 per annum. 

In regard to the City itself, it may be said to be no 
unworthy home for such a teeming population. Much has 
been done in the way of improvement since Queen Victoria 
wrote, on disembarking from the river, " Dundee is a very 
large place, and the port is large and open ; the situation 
of the town is very fine, but the town itself is not so." 
Although it were to offend the historic sense to apply the 
well-known phrase " Bonnie Dundee " to the locality, yet, 
when regard is had to the natural situation truly " a City 
set on an hill " skirted by the blue waters of the estuary 
of the Tay and guarded on the north by the local hills and 
the more distant Sidlaw range, the phrase may be admitted 
as not inapplicable. And while Nature has thus done 
much for Dundee, its civic fathers and public-spirited 
citizens have, very specially during the past generation,, 
busied themselves to re-create the town, so that narrow 
wynds have given place to broad boulevards and erstwhile 
congested areas have become wholesome open spaces a 
policy which has added greatly to the attraction of the 
City and improved not a little the general health of the 
community. 

Keference has been made to the. Eiver Tay, on the north 
bank of which Dundee is finely situated. It may be said 
that physically the City's best asset lies in the fact that she 
is a seaport. There is regular communication by sea with 
all the great ports in England and Ireland, and many 
on the Continent, while the great jute-laden vessels from 
India form a yearly argosy far exceeding in value and 
importance those of Ragusa and Venice. At present every- 
thing points to the further development of the resources 
of the port. In this way the volume of the over-sea 



30 DUNDEE: AS IT IS. 

trade may be expected to increase and new interest 
aroused in connection with the shipbuilding industry. 
Some years ago Dundee Harbour was created a Naval 
Base and the waters of the Tay utilised as an anchorage 
for submarine craft. While this may not have brought 
"grist to the mill," it has undoubtedly aroused fresh 
interest in the port itself and brought the City into the 
focus of certain present day movements. 

Municipally the City is governed on progressive lines. 
Its boundaries comprise 5,281 acres, and include 648 
streets and roads, the total length of which exceeds 90 
miles. During the forty-five years that have elapsed since 
the former visit of the British Association to Dundee, 306 of 
these streets, aggregating in length 32 miles, have been 
constructed. Within the same period much attention has 
been bestowed on the public health and sanitary condi- 
tions. Within the burgh there are over 98 miles of 
sewers, and these, combined with the natural declivities of 
the site, have greatly aided in saving Dundee from the 
ravages and epidemics that were common experiences in 
former generations. The death-rate last year was 17'23 
per 1,000 of the population. Forty years ago the death- 
rate was 32 per 1,000. 

Amongst contributory causes to this improved state of 
matters may be mentioned (1) the magnificent and almost 
unlimited water supply, the present daily consumpt being 
over ten million gallons ; (2) the complete and splendidly- 
equipped series of public baths and wash-houses, planted 
in every district of the City, the aggregate yearly bathers 
being 206,378 and those using the wash-houses 245,757 ; 
(3) the enlightened methods applied to the cleansing of 
the City ; (4) the general supervision by the Medical Officer 
of Health, whose staff includes Lady Health Visitors, 
charged with the duties of the systematic visitation of the 
houses in the poorer districts with the view of directing 
attention to the dangers of dirt and darkness and the virtues 
of domestic and personal cleanliness; and (5) the fuller 
knowledge and higher tone in regard to matters of 
hygiene in nearly every class of the community. 



DUNDEE: AS IT IS. 31 

Alongside the improved health conditions of the people 
may be placed the increased valuation of the City. Exclusive 
of churches, schools, and similar non-assessable subjects, 
the assessable value of the City in 1867 was 308,504, as 
compared with 911,546 for the year 1910-11. 

An indispensable adjunct to all great cities is a system 
of tramways, and the Tramway Department of Dundee is 
one of the most important of its municipal undertakings. 
Its monetary value represents an outlay of over 300,000. 
There are 25 miles of track, covering all the important 
central and main arteries of the City and serving every 
district of the town. The passengers carried last year 
numbered 17,295,727, and the total revenue was 62,913. 

Notable amongst the amenities of Dundee are its public 
parks and open spaces, of which there are twelve, their 
combined extent being 243 acres. These are largely taken 
advantage of by the people, and in the summer months 
the Municipality provides open-air concerts by instru- 
mental bands. In most of the parks there are well- 
equipped bowling greens, which are exceedingly popular ; 
and also gymnasia for the children, who are thus en- 
couraged to spend much of their time in the open air. In 
the realm of sport, whether it be football, cricket, golf, or 
other popular cult Dundee is well known for keen interest 
and good play. 

In regard to Educational opportunities, these are now 
.tenfold what they were fifty years ago. In the higher 
branches the Technical College and University College 
have many hundreds of students, and together they link 
the City on the one hand to the highest utilitarian forces 
and on the other to the classic traditions of our oldest 
University. 

Perhaps nowhere has the Free Library been better 
developed than in Dundee, which has the distinction of 
being the first City in Scotland to adopt the Free Libraries 
Act. Besides the parent institution in the Albert Institute, 
there are seven branch establishments, all of which are 
distinct ornaments to the City. The general catalogue 
contains 134,576 volumes, and the number of books issued 



32 DUNDEE: AS IT IS. 

last year to 14,313 readers reached the large total of 
429,303. 

In fine, it may be said that there are few human 
activities unrepresented in Dundee. NOT have its in- 
habitants failed to be touched to the finer issues. Philan- 
thropy and benevolence take full advantage of an ample 
field. The ameliorative agencies at work in the City are 
manifold. The Dundee Koyal Infirmary, with its medical 
and maternity wards, is a boon to thousands of the poorer 
citizens. The Sanatorium at Auchterhouse (an appanage 
of the Infirmary) has brought new hope to the victims of 
tuberculosis; while the Municipal Dispensary comes to 
the help of such as must perforce stay at home. Perhaps 
no agency is doing better work on these lines than the 
Sick Poor Nursing Society, popularly known as " Queen's 
Jubilee Nurses." By this means the benefits of trained 
nursing are brought to the sick poor in their own homes. 
The Dundee Society has a staff of 9 Nurses and a Super- 
intendent. Last year the patients nursed numbered 1,897, 
and the aggregate number of visits paid by nurses was 
41,808. For the weary woman worker there is the 
Bannatyne Home of Rest, where on easy terms the 
recuperative influences of country life and happy sur- 
roundings may be secured. The necessity for a similar 
home for men has often been spoken of, but, so far, has 
not materialised. 

Such references as we have made clearly show that in 
the almost half-a-century which has elapsed since the 
previous visit of the British Association, Dundee has 
undoubtedly acquired " nobler modes of life, sweeter 
manners, purer laws." Besides the varied influences and 
agencies which have been enumerated, there ought to be 
specially named the religious and moral influences which 
have been at work. The churches of all denominations 
are now more than ever actively employed in seeking the 
wellbeing of the people, and in this they have had no more 
disinterested and helpful allies than the various branches 
of what has come to be known as the temperance move- 
ment. Cheap and healthy amusement for the people has 



DUNDEE: AS IT IS. 83 

been abundant, and many interests calling great masses 
of the population into the open air have been promoted, 
with the result that there has been a great advance in 
sobriety of living and a striking diminution in the cases 
dealt with by the local police judges. In this connection 
it is worthy of note that out of eight " maiden " sittings 
of the Police Court during the past twenty-seven years, 
four have occurred during the last eighteen months. 

Following, and, doubtless, in many ways consequent 
upon the former visitation from the British Association, 
Dundee, as we have endeavoured to show, has in many 
ways been re-created. The extent of this may be seen at 
a glance, when regard is had to the civic enterprise which 
has marked the intervening years. Since 1867 there has 
been the municipalisation of the gas and water under- 
takings, the inauguration of the tramways, and the start 
and development of the electric department. There have 
also been several Improvement Schemes dealing both with 
the City and the Harbour. Coincident with these we 
have had the Education Act, and the subsequent develop- 
ment in education. The housing conditions are now on 
a much higher plane, and earnest efforts are being made 
to reconstruct on scientific lines the still backward parts 
of the City. The future of Dundee may be regarded not 
only without dread, but with hope and confidence. 

With a well-spring of life such as the reservoir at 
Lintrathen, and a magnificent waterway in front such as 
the River Tay, no limit need be set to the possibilities of 
this community. But although possessing these natural 
advantages, it were well to remember the dedicatory words 
inscribed in the year 1582 on the ny-leaf of Dundee's 
" Lockit-Book " by Alexander Wedderburne, the Town 
Clerk of that time : 

" If Reason should rule in cities, it is better certainly for great souls 
to inhabit small houses than for mere slaves to lurk in 
magnificent mansions." 



34 



Dundee : As it may be. 

By Councillor A. W. Paton. 

How covetable that strictly bounded mind, 

No shreds of twilight hauging loose upon it ! 

Mine own leans out into the Dark, and so 

Hazards its very balance, in hope to catch 

The footfall of events ere they arrive, 

And from the Dark wins nothing. 'Tis to no purpose 

One plays the eavesdropper about Fate's door. 

The servants there are incorruptible, 

And will not sell one secret to the world. 

WITH a record stretching back to the dawn of Scottish 
history, taking an outstanding place in all national move- 
ments from then until now, what does the future contain 
for the City of Dundee ? While prophecy is proverbially 
dangerous, intelligently applied in the light of the past, it 
may to some extent carry its own fulfilment with it. It 
would, however, be foolish of me to be dogmatic on the 
development of Dundee as I see it, and it is therefore with 
all modesty that I submit the conclusions at which I have 
arrived in the task imposed upon me ; it will be for the 
members of the British Association, when that august 
body again honours the City with its presence, to see how 
far short I have come or how much exceeded in my 
estimates of City life and progress. 

While mere size can never be altogether the 
Its Growth in measure of a City's importance, one cannot 
Area and but face the question from this point of 
Population, view. The writer of the preceding section 
of this paper on Dundee has pointed out that, 
while the City at present contains somewhere about 165,000 
people, its interests are intimately bound up, much more inti- 
mately than is the case with most communities, with 
those of certain suburban townships in its neighbourhood. 
This is especially true of the burghs lying immediately to 



DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 35 

the east, and in a lesser degree of those across the river. 
For some time a movement has been on foot for the 
extension of the City's boundaries so as to incorporate the 
adjacent burghs of Broughty Ferry and Monifieth within 
the control of the one local authority. It is admitted 
even by those opposed to this amalgamation that it is 
bound to come sooner or later. If this were done, and no 
good reason can be shown for separate corporate existence, 
something like 15,000 people would at once be added to 
the population, giving a total of 180,000 at which it 
would stand. On the ratio of increase shown during the 
last 30 years within this area, one would look for an 
addition of not less than 1,000 annually to this number, 
giving thirty years from now a population of 210,000 to 
the City. The ratio, however, naturally depends to some 
extent upon the evolution of new industries, and should 
the present meetings of the British Association give the 
same stimulus to local life as was observable on a former 
occasion, one might look for a much more rapid progress 
in population which, subsequent to 1867, increased at the 
rate of 3,000 annually ; if this latter ratio were to obtain, 
the City's population at the end of the period taken of 
thirty years would approximate to something like 270,000. 
The extension of the City's boundaries mentioned would 
raise the area to 7,074 acres, with a density of 25'33 to 
the acre, instead of 31 '25 as at present. The net rateable 
value would also be advanced from 911,546 annually to 
995,619. That this is not a too sanguine view of the 
City's prospects may be deduced not only from its incom- 
parable natural situation, but also to some extent from 
the efficiency of its present public services, which may be 
expected to advance with the growth of scientific know- 
ledge and the reaching up to new standards of life such as 
are called for by sanitary science and the increasing 
demands of public health, as well as a continual change 
and improvement in the condition of the people. I 
append a map showing the new and extended area of the 
City, which indicates the lines along which the Municipal 
Authority may be expected to extend. Incorporated in 



36 DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 

this map will also be found an indication of the develop- 
ment which may be expected in the main arteries which 
link town with country. 

Of these there are at least seven which call 
Main Roads, for more than a passing attention. Circling 
the City from west to east they are Perth 
Road, Coupar Angus Road, Strathmartiiie Road, Forfar 
Road, Pitkerro Road, Arbroath Road, and Broughty Ferry 
Road. It is hoped that each of these may be widened to 
70 and in some cases 80 feet. Arrangements have either 
been made or are in contemplation for the required 
widening to ensure this much needed improvement which 
is called for, not only by the growing requirements of a 
great industrial community, but also through the exigencies 
of modern systems of traction. Road-making, which for a 
time did not receive the attention it deserved because of 
the diversion of traffic by water and rail, is assuming a 
new importance because of the development of motor 
traffic. Experts are devoting much time and thought to 
the subject, and in this they are backed up not only by 
local authorities, but by the State itself in the shape of 
substantial grants. Given a proper system of bottoming, 
road surfaces are at present prepared in three different 
ways: (1) Paving setts of granite, whinstone, or wood ; 
(2) tar macadam or some similar system of smooth asphalt ; 
and (3) ordinary macadam ; and that system is chosen 
which will best suit the traffic which the roads are 
intended to serve. 

Within the last ten years the character of the traffic on 
our roads has completely changed. A large part of this 
is now conducted by motors, where the wheels, instead of 
simply rolling over the road, tear up the surface. The 
driving wheels of an automobile, revolving as they do 
several times more to the mile than front wheels of the 
same size, thus showing a certain amount of slip, account 
for the rapid deterioration of brittle macadam surfaces. 
Main roads are accordingly being increasingly surfaced by 
bituminous binding materials, and all the arteries referred 





E R 



Existing Roads 



Proposed Roads - 




City Boundary 



DUNDEE : AS IT MAY BE. :>7 

to in the near future will be so treated, thus avoiding 
frequent renewal and reducing dust to a minimum. 

In addition, new roads will be rendered necessary, arid 
consequent upon this traffic pressure it will be observed 
that a new cross main road strikes north from Craigie 
Avenue near Stannergate spanning the northern boundary 
of the City to Lochee, thus greatly reducing the pressure 
on City streets called for by through motor traffic. 

In the clear air of spring, as I write these 

Trees on city notes, one's eyes are gladdened by the wealth 

streets. of greenery already evidenced in our City 

streets by the policy of tree-planting recently 
carried out by the Housing and Town Planning Committee. 
The various shades of fragrant foliage, especially evident 
to a daily passer-by skirting the grounds of the Morgan 
Academy and running down the east side of Baxter 
Park Terrace, give promise of the beauty of foliage and 
wealth of cover from the summer heat, which one may 
expect increasingly in the years to come from the fore- 
thought* of the local authority of these days. Sixteen 
miles of trees will form a noble City avenue, and in the 
time to which I look forward one may with confidence 
expect to see many City streets thus lined in a way that 
will rejoice the hearts of the citizens of that coming time. 
The policy will then be justified, even although it may not 
be altogether approved of now. 

In the City proper electric car traction on a 
Tramway railed system is general, while in the more 
Service. sparsely populated districts a system of 

trackless cars with an overhead equipment 
is preferred because of its greatly reduced capital expendi- 
ture and running charges. While Clepington Road, a 
main cross artery traversing the northern boundary of the 
City, is at present being experimentally tested by track- 
less cars, if these prove the success anticipated by the 
promoters, it may be expected that ultimately a trackless 
service linking up Broughty Ferry Road with Lochee, 



. 

38 DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 

circling Balgay to the Perth Koad, and thence skirting 
the riverside by the Esplanade will eventually be estab- 
lished. Those still more sanguine of the future look 
forward to trackless lines running into the country by the 
main arteries above referred to, and thus acting as feeders 
to the system proper, and creating a new Suburbia in the 
country. That this ready means of transit will be needed 
must be at once apparent when one looks to the trend of 
modern 

These all aim at decentralising the residential 

City population and altering a system of housing 

Improvements, which has grown up from a past of walled 

cities, a system perhaps imperative at the 
time it was first initiated, but now rendered entirely 
unnecessary by the safer and saner conditions of modern 
life. Narrow central thoroughfares running between huge 
cliffs of tenement houses must more and more give way 
before the march of improvement. Dundee Improvement 
Schemes, presently under consideration, desiderate the 
clearing away of great masses of central tenement pro- 
perty, notably in the vicinity of the Town House and 
the Overgate, with the resultant provision of central open 
spaces, along with more adequate shopping and office 
accommodation. Whether a new City Hall, commensurate 
with the importance of the City, will as a result be avail- 
able for the next meeting of the Association in our City is 
largely a matter of finance, but one is not without strong 
hope that, as the outcome of present negotiations, even 
this much talked of addition to the City's needs will 
materialise. The question of expense will naturally have 
an important bearing upon these schemes, but it is not too 
much to expect that as the result of a carefully thought 
out plan, carried through on sound business lines, such an 
improvement will be consummated without undue expense 
as will practically re-create the central area. At present 
the matter is in too nebulous a position for me to make 
more than a passing reference to this aspect of the new 
" Dundee that is to be." The gradual reclamation of 
valuable ground on the river front, however, embraced 
in the 



DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 39 

is something upon which one can be quite 
Esplanade definite. Commenced in 1901, this has 
Extension already added over 20 acres to the City's open 

spaces, and within the period laid down of 
thirty years it may be safely predicted that the present 
Esplanade will be completed, and a total area of 150 acres 
added to that at the disposal of the local authority for 
recreation purposes. When laid out properly this will not 
only provide adequately for the needs of the youth of 
Dundee for recreation of all kinds, but with its noble vista 
of mountain and river, along with its surpassingly beautiful 
sunset effects, it will provide a City boulevard such as will 
be difficult to match anywhere. The provisions of the 
new Housing and Town Planning Act also open up possi- 
bilities as to future developments in 

of which full advantage will be taken in the 

Town City's interests. The Craigie estate by the 

Planning, time these notes are published will no doubt 

have come under a definite plan as laid down 
in the Act, and more and more one must look for the local 
authority availing itself of this Act in the laying out of 
unbuilt-on areas. The possibilities of Garden City develop- 
ment in Dundee are not without their interest to the 
student of sociology, and under present guidance this 
interest will be directed in an eminently practical manner. 
To make Dundee a real 

despite the restrictions imposed by its age 
City Beautiful, arid association with industry, should be a 

work of no great difficulty. Its natural 
situation lends itself pre-eminently to this, while the 
enormous development in the use of electricity for power 
purposes and gas for domestic requirements in heating 
Jind cooking, tending as they do to solve the question of 
City smoke, cannot fail of their effect with other factors 
t<> which I have referred to make this reasonably certain. 
The possibilities of the new Dundee, especially in its eastern 
suburbs, from the point of view of a health resort, have 



40 DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 

not in the past been so fully appreciated as one may 
expect them to be in the future. The bracing air of 
Broughty Ferry, with its open face to the North Sea, 
the superior facilities for recreation especially in golf 
provided on the links and sand-dunes of Monifieth, 
. combined as they then will be with the high standard of 
City public services, must increasingly attract visitors, 
and mark out suburban Dundee as likely to prove the 
most attractive summer watering-place on the east coast 
of Scotland. Improvements must take place on the 
foreshore which will make the most of the wave-washed 
frontage to the river, and cater for the increasing number 
of City toilers who require recuperation for the arduous 
work of a long winter. The natural slope of the residential 
area, with its magnificent outlook in all directions, the 
sharp bracing atmosphere, the superior facilities for re- 
creation, the natural convenience of every public service 
at command, the attractions of the City at hand if desired, 
all combine to hold out inducements to those wishing rest 
or recreation to avail themselves of that offered here in a 
unique degree. 

The reconstruction last year of Dundee Harbour Board, 
with its influx of new life, may, so soon as feeling presently 
existing has died down, confidently be looked forward to 
give a new impetus to Dundee's great asset 

Flowing as it does between two most pros- 
The River lay. perous Scottish counties, Forfarshire out- 
standingly so when associated with the 
Carse of Gowrie in agriculture and Fifeshire with its 
immense mineral wealth, the Port of Dundee must take 
an increasingly important place in the Scottish shipping 
world. The growth in the size of modern steamers, taxing 
as it does the limits of our greater industrial ports, must 
have its effect in securing for the Tay a larger share in 
the great national industry of shipbuilding. The launch- 
ing facilities afforded in such a river, its possibilities on 
adequate dredging, now assured, for the floating of vessels 
of any size and depth, must attract those desirous of carrying 



/r<7v?<>.atf '^n^ 

i ,- 



Based upon the Ordnance Survey Map with the 




Tramway Routes Present City Boundary 




jf the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office. 

Boundaries of Prooosed Extension 



DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 41 

on such work under the most favoured conditions, arid 
easily counterbalance the disabilities in the lack of a 
hinterland providing coal and iron. One is hopeful under 
new conditions that facilities will be provided such as will 
adequately meet the requirements not only of trade, but of 
industry at the port. Its possibilities as a fishing centre 
have not so far been fully realised, but the harvest of the 
sea is ready to be reaped by the enterprise of its citizens 
the facilities for entrance to the great markets of the 
country by water and rail are of the first order ; while 
adequate land on favourable terms is available for all the 
industrial developments associated with the calling. 

Our captains of industry have shown themselves 
capable under the severest competition, when concent- 
rated on their task, of more than holding their own 
not only locally, but in world-wide spheres of activity. 
Those trained at our Schools and Colleges, as is evi- 
denced in these pages, occupy the highest positions in the 
realms of Science, of Literature, of Finance, of Industry. 
When checked in one direction their energies have turned 
themselves to another, and with the evolution of new 
uses for fibre and fabric they have proved themselves fit 
to take no unworthy place in the industrial life of the 
nation. The product of mill and factory are more and 
more proving themselves merely the raw material for 
some other and possibly larger development. Hessian 
becomes the basic fabric for linoleum, and, although 
Dundee has not yet taken such a large place in this 
industry as she may do in the future, it is not too much 
to expect that in this direction, as also in waterproofing, 
in carpet weaving, and otherwise by new processes lending 
themselves to new uses, by evolution in pattern and 
machine, still wider fields may be opened up to local 
manufactures. Our castings and machinery are more and 
more used not only to build up industry elsewhere, but 
even to extend competition for ourselves But competi- 
tion, when rightly met, is not only the " life of trade," but 
it is the birth of invention, and in this our citizens will 
not be found wanting. 



42 DUNDEE: AS IT MAY BE. 

And as in material things, so also in others. 

constantly shows an advance. The death- 
Public Health. ra te in less than fifty years has been prac- 
tically halved. Will history repeat itself ? 
Will we, before another generation has passed away, have 
seen the passing of that great scourge Tuberculosis? 
Authorities are sanguine that we will. And why not ? 
With an awakened public conscience to the dangers of 
Dirt, Darkness, and Disease, with improved housing con- 
ditions, better and cheaper means of transit, more whole- 
some conditions of life, better understandings between the 
twin factors of modern commerce Capital and Labour 
and a general tuning up to higher standards on the 
condition-of-the-people question, may one not look for- 
ward with a considerable measure of hope to a future in 
which each citizen may be assured of a fair opportunity 
for himself and his children ? And Education will do 
much, education in the best sense, the drawing out of 
latent capacity in the individual for the benefit of the 
community as a whole, when that blessed time sung by 
the poet will come when " man to man the warld ower 
will brithers be." 

In this movement towards uplift, towards material pro- 
gress and prosperity, combined with all those sweetening 
influences that make life really worth while, one may with 
the utmost confidence anticipate that the " Greater 
Dundee" to which some of us with the eyes of faith 
look forward will take a not unworthy place a place 
in which it shall be said of her as of the nation of old 
that it is " righteousness alone that exalteth." 



43 

SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 



The Dundee Royal Infirmary. 

By H. B. Fraser, M.D., Medical Superintendent. 




DUNDEE, in common with other towns in the middle ages, 
was not without houses for the sick and aged poor, but these 
were chiefly under monastic regulation, and little was done 
towards providing medical treatment for those needing 
it who were unable to pay a doctor, until towards the 
end of the eighteenth century. In 1782, when Dundee 
had a population of 15,000 persons, a dispensary for giving 
advice and medicine to the sick poor was opened, and 
during a period of 14 years continued admirably to fulfil 
its function 7657 patients having been treated. In 1793 
;i ' "imnittee was appointed to raise funds for the purpose 
of instituting a Hospital, and five years thereafter they 
succeeded in providing accommodation for 20 patients. 
The work of the Dispensary was then merged in that of 
the Hospital, and the institution became known as the 
Dundee Infirmary and Dispensary. The number of in- 
patients treated during the first year of the Infirmary 
was 54, and of out-patients 1058. Emergency cases were 
admitted free, but cases of ordinary medical or surgical 
ailments (including fever cases) were charged 3s. 6d. per 
week. 



44 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Nor were the necessities of the mentally disordered 
neglected. At a meeting of the Infirmary contributors in 
1800 a subscription list was opened with a view to 
building an Asylum. Contributions were received from 
many sources, including 100 from the Magistrates, and 
in a part of the town then unbuilt upon on a piece of 
ground lying between what is now the Baxter Park and 
Albert Street the first Asylum was erected in 1812. 
The Infirmary was in King Street, and much good work 
was done there. The Governors considered it would give 
stability to the institutions if they were incorporated, and 
an application was made to the Crown for a Eoyal Charter, 
which was granted in 1819. By it the two establishments 
were erected into one body corporate under the name of the 
Dundee Infirmary and Asylum, and the connection con- 
tinued till 1875, when further charters were granted. The 
two establishments were then separated under the names 
of the Dundee Eoyal Infirmary and the Dundee Eoyal 
Asylum. 

The demand upon the available accommodation in the 
Infirmary quickly grew, showing that the disinclination 
of patients to enter a public hospital had become a thing 
of the past, and the Directors found it necessary to extend 
the building. This was done in 1825, and the number of 
beds brought up to 110. Previous to 1836 no classification 
of wards into medical and surgical existed ; in that year, 
however, the Director's reorganised the arrangements so as 
to keep them abreast of the advance of medical knowledge. 
Within a few years it was evident further extension was 
required, as many patients sent or coming to the hospital 
could not be taken in. This was partly due to the occurrence 
of epidemics of fever, particularly typhus, and partly to 
the rapid increase of the population consequent on in- 
dustrial prosperity. By 1850 a considerable sum of money 
for a new hospital had been collected by the energy of Sir 
John Ogilvy, Bart., then Chairman of the Board of 
Directors, and the Directors; plans were obtained, and 
with the help of Professors Syme and Christison of 
Edinburgh, that submitted by Messrs Coe & Goodwin of 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 45 

London, showing 250 beds, and to cost 14,000, was selected. 
A piece of ground, extending to ten acres, between Dudhope 
Castle and Park and the Dundee and Newtyle Eailway was 
feued, and the foundation stone of the building was laid on 
22nd July 1852, with great ceremony, by the Duke of 
Atholl, Master Mason for Scotland. Two and a half years 
thereafter February 1855 the new Eoyal Infirmary was 
opened for the reception of patients. The building, occupy- 
ing as it does a commanding site near the Law, and over- 
looking the " Kingdom " of Fife, with wide open spaces on 
east and west, is in the Tudor style, and is one of the 
most striking in Dundee. For over 30 years it served to 
fulfil all the medical requirements of the city. The opening 
in 1890 of the City Hospital for fever patients, of the 
Parish Hospitals for cases not suitable for active treat- 
ment, and more recently of the Hospital for Incurables, 
relieved to a certain extent the strain on the Infirmary, 
but even now with a largely increased number of beds 
found by numerous additions and alterations, and the 
relief afforded by its own agencies the Convalescent 
Home at Barnhill and the [Sanatorium at Auchterhouse 
pressure is occasionally felt. To keep the nursing of 
the patients in the Institution up to date and sufficient 
for its increasing needs, the Directors have at all times 
given this important branch of treatment their careful 
consideration. In 1892 a separate building, at the expense 
of Mrs George Gilroy, Castleroy, was erected for the Nurses 
engaged in nursing in private families, but, as private 
Nursing Homes sprung up in the city, private Nurses are 
no longer supplied from the Infirmary. The increase of 
the general Nursing Staff about the same time demanded 
larger accommodation, and in 1896 there was opened a 
Nurses' Home accommodating 40 Nurses, the sole cost of 
erection and equipment being borne by Sir William 
Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., the President of the Infirmary. 

Within the building the radical changes required to 
keep the facilities of the Surgeons when operating and 
the comfoit of patients under treatment in conformity 
with the great advances in Surgical Science have been 



46 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

rendered possible by the munificence of friend: surgie 
1895 the Trustees of Mr John Sharp, one of ., a Mu 
Presidents of the Infirmary, built and equipped to 
modern operation theatre. j ! 

Fourteen years ago a sum of over 10,000 raisi k 
Forfarshire Medical Association was handed OVBF - 
Infirmary for the establishment of a Maternity Ho. ^U 
and shortly thereafter Mr J. K. Caird, LL.D., generousL 
offered to erect Wards and a Maternity Nurses' Horn* 
The Maternity Hospital was opened in 1899, and has 
proved of the utmost advantage to numerous poor mothers. 
As it has combined with it a large out-door department, 
a teaching School for Nurses and Students has been 
successfully organized. The training given to the Nurses 
has been recognized as complying with the regulations of 
the Central Midwives Board of England, and a large 
proportion of the Nurses go up for the examination for 
the Certificate of the Board. 

In the beginning of 1907 a large addition 6 wards of 
20 beds each, with operating and other rooms was built 
and furnished by Mr Caird primarily for the treatment of 
cancer. These have been of great service in providing 
treatment for many cases of cancer, as well as of other 
surgical ailments. Additional accommodation for Nurses 
has also been found in the new block. 

Mr Caird did not rest satisfied with treatment of 
malignant disease after it had shewn itself, and at the 
time of opening the Cancer Pavilion, he arranged for 
accommodation being made in the building for an Investi- 
gator to undertake research work. This has been carried 
out, and much work has been carefully done from which 
encouraging results as regards both the solution of many 
obscure points in the great riddle of cancer and the treat- 
ment of the disease are expected. Another part of the 
building is equipped for electrical treatment, and has 
been very largely attended by patients suffering from the 
more superficial forms of cancer, from tuberculosis of the 
skin, and from other skin diseases. 

In addition to the work done at the Infirmary itself, a 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 



47 



eik is carried on at the homes of needy patients 

. le District Dispensaries. For this purpose the 

i; ided into four districts, and to each of these is 

1 a Medical Officer. To these doctors patients 

ot desire in-door treatment go and they receive 

i and medicine free. 

i question of how to combat tuberculosis has engaged 
attention of the Directors for some years. The 
Municipal Tuberculosis Dispensary is at the Infirmary, 
.>nd there the Medical Officer and Nurse attend thrice 
weekly. Many cases come and are investigated with a 
view to tracing their social and domestic conditions, and 
to sending a number in the early stages of pulmonary 
tuberculosis to the Sidlaw Sanatorium, now a branch of 
the Infirmary. This joint effort of Town Council and 
Infirmary has resulted in much information being gained 
and good being done, and has already indicated the lines 
upon which war must be waged when compulsory notifica- 
tion of pulmonary tuberculosis and the isolation of advanced 
cases are adopted. 

Early in its history the Dundee Koyal Infirmary was 
available for the instruction of medical students, but it was 
not till recently that the organisation of the St. Andrews 
and Dundee Medical Schools called upon the resources of 
the Hospital as is now done. Full clinical courses in 
edicine arid in surgery can be taken at the Infirmary, 
while in the various specialties the opportunities offered 
'or instruction are excelled by few Schools. 

In the various wards the number of patients treated 
ast year was 4,501; out-patients, 21,515; and district 
tients, 4,609. 

To assist the Infirmary in its work, numerous subsidiary 
ncies co-operate. The Convalescent Home at Barnhill, 
with its 80 beds, receives patients from the Infirmary and 
from the general public twice weekly, and the Sidlaw 
Sanatorium at Auchterhouse can take 34 children, mostly 
suffering from surgical tuberculosis, and 20 adults suffer- 
ing from pulmonary phthisis. In addition, there is a 
much appreciated Dorcas Society to furnish clothing for 



48 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

necessitous patients ; a Samaritan Fund to providesurgic ,al 
and other appliances for those in need of them ; \ Mu sic 
Mission, whose choirs come frequently to sing to the 
patients ; and a Flower Mission, in which many kind 
friends help, and by whose efforts the Nursing Staff are 
enabled to keep the wards at all times bright and 
cheerful. 

The Management of the Infirmary is vested in the 
Contributors (Governors), from whom are chosen eighteen 
Directors the executive body. Six Directors retire each 
year and are ineligible for re-election until one year has 
elapsed. Six Contributors are elected to fill the vacancies 
thus created. The Directors report quarterly to the 
Governors, and thus the Management is kept in touch 
with the subscribers and the public. Under the Directors 
the Medical Superintendent, the Secretary, and the 
Treasurer attend to the administration, the ordinary 
business, and the finance respectively, and these three 
officials are present at the weekly meetings of the Directors, 
to whom they report what has occurred in their departments 
during the preceding week. 

The Medical Officers are appointed by the Directors, 
and hold office for a fixed period of years. Besides the 
ordinary Physicians and Surgeons are a number of 
Specialists, both clinical and scientific, and by their co- 
ordinate work the various aspects of disease can be care- 
fully investigated, and much valuable information regarding 
treatment obtained. 

The confidence of Dundee and the surrounding districts 
has been gained by the Infirmary, and its record of good 
work done in the past, and its prospect of better work in 
the future, will, it is hoped, still keep active the keen 
practical interest which hitherto has been manifested in 
its affairs, and help to counteract the effect of what exists 
in Dundee as in other large centres the yearly adverse 
balance in the accounts of the Infirmary. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 49 



Dundee Hospitals. 

By Chas. Templeman, M.D., D.Sc., Medical Officer 
of Health. 

IN addition to the Royal Infirmary, there are several 
Hospitals in 1 Hmdee for special classes of cases. 

These are : 

(1) Official. 

(a) Town Council King's Cross Hospital. 

Smallpox Hospital. 

Cholera Hospital. 

(b) Parish Council Eastern Hospital. 

Royal Lunatic Asylum. 

(2) Voluntary. 

Private Hospital for Women. 

Royal Victoria Hospital. 

King Street Home for Incurables. 

KING'S CROSS HOSPITAL. 

This Hospital, built by the Town Council for the treat- 
ment of cases of infectious disease, is situated in the north 
end of the City. It was opened in 1890. 

At that time it consisted of two pavilions, each contain- 
ing 20 beds. The accommodation has gradually been 
increased as the necessity arose, till it now consists of 
seven pavilions, each with 20 beds, a large administration 
block, a thoroughly-equipped laundry (electrically driven), 
disinfector, etc. 

An additional site, adjacent to the Hospital, and ex- 
tending to 6i acres, has been acquired, and on this 
pavilions will be erected for cases of measles and con- 
sumption. There is sufficient ground to provide for the 
needs of the City for a considerable time. 

D 



50 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

The Hospital is well provided with all the necessary 
appliances for the treatment of the infections, and is 
largely taken advantage of by the inhabitants of the City. 

The total cost for building, furnishing, and equipment 
has been about 52,000. 

SMALLPOX HOSPITAL. 

This Hospital of 20 beds for cases of Smallpox was built 
in 1893. 

It is situated on the outskirts of the City on a site 
extending to about six acres. 

It consists of one pavilion, a fully-equipped laundry 
and disinfecting house, and a lodge for the caretaker. 

In the grounds there is also a small Hospital for six beds 
for the accommodation of any cases of Cholera which may 
be brought into the port. It is built of wood on a founda- 
tion of concrete, but it has never been in use since its 
erection in 1893. 

These Hospitals were built, equipped, and are maintained 
by the Town Council, and are open to all who are suffering 
from any infectious disease, whether they are in receipt of 
parochial relief or not. 

EASTERN HOSPITAL. 

This is a large Hospital, constructed on modern lines, 
for the treatment of the sick poor under the charge of 
the Parish Council. 

It is built on the pavilion system, and has accommoda- 
tion for 394 patients. 

It was opened in December 1893, and the total cost for 
building and furnishing was 25,800. 

It is well equipped with modern appliances for the 
treatment of all classes of cases surgical, medical, and 
maternity and has done and is doing an excellent work in 
the City. 

The Medical Staff consists of one Visiting Medical 
Officer and two Eesidents. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 51 

EOYAL LUNATIC ASYLUM (WEST GREEN). 

This Asylum, a magnificent building, erected on a 
beautiful site on the braes of the Carse, and about three 
miles from the City, was opened about 1882 for the 
reception of persons suffering from mental disease. It 
was built to replace a similar Institution in the City 
(Albert Street) which had been erected in 1819, but which 
had become too small to meet the needs of the community. 

The Asylum has large grounds, amounting to about 110 
acres, and has accommodation for close on 400 patients. 
In the grounds a Private Asylum (Gowrie House) was 
built to accommodate 62 patients. 

In 1902 these Institutions were acquired by the Dundee 
District Lunacy Board for 90,000. The larger building 
is now utilised entirely for the care of pauper patients, and 
Gowrie House has been leased to the Dundee Royal Lunatic 
Asylum Directors for the treatment of private patients. 

The purchase price of the Asylum and other invest- 
ments enable the Board of Directors to receive many of 
those whose means are somewhat straitened at a price 
considerably below the cost of maintenance and treatment. 

Provision is also made, by arrangement with the 
Directors of the Dundee Royal Infirmary, for the treat- 
ment of a certain number of incipient cases in that 
Institution. 

PRIVATE HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN. 

In 1896 a Committee was formed with the object of 
providing a Hospital in which women would have an 
opportunity of being treated by women practitioners. A 
private house was rented for this purpose, and it provides 
accommodation for 11 beds. 

This Hospital has met a very felt want. Not only are 
patients suffering from those diseases peculiar to women 
admitted, but other cases in need of special treatment are 
also taken in. 

This Hospital is intended for women whose circum- 
stances do not permit of them being treated in a private 



52 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Nursing Home and who shrink from seeking admission 
into a General Hospital. 

It is supported by voluntary subscriptions, supplemented 
by the payment by the patients of sums varying from ten 
shillings to one guinea per week. For a private ward the 
sum payable varies from two to three guineas a week. 

The present premises are in some respects unsuitable, 
but through the generosity of a lady belonging to the City, 
who has all along taken a deep interest in this work and 
who has provided the necessary funds, a beautiful Hospital 
is being erected on the high ground overlooking the river. 
It embodies the latest ideas in construction and equipment, 
and when completed will accommodate 14 patients, and 
will be provided with all modern appliances for the treat- 
ment of that class of diseases it is specially designed to 
deal with. 

EOYAL VICTORIA HOSPITAL. 

This Hospital was erected to commemorate the Diamond 
Jubilee of the late Queen Victoria. At that time a sum 
of 50,000 was raised for the erection, equipment, and 
endowment of a Hospital for Incurables. 

A private Mansion House, standing in a beautiful park, 
was secured, and was readily converted into a Hospital in 
every respect up-to-date in construction and equipment, 
Nothing is wanting to provide for the comfort and the 
alleviation of the suffering of that class for whom it was 
erected. The beautiful grounds now extend to about 12 
acres, and the Hospital has a southern exposure over- 
looking the river Tay and the hills of Fife. 

A special wing for cancer cases was subsequently erected 
by a generous citizen at a cost of 5,500. The endowment 
fund amounts to 60,300, and the capital expenditure on 
Hospital and grounds has amounted to 25,600. The 
interest on the investments, along with the contributions 
from patients, who are expected to pay as their circum- 
stances permit, is practically sufficient to meet the 
expenditure. Many cases, however, are unable to offer 
any contribution, and no suitable case is excluded on that 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 53 

account. Only persons in receipt of parochial relief are 
ineligible. 

The Hospital accommodates 60 patients. 

The Home for Incurables in King Street is a self- 
contained house, with accommodation for 21 adults and a 
ward of 14 beds for children. It is under the control and 
management of an Episcopal Sisterhood. 

A large proportion of the inmates are old people, who 
require to be looked after. 

The Home is partially endowed, but all the patients have 
to be paid for, the maximum rate being 7s. 6d. per week. 

The Home is doing an excellent work in a quiet un- 
ostentatious way. 




54 SOCIAL SEKVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

The Care of the Children. 

By Jas. S. Y. Rogers, M.B., C.M. 

THIS subject may be viewed from the two aspects of 
sentiment or hard fact. The sentimentalist becomes a 
subscriber to a charitable organisation, and is rewarded 
once a year by the gift of a more or less voluminous Eeport, 
and, ensconced in his armchair before the lire, he is able 
with ill-concealed pride to view his name in large type 
opposite his modest donation, and there his responsibility 
ends. The observer of hard fact on the other hand is 
also a subscriber and receives the same document but, in 
addition to dipping his hand into his pocket, he spares 
neither time nor personal effort in trying to better the con- 
dition of the children. He knows full well that, in spite of 
improved sanitation and social conditions, infant mortality 
is abnormally high compared with that of adults, and 
realises that the subject of the care of the children requires 
special and constant supervision. 

Child life may be divided into three groupings ; first, we 
have the normal child from the time of its conception to 
the age of five years ; second, the same child during the 
period of school life (including the half-timer), that is from 
the age of five to fourteen ; and third, we have theabnormals, 
the cripple, the blind, the deaf and dumb, and the mentally 
deficient. 

THE INFANT. 

Turning our attention first to the subject of infant life, 
we find that out of a thousand children born, one hundred 
and seventy on the average over Britain die during the 
first year of life. During the past year in Dundee we 
have to congratulate ourselves on the fact that the death 
rate is only one hundred and fifty -four. Leaving out of 
account those who have died, we must take note of the 
fact that of the eight hundred and forty-six who survive, a 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 55 

certain proportion will live to adult life, and become the 
parents of our future generation. 

All the more need then from the beginning to give the 
child the best, start in life we can, instead of simply trusting 
to luck as has been done too much in the past. Before one 
can thoroughly understand the subject of the care of 
children, one must know something about the reasons for 
the high infant mortality. These are both ante- and post- 
natal, thus it behoves us to remember that the care of the 
unborn is just as important as that of the newborn, and on 
no account must we devote ourselves only to the child after 
birth and ignore its conditions before. 

The antenatal influences of parental unfitness, alcoholism 
and industrial employment of women, all involve grave 
social problems, which so far have proved too difficult for 
solution. A great number of parents are physically and 
mentally unfit, and from them we cannot expect to have 
healthy offspring. Our present marriage conditions are 
unsatisfactory, and frequently productive of disaster. 

The alcohol question has for many years been the centre 
of grave cyclonic discussions in Scotland. Experts as we 
are supposed to be in the disposal of alcohol, we ought to 
realise that its circulation in the maternal blood reaches 
the child, and either injures its tissues or stops the proper 
development of its cells, and brings about its death. This 
question has never been seriously faced by the nation as a 
whole. But when one is met by the products of alcohol 
crime, social degradation, and child neglect its importance 
cannot be over-estimated. Alcohol is responsible for a 
large part of the huge infant mortality, and for the stunted 
physique and dwarfed mentality of so many surviving 
children. 

The industrial employment of married women is also a 
potent factor in influencing the child's existence both 
before and after its birth. Investigations by Sir John 
Simon and colleagues shew that, where adult women were 
taking part in factory or in agricultural labour, the 
mortality of infants rapidly increased. Much has been 
<lone under the Factory Acts, by their insistence on certain 



56 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

hygienic conditions, to protect the health and efficiency of 
the working mothers as important assests in national life. 
One good feature is, that it is now compulsory for a women 
to remain away from work till one month after the birth 
of the child, but this provision is unfortunately not always 
easily enforced. Working mothers are absent from home all 
day long, except at meal hours and during the evenings, 
and in their absence the care of the young infant is often 
entrusted to some old woman or young girl. The child 
is lifted from its warm cot and taken out into the cold air 
about half -past five in the morning, as the mother generally 
starts work at six. Many deaths result from this severe 
exposure, especially in the winter. The child is fed by 
scraps from the table, milk from dirty bottles, and is 
frequently entirely uncared for. What is the sequel to 
this mismanagement ? Fretfulness, restlessness, and bad 
health. The long hours of toil, the constant standing and 
the physical strain for months before and after the child's 
birth are not only a drain on the mother's own strength, 
but have a serious effect on the future well-being of the 
child. 

The influences after birth are, insufficient and unsuitable 
food, dirt, over-crowding, want of proper clothing, and 
exposure. Infant health depends far more on infant 
rearing than on the physical condition of the parents, the 
sanitation of the houses, or even poverty ; and it is to the 
intelligence and interest of the mother and the care and 
attention she is able to bestow on her child, that we have 
to look for bringing out the best results. The natural 
feeding of infants is undoubtedly by the breast, and this 
gives by far the best results. In overcrowded districts in 
London, New York, and Chicago it has been proved that 
infant mortality drops in breast fed children, even though 
the environment may be very unsatisfactory. A great 
many mothers are willing to, and do breast feed their 
children, but the results are not always so satisfactory as 
could be wished. Breast feeding, however, may not be 
possible for various reasons : the mother may be delicate, 
may suffer from tuberculosis, or she may give social duties 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 57 

the prior claim, and then there is no alternative but 
artificial that is, bottle feeding. Whenever we depart 
from breast and adopt bottle feeding, we at once enter a 
fresh danger zone so far as the child is concerned. Cow's 
milk is the substitute we have to fall back on and, as cow's 
milk is one of the easiest liquids to contaminate with dirt' 
or infection, we must always be on the alert. Scalding 
or boiling will destroy any micro-organisms, though boiling 
is believed by some to destroy some of the properties of the 
milk, but this, I think, is exaggerated ; it is better to give 
the milk boiled than to run any risks by giving it raw. 
There are, of course, many other suitable ways of presenting 
milk to the child, such as peptonising or sterilising it. all 
good in their own way, but frequently beyond the reach of 
the poorer classes. Cow's milk in any form will disagree 
with certain infants, and it must be left to the physician to 
deal with those cases. Dirty feeding bottles are responsible 
for much serious illness in young infants. 

A great deal has been done locally by the Dundee Social 
Union, which has established restaurants for nursing 
mothers, and their efforts have been supplemented by 
similar institutions established and conducted by the Town 
Council. These aim to encourage breast feeding, to provide 
for under- fed mothers in order to enrich the milk supply, to 
keep in touch with the mothers in their homes, and daily 
at the restaurant to advise and help, to weigh babies 
weekly and keep charts. Infant visiting has been carried 
out in three districts of the city, the first being made by a 
trained worker. The number of cases visited last year was 
1 ,324, 30 per cent, of the total births of the city. Dinners 
are given to nursing mothers under the following conditions. 
Mothers must bring their children regularly to be weighed 
and must not return to work for three months. The total 
number of meals supplied during the year was 22,336. 

The Dundee Day Nurseries are doing a large amount of 
good work for the poor children of Dundee. Of 28,473 
children admitted fully 8,000 were under twelve months. 
The Nurseries in such cities as ours are havens of rest for 
the children of working mothers who are toiling for their 



58 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

daily bread. The children are well fed and cared for, and 
handed back at the end of the day all the better for the 
care and attention they have received. It is our duty to 
provide for female workers, creches in which the child can 
be cared for and attended. That up to the present time. we 
have entirely failed to appreciate this is shewn by the fact 
that these nurseries are not properly supported by the 
public. 

Other sources of danger to children are overlaying, 
infant insurance, and burning accidents. Cases of serious 
burning are unfortunately very often heard of, and it 
should be absolutely compulsory for every parent to place 
fire guards before the fire where there are children. 
Eecently the Town Council has issued a special instruction 
in reference to this, and where, through poverty, fire guards 
cannot be purchased these are provided free of charge. 

The slums are one of our stumbling blocks, for they are 
the natural soil of most infectious diseases, arid this problem 
is one facing all local authorities. In Dundee we are 
advancing rapidly in sanitation under the guidance of a 
skilful Public Health Department, and we compare 
favourably with most large cities. Still much remains to 
be done if the health of the community at large, and 
especially of children, is to be preserved. A great many of 
those undesirable and condemned properties are now either 
being closed or improved to meet modern requirements. 

One of the first essentials to life and health is a constant 
supply of pure fresh air. Along with food it ranks as an 
indispensable of life. During the day in many instances 
the infant is rarely taken out, and one has only to see 
their white pinched faces to appreciate the ill effects of 
want of fresh air and sunshine. 

SCHOOL LIFE. 

Turning to the question of the school child, we have 
now in operation a capable Medical Inspection Staff under 
the School Board. 

In certain of the schools in the poorer districts of Dundee 
necessitous children are supplied with free meals. Either 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 59 

the Headmaster or Teachers note any child that looks 
under fed, or if the visiting Doctor finds any child poorly 
developed, he reports the case to the Chief Officer and the 
child is at once looked after. 

School life for medical inspection purposes is divided 
into four stages infants, junior department, seniors, and 
supplementary. 

Every child is medically examined on entering each 
department, that is four times in the course of school life, 
or once every three years. About 25 per cent, of the 
children examined are found to be defective in some respect. 
When a defect is discovered a notice is sent in a sealed 
envelope to the parent, through the child, stating the 
nature of the defect, and recommending that the child be 
taken to the family doctor for advice and treatment. 
Defective children are inspected frequently in order to 
observe whether treatment has been obtained and to note 
any improvement made. In the case of verminous 
children a nurse visits the home and explains how to clean 
the child. At the same time notices are sent to the 
parents giving clear and definite instructions as to the 
treatment necessary. The major proportion shewing want 
of cleanliness is found in children above the age of six 
years, indicating that they have largely to look after them- 
selves and are not under the supervision of the mother. 
Negotiations are presently going on with the Baths Depart- 
ment of the Town Council with a view to the establishment 
of special district stations, where children suffering in this 
respect may be adequately dealt with. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

At the earliest opportunity the Headmaster notifies to 
the School Medical Officer, who in turn informs the 
Medical Officer of Health, the outbreak in the school of 
any cases of infectious disease. In the event of more than 
three of these being reported from any one school in one 
day, the whole of the children in the school are at once 
specially examined. 



60 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

The number of cases of defective vision is highest in 
the older schools where lighting and class rooms are 
deficient. Poorer children get spectacles supplied at 
special prices. More attention is now being paid to the 
painting of the walls of class rooms, a matter of extreme 
importance in this respect. 

So far no notices are sent out about defective teeth, 
but instructions in the hygiene of the mouth might with 
advantage be given. 

SCHOOL BATHS. 

After a certain age ten years and upwards bath 
tickets are supplied for instruction in swimming at the 
Public Baths in Dundee and Lochee. Last year 53,196 
such tickets were issued, and the benefits accruing to the 
children were very great. 

SCHOOL FOR WORKING MOTHERS. 

Under the auspices of the School Board there is a school 
for working mothers at the Cowgate School. About sixty 
mothers attend, and they are taught cooking, dressmaking, 
and home hygiene. The school session lasts for four 
months and the fee is one shilling. 

HALF-TIME SYSTEM. 

There is a great diversity of opinion as to the merits or 
demerits of this system. Our local Factory Surgeon is 
strongly of the opinion that it is beneficial and he voiced 
his opinion in a pamphlet read before the British Medical 
Association in March 1902. He holds that the puny, 
feeble half-timer is under this half-day system an unknown 
quantity. In his experience the fact is that white-faced, 
delicate-looking children attending school the whole day 
improve physically and mentally from the day they enter 
the factories as half-timers. They are better fed and are 
taught habits of industry and regularity. There are not, 
he adds, anywhere happier and healthier looking children 
than these half-timers. 






SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 61 

I must say that a great many children who leave school 
at the age of fourteen years are quite unfit to do a full 
day's work, and many break down in health after being but 
a short time at work. The transition from school to work 
is too sudden ; and it might be better if their day consisted 
of part school and part work between the ages of thirteen 
and fifteen in order to gradually accustom them to manual 
labour, and thus prevent the health breaking down through 
the long continued strain of this full day's work. 

ABNORMALS. 

A great step forward was taken in providing an Invalid 
School for Cripple Children. The numbers are greatly in 
excess of the accommodation provided, and an additional 
school is now much needed. This school is under the 
School Board and is supervised by a Committee of ladies. 
It is quite a cheery sight to see the little ones being con- 
veyed in their own bus to and from the school and, from the 
merry laughter on board, it is hard sometimes to realise 
that they are other than normally healthy children. In 
connection with this school there is a holiday home at 
Kingennie, a few miles out of the city. The period of 
residence varies from one to six weeks, during which time 
the children greatly improve in health. During the last 
season 148 children stayed in the home and with one or two 
exceptions all gained weight, a testimony to the motherly 
care they received from the Matron. After the children 
leave the Cripple School, the Managing Committee try to 
persuade the parents to place them in suitable occupations 
Inn in this they encounter great difficulty. 

An Invalid School would be most beneficial in Dundee, 
to which children convalescing from serious illness, or 
found unfit to stand the strain of a full day's school work, 
f>ul(.l be sent. There they would get a mixture of school 
and j .lay until such time as they were in a condition to 
i'->unir their ordinary school duties. 



62 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROPLEMS. 

INSTITUTIONS. 

The interests of the children are looked after by several 
well organized Societies and there are well equipped 
Institutions all under capable management where they are 
cared for and kindly dealt with. The Dundee branch of 
the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children 
protects and rescues children from environments where 
their moral health is endangered. We have also the 
Dundee Boys' and Girls' Religious Association and the 
Children's Free Breakfast Mission, who provide free break- 
fasts once a week and look after their physical, moral, and 
religious improvement. 

There are several Institutions for the care of both normal 
and abnormal children when they fall the victims of 
illness, such as the Royal Infirmary, the Fever Hospital, 
the Sanatorium at Auchterhouse, and the Comerton Home 
at Newport. The Dundee Royal Infirmary has thirty-two 
beds devoted to the diseases of children. This, of course, 
though insufficient for a city the size of Dundee, renders 
very valuable service, but to my mind the diseases of 
children will never be thoroughly attended to until we 
have a properly equipped hospital for children. 

There is an excellent Fever Hospital at King's Cross, 
which has of late been increased in size to meet the growing 
demands ; and it is thoroughly up-to-date and well managed. 
Measles and whooping-cough, however, two of our most 
deadly diseases, are not admitted to this Hospital owing to 
lack of accommodation, but the Town Council has recently 
decided to build additional accommodation to meet this 
need. 

The Sanatorium at Auchterhouse also provides a few 
beds for tuberculous children, but this also is quite 
inadequate. 

At the Comerton Home in Fifeshire health and vigour 
are restored to many of our poor children. One has only 
to see the great improvement that takes place in those 
white-faced, half -starved looking bairns after a period of 
four weeks residence in such a Home as this to under- 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 63 

stand the growing demand for many more such havens 
of rest. 

From this list of Societies and Institutions it might 
appear as if we were well equipped to meet the wants and 
needs of poor children, but this is not the opinion of all. 
Only when children are ill or deformed physically or 
mentally do we waken up to the fact that they require our 
every attention and care. Of the thousands of infants who 
die annually in the United Kingdom a large number 
might be saved. The outstanding causes of this high 
death rate are ignorance, closely followed by poverty and 
depravity. If we cannot prevent the mother working, the 
sale of alcohol, or domestic mismanagement, we can at least 
minimize their evils by the education of the parents, 
especially the mother. Schools for mothers, creches for 
the children all help in overcoming maternal ignorance and 
carelessness. A child, be it rich or poor, is a human being 
whose whole life will be required to perfect it and much 
depends on the care and attention it receives from its start 
in life. The better the physical condition the greater 
chance there will be of a higher mental development. The 
wealth of a country lies far more in the health of its 
children than in any other thing. Social effort can be 
devoted to few better ends than the care of our children. 

A philanthropic few have done noble work in pushing 
the problem on our notice, but the sooner the general 
public waken up, the more prospect there will be of a 
substantial forward movement. 



64 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Dundee's Blind Citizens. 

By Colin MacDonald. 

" SURELY we, the Blind, are not the least care of God." 
So wrote Milton more than two hundred years ago, when, 
" Fallen on evil days, and evil tongues in darkness and 
with dangers compassed round," he was trying to find a 
solace for his affliction in the composition of his immortal 
epic. 

At the present day the care of the Blind is organised 
and systernatised in a variety of forms Social, Educational, 
and Industrial and the admittedly heavy handicap under 
which our sightless brethren suffer is, to some extent, 
mitigated by the efforts made to ameliorate their condition. 
No class of the community evokes so much sympathy and 
consideration as the Blind. The " Blessed trinity of sound, 
colour, and form," which ministers so much happiness in 
general, is only enjoyed in its first element by them. But 
they, like the old blind bard cited, have their " days of 
darkness " brightened by the conversations and intercourse 
of friends, the pleasures of literature and music, and in 
the industrial and other pursuits now open to them. 

It is computed that there are about two hundred and 
seventy blind persons in Dundee. Of these the larger 
portion are aged, infirm, and poor, and are cared for by 
the Outdoor Mission for the Blind, and receive aid from 
some of the numerous City Funds and Mortifications 
available. A considerable number who have attained the 
required age are in receipt of the Old Age Pension, whilst 
a good many aged blind having no relatives or friends to 
take charge of them find a home in the Poorhouse. The 
centre of the activities of the blind, however, is the 
Institution for the Blind at Magdalen Green, where 
seventy-six persons (including several who are deaf as 
well as blind) are employed. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 



65 



The Institution was founded in 1865 by the munificence 
of the late Mr Francis Molison, who presented to a Com- 
mittee of Management Dallh'eld House and grounds, in 
which a beginning was made in the Educational and 
Industrial Training of the Blind. His widow, the late Mrs 
Molison, in 1883 purchased the site on which the present 
large and nourishing Institution now stands, and erected 
the buildings thereon, the total cost of which amounted to 
10,000. This handsome gift was formally handed over 
to the Directors by Sir Wm. Ogilvy Dalgleish, Baronet, 
the President of the Institution, and son-in-law of Mr 
and Mrs Molison, on 15th January 1885. The Institution 
will ever remain a monument to the munificence of the 
Molison family, and to Sir Wm. and Lady Ogilvy 
Dalgleish in particular, who have since its foundation 
taken the deepest practical interest in its progress and 
development. 

There the mechanical faculty is trained and developed in 
a variety of useful trades, and artizans are produced who, 
in some cases, are able to earn sufficient to support 
themselves and families. 




66 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

The principal industries engaged in are Wicker Work 
of all descriptions including Mill and Factory Baskets 
Brushes of all kinds, Mats and Mattings, Ship Fenders, 
Firewood, Firelighter making, and upholstery work. The 
Bedding Factory employs a large number of men and 
women, hoth in the manufacturing and purifying depart- 
ments. The extent of the industrial operations may be 
inferred from the annual turnover, which is almost 10,000, 
whilst the earnings and allowances made to the workers 
last year totalled 2,498. 3s. 8d., the weekly payments to 
workers varying in the different departments, as shown in 
the latest Report of the Institution, being as follows : 

Basket Makers - from 15/- to 23/- 

Brush Makers 14/6 19/- 

Mattress Makers and Upholsterers 16/6 20 /- 

Mat Makers 16/6 18/- 

Unskilled Department ll/- 20/- 

Firelighter Makers 14/6 18/- 

Women Workers 8/6 10/6 

Six at least of the Dundee Blind are engaged in the 
musical profession as Organists, Pianists, and Tuners and 
Teachers of Music. The achievements of several of these 
under their serious physical handicap equal that of many 
sighted artistes. A former pupil of the School is one of 
the leading choir trainers in the city, and has for years 
conducted the " Dundee Select Choir," who under his 
baton have rendered such works as " The Messiah," " The 
Creation," " Samson," to delighted Dundee audiences. 
Several others are specially gifted in this profession, one 
of them being leader of an Orchestra, and himself proficient 
equally on the Organ, Piano, and Violin. A good many 
others, evidently influenced by the decision of the late 
Professor Fawcett, that his "affliction would make no 
difference in his career," pursue various callings in com- 
merce on their own account, and display enterprise and 
courage which have earned for them well-merited success. 

An important branch of the Institution's work is the 
education of blind children under sixteen years of age. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 67 

The curriculum comprises English in all its branches, 
including typewriting, kindergarten work, and technical 
instruction in handicrafts; Music including the Organ 
and Pianoforte is also taught; whilst there is a well- 
appointed gymnasium for physical training. The Library 
attached to the school embraces many classical works in 
Braille, and the pupils have, in addition, access to the 
Braille books in the Public Library. 

The School, which is conducted under the Elementary 
Education (Blind an^l Deaf) Act, 1891, embraces all the 
most scientific and approved methods of instruction, and 
its efficiency is annually attested by H.M. Inspector. 
Blind children coming from country districts are provided 
for in the commodious boarding-house in the Institution 
grounds. The number of pupils under instruction at 
present is only eighteen. There have been as many as 
twenty-four, and the gratifying diminution is no doubt in 
large measure due to the operations of the Dundee Eye 
Institution, which, treating diseases of the eye at the 
incipient stages, in many cases prevent what, without 
.such attention, would ultimately issue in blindness. 

Many of the Blind take an intelligent interest in 
municipal and educational affairs in the city, and these 
and other matters are keenly discussed in the various 
workshops. 

The Reading and Recreation Club in connection with 
the Institution is a centre of much intellectual stimulus. 
Lectures and Readings in History, Science, and current 
Literature are given, and the members receive much enjoy- 
ment from a variety of games specially adapted for them. 

It may be stated that the Industrial and Educational 
operations of the Institution are confined to Forfarshire, 
Perthshire, and the North-East of Fifeshire. 

Dundee is fortunate in respect that all the Blind in the 
community and surrounding districts capable of being 
industrially trained, or of receiving education, are provided 
t'r in the Institution at Magdalen Green. 

There are still a few who try to earn a livelihood by 
singing and scripture reading on the street, and vending 



68 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

wares of various kinds from house to house, preferring 
such a life to the restraint and discipline of the Institution, 
but fortunately their number has been diminishing within 
recent years. 

From the foregoing brief statement may be inferred the 
present position of the Blind in the community. As a 
class they share largely in the general esteem and 
sympathy, and their cause has evoked the generous support 
of many benevolent citizens. 

All over the country at the present time public interest 
is being aroused on behalf of the blind as a class, and it is 
anticipated that their claims and needs are soon to receive 
special recognition. 

An effort is being made to induce the Government to 
make adequate provision for the training, employment, 
and maintenance of all the capable adult Blind in the 
country. Under the provisions of the Invalidity and 
Insurance Bill probably the Blind workers in Institutions, 
and the large body of the Blind out with their scope, may 
be to some extent benefited. 

It is generally felt that State recognition to supplement 
voluntary effort is indispensable to raising the status of 
the industrious Blind to the platform of honourable and 
independent subsistence, and it is hoped that, as the result 
of the present movement, a measure will be passed giving 
substantial benefits to the class, and thus help them 

" To break their birth's invidious bar, 
And grasp the skirts of happy chance, 
And breast the blows of circumstance. 
And grapple with their evil star." 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 69 

Work among Women. 

By Miss M. L. Walker, of Dundee Social Union. 

DrxDEE is pre-eminently a city of women and of women 
\\orkers. The census figures of 1911 give the number of 
females as 91,763, out of a total population of 165,004. 
The proportion of women householders (Census 1901), 
12,000 out of 37,000, is the largest in any Scottish town ; 
of these, 6,260 have the Municipal vote. The detailed 
tables of the Census Keport reveal the abnormal conditions 
of sex distribution, marriage, and equipment. Up to the 
age of twenty the ordinary proportion between the sexes 
is fairly maintained, but between the ages of twenty and 
forty there are almost three women to two men, the actual 
numbers being 30,240 to 21,823; of these 30,000 women 
15,000 are unmarried. Contrary to general belief, early 
marriages are not very numerous; the percentage of 
husbands among youths under twenty was *4, of wives, 
among girls of same age, 1*3. The proportion of " occupied " 
women over fifteen is striking, 53 per cent., and is the 
highest in Scotland ; the number of married women among 
these is relatively large. In Edinburgh and Glasgow the 
ratio of married women employed in remunerative occupa- 
tions is 5*1 and 5*5 per cent., in Dundee 23*4 per cent. 
" This high ratio in Dundee is most evident among women 
of child-bearing age; in Edinburgh 7'3 per cent, of the 
married women between 20 and 24 are occupied; in 
Glasgow, 7*5 per cent.; but in Dundee, 41*0 per cent.; 
in age group, 25 to 44, this .ratio in Dundee is 25*2, 
in Edinburgh it is 5'0, and in Glasgow 5 -3." Had the 
Census of 1901 given corresponding figures, they would 
IULVC probably been even more startling, for in the jute 
industry there has been a reduction in the ratio of 
women to men, and a specially satisfactory decrease in 
the number of girls employed under thirteen, 70 in 
l-'l 1, as against 1081 in 1901. The explanation of these 
figures is found in the fact that the staple trade of 



70 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

the town jute is a women's industry. The total number 
of workers was given as 34,414, of whom 23,369 were 
women ; while the percentage of men over twenty years 
of age was 23. Engineering and shipbuilding rank next 
among Dundee industries, and employ 6880 men and boys. 

The abundance of work for women attracts workers from 
other towns, while there is a steady tide of emigration of 
men and boys, especially among those who are in skilled 
trades, owing to the difficulty of their finding employment 
when their apprenticeship is over. The jute industry relies 
mainly on the labour of women, girls, and lads. For the 
latter it is more or less a blind alley occupation, but for 
women and girls it offers steady employment, and in 
many departments good wages. The weavers, winders, 
and sack machinists are a hard-working, thrifty, and self- 
respecting class of workers. They impress visitors by the 
neatness of their dress and the decorum of their manners. 
There is nothing of the typical mill girl about them, 
though she does exist in some parts of Dundee. It is 
in the spinning mill and preparing department that the 
largest proportion of married women, who are the mothers 
of young children, is found. The total number of married 
women is 5532, of widows 2107. 

From the figures given above it is evident that the condi- 
tions affecting the women and girls of Dundee are abnormal, 
and that these conditions must in great measure determine 
all efforts towards betterment, whether undertaken by the 
workers themselves, by the municipal authorities, or by 
private charitable and philanthropic effort. Over-employ- 
ment of women and under-employment of men are found 
associated with the highest infant death-rate in Scotland, 
a high illegitimate birth-rate, and great poverty. 

Owing to the discussions on the Insurance Act much 
attention has been directed towards the question of the 
provision for illness already made by working men and 
women. It is interesting to note that in a community 
like Dundee the women are as a rule content with securing 
funeral benefit. For this they are entered as children by 
their parents at Id., and as workers pay 2d. or 3d a week. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 71 

The Strathtay Lodge (the Women's Court of the Foresters' 
Society) numbers only about forty members ; these receive 
sick benefit as well as funeral grant. The Rechabites and 
the Ancient Shepherds have a considerable number of 
women members in the men's branches. There is a local 
union for jute workers the Mill and Factory Operatives 
Union under the Eev. Henry Williamson. The numbers 
are over 6000, five-sixths being women, They pay Id., 
2d., and 3d. a-week, according to the scale of benefit 
during strikes, lock-outs, etc. A funeral benefit is given 
up to 3, but there is no sick allowance. Another union 
the Dundee and District Jute and Flax Workers was 
started some five or six years ago, and has a membership 
of over 5000. The payments here begin at 2d. a-week; 
there is no insurance for illness, though it is proposed to 
open a section for this so that the union may rank as an 
Approved Society. The workers in the past who wished 
to provide against sickness joined yearly societies. These 
pay sickness benefit, and at stated periods divide out their 
funds. Members must be in good health when they join, 
and precautions are taken against malingering. In the 
Dundee Burial Society, a working-class funeral benefit 
organization, there are about 10,000 women members. 

Some ten or twelve miles north of Dundee, on the 
slopes of the Sidlaw, stands an old mansion house, which 
has been converted into a Home of Rest for working 
women and girls. The charge is seven shillings a-week, 
and subscriptions provide for a certain number of free 
admissions. This country change has proved of the 
greatest benefit to many, and is much appreciated. 

For many years the high infant mortality has been a 
matter of grave concern to the Municipality and others 
interested in the welfare of the city. In 1903 two Lady 
Health Visitors were appointed to visit the homes of 
those living in the poorer districts, and a special part of 
their work has been to enquire into the causes of death 
among young children. In 1904-5 the Social Union 
carried out an investigation into social conditions, with 
special reference to infant mortality. This enquiry showed 



7 2 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

that the feeding of the infant was of primary importance, 
and that the breast-feeding of infants in Dundee was 
seriously interfered with when the mothers returned to work 
during the first months of the baby's life. On the other hand, 
if the mother abstained from work, the low wages earned 
by the husband could not provide her with the necessary 
nourishment. Recognizing the significance of these facts 
a public spirited citizen offered as an experiment to finance 
a Restaurant for Nursing Mothers for three years. This 
restaurant was opened in May 1906 by the Social Union, 
on the lines of those organized by Madame Henri Coullet 
in Paris, and was the first in Great Britain. Its objects 
were to encourage the breast-feeding of infants, and to 
discourage the work of mothers in mills and factories. 
The experiment was so successful that in 1909 the 
Municipality took the matter up, opened two other 
restaurants in poor districts of the town, and gave a grant 
to the original one. The charge is twopence a dinner, 
but necessitous cases are put on a free list on the following 
conditions. The infant must be entirely breast-fed, the 
mother must not work, and must bring the baby regularly 
to be weighed. Free dinners are given only during the 
first three months of the baby's life. The work has 
steadily extended ; it now includes schools for mothers, 
and a systematic visiting of the homes of all infants 
born in the poorer districts of the city. This was only pos- 
sible after the adoption of the Early Notification of Births 
Act, and it is carried out by trained workers assisted by a 
large number of voluntary visitors. Lectures for Mothers 
in Hygiene and Domestic Economy are also provided by 
the School Board. These efforts to save infant life have 
borne fruit in a noticeable reduction in the rate of infant 
mortality in the poor district round the original restaurant. 
In 1904 one infant out of every four died. In 1909 an 
enquiry was instituted by the Home Office, and the death- 
rate in the same district was then one out of five. But a 
definite limit is set to improvement as long as the con- 
ditions remain the same, and a great part of the work 
undertaken is necessarily palliative rather than remedial. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 73 

This is also true of other efforts which aim at caring for 
the children of wage-earning mothers. Here, too, the 
Municipality has recognized charitable effort in the grant 
of 100 to the Dundee Day Nurseries. These are four 
in number ; there is another in Lochee, under separate 
management, and the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul carry 
on a sixth. In the four under the Dundee Day Nurseries 
Committee the average number of children is 120; in 
the six, about 180 or 190 can be accommodated. The 
Committee has done a great deal during the past few 
years in improving the buildings and bringing the arrange- 
ments up to modern standards. The mothers pay 3d. 
or 4d. a-day, and these payments cover about half the 
cost of the ordinary yearly expenditure. The children 
are carefully fed and tended. There must, nevertheless, be 
a certain risk in carrying babies and young children to the 
nurseries at 5.30 a.m. in cold winter mornings. Partly for 
this reason and partly to avoid the additional work, the hard- 
pushed mothers as a rule prefer to leave the children in the 
care of a neighbour. In the enquiry for the Home Office 
already referred to it was found that in that district 
60 per cent, of the mothers of young infants worked, and 
that only 3 per cent, of the babies were taken to the Day 
Nurseries. Another means of helping the mothers who 
work has been adopted by a large firm of manufacturers, 
in the form of a Welfare Visitor. This lady visits the homes 
of the workers who are ill, aged pensioners, and mothers. 

As stated before the lot of the unmarried workers is 
much more favourable, and in some departments wages 
run up to 1 ; 15s. is a common wage in the factory ; 11s. or 
] 2s. in the mill. When two working women live together 
their circumstances are comfortable. Some of the most 
attractive little homes in Dundee are those of women and 
girls living as companions. The friendship begins in their 
voutli, often persists till old age, and is only broken 
by death. It is a frequent complaint that young girls 
I'-ivc home when they begin to earn good money, simply 
trom the love of independence, breaking loose their 
family ties in a thoughtless and callous manner. No 



74 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

doubt this is the case, but such girls drift into lodgings. 
The girl who can save enough to furnish a little home 
does not take the step lightly. Sometimes her parents 
are dead ; sometimes they drink, and the girl with an 
instinct for better things can endure no longer the squalor 
and misery of the two-roomed house. In such cases she 
leaves her home, sometimes taking some of her brothers 
and sisters with her, sometimes setting up joint house- 
keeping with a companion of her own age and sex. The 
home she makes is bright with gay floorcloth and polished 
brass. The windows are draped with muslin, the bed 
with chintz. It is a matter for regret that owing to the 
scarcity of men earning a good wage these domestic talents 
often fail to find their natural sphere. These are not the 
girls who marry casual labourers or mill workers and work 
after marriage. They are interested in the questions of 
the day, they attend lectures and classes, take an active 
part in Church life, are members of various unions and 
societies, and are ready to help others. There are many 
working girls whose wages are lower, and who cannot 
attain to a home of their own, and who yet want something 
better than lodgings. This need has been recognised, and 
various agencies carry on hostels or boarding houses for 
working girls. One is managed by the Sisters of St. 
Vincent de Paul, the others by committees. One of these 
hostels was built for the purpose, and is very attractive. 
It has a large club-room to which outside girls can come, 
and, though simple, the house is artistic and pleasing. 
Here there is room for twenty-five girls; they pay six 
shillings a-week, and have comfortable, airy rooms, good 
food, and friendly supervision. 

There is no central institute for girls' clubs and recreation 
generally. Every congregation and mission has classes of 
some kind sewing, singing, domestic economy. These 
are well attended. The United Free Church supports 
a special scheme for the mill workers. Brown Street Hall 
is situated in one of the poorest parts of the town. It has 
a number of meetings and classes, and a superintendent 
who visits the homes of the members. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 75 

In some branches of its work the Y.W.C.A. touches the 
mill girls, in others those who have fallen out of the ranks of 
the workers, but it makes special provision for the more 
educated classes of workers typists, clerks, shop assist- 
ants, women in business. It has a large membership, and 
the Institute in South Tay Street has hall and class-rooms 
accommodating over 500. The domestic economy classes, 
are much appreciated; last year 1490 students were 
enrolled, 1390 of whom obtained Government grants. 
The boarding-houses can accommodate over 50, and the 
dining-rooms provide good meals at a moderate cost for 
many more. The dining-rooms were the first in Dundee 
for women only. 

The Salvation Army, on the other hand, directs its social 
work to the rescue of those who are worsted in life's battle 
and have fallen out of the ranks of the steady workers. 
The Metropole is a lodging-house for the very poor, for 
the casual worker, the homeless woman, the tramp. It 
has accommodation for over 100 at a charge of 4d. a-night. 
There is a kitchen where the inmates can cook their food, 
and a washing-house. Food soup, pudding, bread-and- 
butter, tea can be bought. The staff numbers fifteen, 
and in addition to the work of the Metropole and Kescue 
Home attached, the officers visit in the slums and attend 
the Police Courts. The extension of the Probation System 
has increased their duties, and afforded many opportunities 
of influencing women and girls who are starting on the 
downward path. 

As might be expected there are many aged and lonely 
women in Dundee. Provision for those between sixty and 
seventy years of age is made by various mortifications and 
funds which grant a small monthly pension. There is a 
small Home of Eest where members of the Church of 
Scotland find shelter. Many others are saved from an old 
age of poverty and loneliness by the Little Sisters of the 
Poor in their home at Wellburn. This succour is extended 
to Protestants as well as Roman Catholics. The number 
of old women in Wellburn is seventy -three. The whole 
work of the house is carried out by the devoted sisters,. 



76 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

who also take turns of begging for help, both in money 
and kind. The house is managed with wonderful economy 
combined with comfort, and the smiling faces of the 
inmates testify to the loving care of the Sisters. 

These instances are selected as typical of the work 
undertaken for women in Dundee; the list is by no means 
exhaustive. While recognising to the full the work that 
has yet to be accomplished and deploring the present 
conditions, the social worker cannot but note the growing- 
sense of the solidarity of the community and the inter- 
dependence of its members. 




SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 



Welfare of Youth Work. 

By David Latto, Town Clerk Depute, 
Clerk to City Committee. 

" HEAVEN kindly gave our blood a moral How." The fore- 
going quotation expresses the basis upon which all efforts 
at reform are necessarily based. It would be pleasant 
indeed to believe that the vast amount of prophylactic or 
remedial work which is carried on was prompted by 
altruism. The fact cannot be hid that self-protection 
compels Society to interest itself in the improvement of 
conditions which threaten its well-being. In the past the 
greatest attention has been given to the sanitary condition 
of the dwellings of the poor. This attention or interest is 
more and more being directed also to the individual to 
the end that he may live in greater accord with the 
established law. 

Any one coming into frequent contact with the work 
of the Courts administering the law with reference to 
children and young persons cannot fail to notice that such 
children belong to the poorer classes. This supports the 
idea that environment and not any special depravity on 
the part of the children is the cause. 

The housing of the poorer class is such that the street 
rather than the house is their home, and they consequently 
sooner drift away from parental control than the children 
of classes in better pecuniary circumstances 

It is greatly to be regretted that some of those who 
make their first acquaintance with Police Courts are 
(nought up for such offences as card playing, pitch-and- 
toss, stone throwing, playing with hurley on the pavement, 
acting as street porters without a license, and a number of 
other offences proceeding from a spirit of adventure and 
classed under malicious mischief. If these offences are 
analysed it will lie readily seen that none of them 
deservedly merit police attention. Card playing as a rule 
endangers no one. Pitch-and-toss is again a game that 



78 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

-cannot possibly hurt anybody. The players are, during 
the game, enjoying out-of-door recreation. Card playing 
might engender the gambling spirit, but not any more 
likely to do so because it is played by children in public 
parks or streets or on vacant pieces of ground than by 
fashionable ladies in the parlour. 

The height of absurdity in criminal legislation is reached 
when youngsters are taken before the Court for " Playing 
with hurley on the pavement," or for "Acting as street 
porters without a license." It would be sufficient for the 
policemen to order the children with their hurleys off the 
pavement, and ask them to play on the carriageway, and 
as regards the offence of acting as street porters without 
a license, the travelling public are themselves to blame if 
they employ as a porter a man who is unlicensed, and 
their plain duty to themselves is only to employ licensed 
porters. 

Were the surcharge of buoyant animal spirits which 
constrains youths to commit such offences allowed a 
proper outlet in congenial surroundings these same youths 
would be heroes in a greater or less degree. It is quite 
evident that this very quality is essential to success in life. 

These and some other offences should be repealed from 
the Statute Books along with, in the case of children, the 
barbaric penalty of whipping. Only two other European 
countries recognise this penalty. 

The object of legislation, so far as regards children, 
should be to keep them as far away as possible from the 
baneful influence of prison life. With this object in view, 
as can be gathered from several of its sections, the Children 
Act of 1908 was passed. A " child " by that Act is denned 
as meaning a person under the age of 14 years, and a 
"young person" is denned as meaning a person who is 
14 years of age or upwards and under the age of 16 years. 
It introduced Juvenile Courts which should be in a 
different building or in a different room from that in 
which the Ordinary Court sittings are held, or they should 
be held on different days or different times from the 
Ordinary Court sittings, and no child or young person is 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 79 

allowed to be present at an Ordinary Court. In offences 
against decency or morality if a child or young person is 
required to be in attendance at an Ordinary Court as a 
witness power is given to order the Court to be cleared. 
Everything has been done to keep the child or young 
person away from adult criminals, and also away from the 
prison buildings. A child or a young person cannot now 
be committed to prison for offences unless such child is of 
so unruly a character or so depraved as not to be fit to be 
detained in a place of detention. 

Places of detention have been substituted, in the case 
of children and young persons, for ordinary prisons, and 
the Local Authority is bound to provide such places of 
detention, which are as devoid as possible of the suggestion 
of prison life, and partake more of the nature of a home. 

This Act has also consolidated the Reformatory and 
Industrial Schools Acts. The consolidation has con- 
tributed to the portions of the Act of 1908, dealing with 
Reformatories and Industrial Schools, being put more than 
ever into operation by the Magistrates. 

The City of Dundee has endeavoured to carry out the 
spirit and intention of this Act, and for that purpose a 
Meeting of Citizens, consisting of Members of Local 
Boards, such as the Town Council, School Board, Parish 
Council, Chamber of Commerce, Directors of Industrial 
Schools, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 
Dundee Social Union, and also of individual citizens 
interested, was held in the Town Hall, Dundee, on 29th 
April 1910, under the presidency of The Honourable The 
Lord Provost of Dundee. Out of that meeting was formed 
the Dundee Children's Welfare Committee, which was the 
first of its kind to be formed in Scotland. Other cities 
have since followed the example of Dundee and organised 
similar societies. The Committee meets quarterly, and has 
become a centre or focus for all matters affecting child life, 
and more particularly in so far as such matters fall within 
the four corners of the Children Act. This Committee 
prepared and issued a circular containing information as 
to the grounds on which children are liable under Section 



80 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

58 (1) to be sent to certified Industrial Schools, and 
invited all parties who knew of suitable cases to send 
intimation regarding same to the Chief Constable, to whom 
the Local Authority had delegated their powers in this 
matter, who would, without further trouble to the infor- 
mant, enquire into and. if suitable, bring such cases before 
the Children's Court. It is thought that the issue of the 
circular might "help by enlightening the public as to the 
way in which they might be of assistance in carrying out 
the important provisions of that Act. Section 58 (1) (d) 
has extended the grounds for sending children to Industrial 
Schools by including the case of a child under the care of 
a parent or guardian who, by reason of criminal or drunken 
habits, is unfit to have the care of the child. Since 1st 
April 1909 no fewer than 101 children coming within the 
scope of the above provision have been sent from Dundee 
to Industrial Schools, the parent or guardian being in 
every case decerned to make payment of a sum named in 
the order towards the maintenance of the child. 

At a meeting of the Children's Welfare Committee held 
on 29th October 1910, Mr David Dewar, City Procurator- 
Fiscal, Dundee, thought that attention might be directed 
to dealing specially with the class of lads who are outwith 
the scope of the Children Act, 1908, on account of their 
having reached the age of 16, and who earn a precarious 
living by selling articles on the streets, and who lodge in 
common lodging-houses away from parental control. Volun- 
tary efforts were made to reclaim 23 of the lads referred 
to, and the result of these efforts is as follows : 3 were 
.fitted out and sent to Church of Scotland Farm Colonies. 
Of those 3, 1 was found physically unfit for farm work, 
and was subsequently sent to hospital suffering from 
phthisis ; 1 left after one night ; while the third deserted 
after three months. 1 was fitted out and sent to Malta 
House, Edinburgh, but after about three weeks he returned 
to his old haunts. 1 was fitted out and sent to a Salvation 
Army Home in Glasgow preparatory to his being trans- 
ferred to their Farm Colony at Hadleigh, Essex, but he also 
only remained one day and came back to his old haunts. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 81 

2 had suitable situations provided for them locally, and 
although persevering efforts were made to get them to 
keep at work, they were soon found following their old 
habits. 1 enlisted in the Eoyal Engineers. 3 or 4 were 
found unfit for ordinary employment on account of their 
being defective either mentally or physically. Some got 
employment in mills or factories, while others rejected 
offers of employment made to them. Those lads, it is 
contended, have a tendency to drift into crime, and it 
was suggested by Mr Dewar that the Prevention of 
Crimes Act, 1908, if amended to make persons between 
16 and 21 convicted of offences under Summary Complaint 
come under the scope of the first section of the Crimes 
Act of 1908, so as to be liable to be sent to a Borstal 
Institution, in the same way as it at present applies to 
such persons convicted on Indictment, the training which 
such an institution provides would be the means of 
reforming those lads. The Committee approved of that 
suggestion, and it was arranged that a Conference consist- 
ing of representatives of the Corporations of Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Dundee, and also representatives 
of other public bodies and of philanthropic institutions 
should be convened. The Conference was accordingly 
arranged, and was held on 28th May 1911. It was 
attended by representatives from those bodies and many 
others, when the following resolution, amongst others, was 
unanimously passed : 

"That this Conference, being convinced that voluntary 
efforts were not sufficient to bring about a reclamation of 
the members of a numerous class of young persons between 
16 and 21 years of age, which existed in all large cities in 
Scotland, who had contracted idle habits and were in danger 
of becoming criminals, recommends that the Government be 
approached with a view to getting statutory powers to permit 
Courts of Summary Jurisdiction, Scotland, within proper legal 
safeguards, to send such persons to Reformatories or other 
Institutions conducted after the manner of Borstal Institutions, 
or for some other compulsory method of reclamation being 
provided." 

The above resolution was duly forwarded to the Scottish 

F 



82 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

M.P.s and to Lord Pentland, then Secretary for Scotland, 
who was asked to receive a deputation, preferably in 
Edinburgh, with a view to inducing the Government to 
give effect to the above resolution. His Lordship replied 
that he had every sympathy with the objects of the 
Conference, but that he thought he would be in a better 
position to consider the suggestion of carrying through 
legislation on the above lines after the Borstal Institution 
which has recently been opened at Polmont had been in 
operation for some time. There this matter now rests. 

At present a person can be sent to a Borstal Institution 
for a term of not less than one year nor more than three 
years if he be convicted on Indictment of an offence for 
which he is liable to be sentenced to penal servitude or 
imprisonment, and it appears to the Court 

(a) That the person is not less than 16 nor more than 

21 years of age ; and 

(&) That by reason of his criminal habits or tendencies, 
or association with persons of bad character, it 
is expedient that he should be subject to deten- 
tion for such term and under such instruction 
and discipline as appears most conducive to his 
reformation and the repression of crime. 
Before such a sentence, however, is pronounced, the Courts 
must consider any reports or representations which may 
be made to it by or on behalf of the Prison Commissioners 
for Scotland as to the suitability of the case for treatment 
in a Borstal Institution, and must be satisfied that the 
character, state of health, and mental condition of the 
offender, and the other circumstances of the case are such 
that the offender is likely to profit by such instruction and 
discipline. 

A Borstal Institution is a place in which young offenders 
whilst detained may be given such industrial training and 
other instruction and be subjected to such disciplinary 
and moral influences as will conduce to their reformation 
and the prevention of crime. 

No definition can be given as to when an offence falls 
to be tried by Indictment or Summary Complaint. A list 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 8:> 

of some of the cases which fall to be dealt with in either 
way could be given, but offences which would ordinarily 
fall to be tried on Summary Complaint will fall to lie 
tried on Indictment if the offences are of sufficient gravity 
to warrant their being tried before a Sheriff' and a Jury, 
or before the High Court of Justiciary. Preparatory to a 
person being tried on Indictment the information in the 
case is forwarded to the Crown Office, who instruct as to 
the form of complaint. 

I think difficulties would arise in trying to amend the 
Prevention of Crimes Act, 1908, so as to meet the class of 
lads and girls beyond the age of 16 and under 21, and I 
think were a Reformatory for persons between 16 and 21 
established on the same lines, but separate, as for persons 
under 16, all that is wanted could be obtained. By 
Section 57 of the Children Act, 1908, it is enacted that 

" Where a youthful offender who in the opinion of the Court 
before which he is charged is 12 years of age or upwards but 
less than 16 years of age is convicted whether on Indictment or 
by a petty sessional Court (this means the Sheriff or any two 
or more Justices of the Peace or any Magistrate or Magistrates) 
of an offence punishable in the case of an adult with penal 
servitude or imprisonment the Court may in addition to or 
in lieu of sentencing him according to law or to any other 
punishment order that he be sent to a certified Reformatory 
School ; provided that where the offender is ordered to be sent 
to a certified Reformatory School he shall not in addition be 
sentenced to imprisonment." 

The Treasury contributes towards the expenses of any 
youthful offender or child detained in a certified industrial 
or reformatory school, and the Education Authority in the 
case of Industrial Schools, and the Town Council in the 
case of Reformatories are bound to provide for the recep- 
tion and maintenance of such children. 

It will be seen that, whatever legislation should be 
passed to deal with the class of lads now under con- 
sideration, in all likelihood the expenses will be laid upon 
the Local Authority. 

The suggestion of a Senior Reformatory occurs to me to 



84 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

be the easier way out of the present difficulty, and is in 
harmony with the spirit of the above resolution, and would 
be along the line of least resistance. In any case, the 
subject is one of very great importance to the community, 
and the efforts of the Committee and other similar Com- 
mittees which have been established elsewhere it is hoped 
will result in some appropriate legislative measure being 
passed. 




SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 85 

The Dwellings of Dundee. 

HOUSING CONDITIONS AND TOWN PLANNING PROJECTS. 



By Rev. Walter Walsh, D.D., Convener of Housing 
and Town Planning Committee. 

" MA< USTER Alexander Wedderburiie, Archigraphus, Civi- 
tatis Deidonanre " a great Town Clerk of Dundee about 
the end of the fifteenth century thus inscribed his name 
and style on the fly-leaf of the Lockit Book, and in the 
Latin tongue added this much more, " If it be thy design 
" to ornament the City by thy gifts, be thou thyself dedi- 
" cated, in the first place, to whatsoever is loveliest, and of 
" Clemency, Justice, and Beneficence thou shalt raise aloft 
"the best and most memorable monument within the 
" Republic, not merely an inconsiderable building. For if 
"Reason should rule in cities, it is better certainly for 
"great souls to inhabit small houses than for mean slaves 
" to lurk in magnificent mansions : The Euboaans and 
" Spartans did not build and repair their walls with stones 
"only, but with Discipline and Zeal for Good Morals, 
"which are the visible ornaments alike of cities and of 
" rulers. Flourishing, truly, and peaceful they made the 
" Republic, by uniting together, not logs and stones, but 
" living souls." 

A City which gave birth to a Town Clerk inspired by 
ilassic reminiscences of Epictetus on the one hand and 
iemocratic anticipations of Walt Whitman ("Where the 
" Great City stands ") on the other, such a City might be 

pected to endeavour to make its dwellings worthy of its 
pie ; and in this brave endeavour Dundee lias not been 
wanting ; with what result it is the object of the following 
pages to describe. 



% 

;:: 



86 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

PAST CONDITIONS 

The development of Dundee, considered as a community 
requiring to be housed under conditions determined by the 
social usage of one age after another, has been governed 
by the influences of Nature, War, and Trade ; and succes- 
sive Town Plans (if such an anticipation may be permitted) 
due to these influences may be roughly traced. 

In earliest times, the inhabitants lay along the level 
shore to the east of the Black Rock, bounded by the two 
burns which flowed, the one from the westward through 
the Meadows into the Tay near the point now known as 
Commercial Street, the other bickering down from the 
heights of Clepington, past the western side of Wallace 
Craigie, entering the firth near the spot where now stand 
St. Roque's Reading Rooms. The heights and hollows 
behind yielded them all the game they required, and the 
waters in front all the fish they could take. Shelter and 
a ready livelihood were the conditions that determined 
what we may describe as the first Town Plan. From the 
margin marked by our single street Seagate they caught 
their first sight of the Roman galleys, and shouted in the 
tribal wars of Scot and Pict. 

Later, having provided for defence by building their 
Castle on the Black Rock, they crept with their dwellings 
along the lower levels within the folds of the bay to St. 
Nicholas Rock on the west, making their harbour between 
the two sheltering rocks, in the place now known as 
Greenmarket. The great folk would build round the 
Castle Rock and the Harbour head ; the simple ones 
would lie along the water edge. That would be Town 
Plan number two. 

Now the developments of Trade began to exceed the 
ravages of War, so that population increased till it jammed 
itself inside the limits of the circumscribing walls, within a 
series of tunnel-like lanes and wynds ; going to air itself 
westward on the pleasant beach of Sea Braes, eastward to 
the little cliffs of Stannergate, or north to the ridge of 
Windmill Hill and the flowery slopes of the Pleasance. 
That would be the third Town Plan. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 87 

Coincident with what we may call the Wedderburne 
period, English forays and Monck massacres having 
failed to arrest its progress, Dundee overflowed its 
ancient walls, and the inhabitants began their slow move- 
ment west and north, over the heights and hollows formed 
by the Meadows and the Wards, across the rolling lands 
of Blackness and Corbie Hill, bending round between 
Balgay and the Law through the umbrageous vale of 
Logie Den to meet or make Lochee, swarming up the 
slopes of Law Hill and over the eastern shoulder to 
Clepington, so joining hands with the ancient barony of 
Rotten Raw, now also creeping northwards, then sweeping 
into Strath Martin to link up with Downfield and Baldovan. 
This may be described as Town Plan number four, bring- 
ing us to our own time, within sight of the Greater Dundee, 
which will lie, bonnily and healthfully, between the sand- 
dunes and flowery links of Monifieth on the east to 
Invergowrie Bay on the west, and north to the sunny 
slopes of the Sidlaw Hills, housing a community of twice 
its present number. With that enlivening glance into the 
future we turn to describe the actuality of to-day. 

The housing of the Dundee of 1912 involves the pro- 
vision of dwellings fit for human habitation for no fewer 
than 165,044 people, being the population estimated to 
the middle of 1911. Available for this purpose is a 
Burgh area of 4,881 acres, which does not include 400 
acres of foreshore, and gives an average density of 33*8 
persons to the acre, and an average standing -ground 
for each separate inhabitant of 14'3 square yards. The 
unequal distribution of the population, from a few persons 
per acre in one place to many hundreds in another, will 
be dealt with later. Of the gross area of 5,281 acres, 
400 consist of foreshore and 33 1 of Parks and Cemeteries, 
leaving 4,549^ acres available for domestic and business 
purposes. Of this, again, the City owns 44 acres, about 
half of which are occupied by departmental yards, offices, 
and other permanent buildings. Land yet unbuilt on 
amounts to about 2,500 acres. Locomotion and transit 
are provided by 648 roads and streets, aggregating over 
90 miles, 8 miles of which are tree-planted. 



88 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

As a walled City, ancient Dundee sent down to posterity 
a full proportion of that congested area which is the 
greatest burden of modern communities, described by the 
present Lord Provost as "terrible congestion in certain 
parts of the City." Into these " black spots " had been 
crushed populations varying in degree of density up to 962 
persons per acre. It was therefore to be expected that 
Dundee would stand high in the unenviable scale of 
pauperism, tuberculosis, infant mortality, and general 
death-rate. We now know that these evils are exactly 
and statistically in proportion to the amount of over- 
crowding into dark, damp, ill-ventilated dwellings with 
their almost inevitable concomitants of slovenliness, dirt, 
and drunkenness. Enlightened by the principles of social 
science, the Town Council has, in recent times, pursued a 
steady policy which, after the manner of Carlyle, may be 
called a " diffusion-of-the-people-policy." By successive 
Improvement schemes, by firm enforcement of the laws 
against insanitary dwellings, and by the encouragement of 
cottage building in the outlying districts, the congested 
populations have diminished by about 20 per cent. 
Further extensions of the same policy are in contempla- 
tion. The problem for Dundee is how to secure a fuller 
economic use of its natural advantages, and at the same 
time a fuller social existence for its industrial dwellers. 

The influence of the principal local industry has un- 
doubtedly told in the direction of monotony and dreariness 
so far as the dwellings of the working people were con- 
cerned ; whilst at the same time its distinctively Scottish 
methods have saved the town from the long miles of 
uniform desolation one sees in the working people districts 
of the larger English towns. The Scottish system of 
housing has vices enough of its own; though deadly 
dulness is perhaps not one of them. The great numerical 
preponderance of women employed in the jute trade 
necessitates that a large number remain unmarried and 
live on with their parents, which, again, tends to over- 
crowding into the two-roomed type of house. The single- 
roomed, or " attic," house is encouraged by the number of 
elderly unmarried women. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 89 

In addition to much old property, Dundee possesses a 
considerable number of " back lands," i.e., dwellings 
which are connected with the street only by a " pend " or 
" close." Some of these are of comparatively recent date ; 
but it is certain the Local Authorities will in future regard 
unfavourably the erection of houses having no direct street 
frontage. 

The sum of these local influences has been aggravated 
by the past general indifference to Town Planning from 
which all communities alike have suffered, Dundee not 
less than others. The mass of rookeries inherited from of 
old has been emulated by the modern crowded tenement, 
which, in its turn, has been elbowed by the mill and jostled 
by the factory, relieved from which the worker vanished 
into the adjacent "close " or "pend," and this, up to quite 
recent times, represented industrial Dundee. Thanks to the 
happier ideas of our time, it is certain that such districts 
as that lying between Lochee Road and Hawkhill can 
never be repeated. 



THE TENEMENT SYSTEM. 

The influence of the Scottish tenement, as indicative of 
the peculiar housing habit of the Scottish people, ought 
not to be overlooked. The four-storey " land " or tene- 
ment, with a population of 400 per acre, is, unluckily, not 
yet banned by Local Authorities, with the result that 
some so-called " Improvements " have actually produced 
greater congestion than they were designed to remedy. 
In the Perth Road district, to give one instance, old 
dwellings of the self-contained cottage type, housing less 
than 100 to the acre, have made room for imposing four- 
deckers, housing four times that number. Such buildings 
look well for a few years, and attract the most self- 
respecting part of the population ; but when they lose 
their freshness they pass to a lower grade of tenant, and 
yet lower ; and we can see the process of slum-creation 
under our very noses. In Blackness and 



90 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Clepington also the typical Scottish tenement can be 
studied, running in straight rows against the sky-line, 
practically sunless in the ground-Hats, compelling the 
children to play and the way-farer to pass as if between 
two tall, draught-creating, and sun-obstructing stone 
dykes, almost completely blocking out the fine views of 
the Sidlaw hills on the north, or the stretches of the Tay 
on the south. From other points of view the populous 
" land " is objectionable. By diminishing the sense of 
responsibility among tenants it is less favourable to clean- 
liness, while it increases the liability to friction It can- 
not fail to have injurious effects upon the housewives one 
continually meets toiling up and down those numerous 
nights of stairs with babies, or with baskets of clothes to 
and from the wash-house. Notoriously, it presents all the 
conditions favourable to consumption. The tenement 
system will probably survive in Dundee for a long time to 
come, but the newer tendency towards the cottage type of 
dwelling "one family one house" will gradually modify 
it, restrict its number of storeys, and break its straight 
line up into groups affording the maximum of sun and air 
and of the views beyond. The Municipal Authorities may 
be expected to encourage that evolution. 



HOUSING CONDITIONS. 

The foregoing general description makes luminous a 
closer statistical study of the housing conditions of the 
City. 

A table (which follows) compiled from the Valuation 
Iloll by the Police Treasurer shews the total dwelling- 
houses within the Burgh to be 41,292 (of which 2,893 are 
unlet), and the total rental 408,773 (of which (21,661 
represents the unlet rentals). The detailed rents afford a 
clear index to the relative poverty and wealth of the 
inhabitants, The Poor Law Authorities calculate that 
there are upwards of 10,000 dwellings in Dundee rented 
at 5 and under. 



SOCIAL SEKVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 



91 



NUMBER AND VALUE OF DWELLING-HOUSES. 



YEAR 


1911-1912. 


UNLETS. 


CLASSIFICATION. 


No. 


Rental. 


No. 


Rental. 


Dwelling-Houses 












Under 5 


7,700 


29,391 


989 


3,492 


Of 5 and not ex. 7 - 


11,123 


67,055 


846 


4,929 


Above 1 , 10 - 


11,491 


97,654 


558 


4,643 


, 10 , 15 - 


6,010 


74,162 


347 


4,256 


, 15 , 21 - 


1,877 


33,350 


55 


962 


21 30 - 


1,284 


32,823 


37 


977 


30 , 40 - 


626 


22,349 


16 


567 


40 , 60 - 


443 


22,266 


8 


417 


60 , 100 - 


179 


13,639 


7 


558 


100 


51 


8,522 


3 


530 




40,784 


401,211 


2,866 


21,331 


Dwelliug-Houses with Byres, 










Stables, etc. 


64 


1,812 


(included above.) 


"Dwelling-Houses and Shops 
Not exceeding 10 


221 


1,864 


11 


92 


Above 10 and not ex. 21 


196 


2,773 


13 


170 


21 


27 


1,113 


3 


68 


Total 


41,292 


408,773 


2,893 


21,661 



Further analysis (from the " Keport of an Enquiry by 
the Board of Trade," 1908, p. 593) discloses the percent- 
ages of the total population occupying houses of 

One Eoom to be 11 '3 per cent., 1 ao 

m T> i-ii- h = oo per cent., 

Two Rooms to be 51*7 per cent.,] 

Three Rooms to be 20*1 per cent., 

Four Rooms to be 6*6 per cent., 

Five or more Rooms to be 10*3 per cent. 

The total dwellings, viz., 41,292, being distributed in 
varying degrees of density over the area of 4,881 acres, 
yield an average of 845 dwellings per acre. Considering, 
li"w*ver, that the built-on land amounts to only 2,781 
acres, the actual density of dwellings is 14'8. 

The predominant Rents of Dundee houses, calculated on 
u weekly basis, and adding Rates, are stated (Board of 
Trade Report, p. 520) as : 



92 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Single Eooms, 2s. to 2s. 3d. 

(Or up to 2s. 6d. for Single Room and Bed Closet, or 
two Attics. In older and more crowded districts, 
as necessary in a City where the staple trade is 
low-wage, single rooms can be had for Is. 6d., or 
even less.) 
Two Eooms, 3s. to 4s. 9d. 

(The wide range here also is accounted for by differ- 
ences in wage and locality.) 
Three Eooms, 5s. 2d. to 7s. Id. 
Four Eooms, 7s. lOd. to 9s. 5d. 

(Eents vary a little according to flat occupied.) 

As compared with other Scottish towns, taking Edinburgh 

as the standard and 100 as the index number, the place of 

Dundee is seen to be 92, so that the City shares with 

Greenock the third highest place in the scale of rental : 

Edinburgh - - 100 

Glasgow 99 

Greenock 92 

Dundee 92 

Falkirk - 91 

Paisley 90 

Aberdeen 84 

Perth 76 

The internal arrangements of Dundee houses are deter- 
mined by the prevailing type of tenement, and conform to 
type with almost unbroken regularity. We have seen 
that 63 per cent, of the inhabitants live in houses of two 
rooms or under. This is the result of the expensive stone 
tenement system, which tends to crowding, though it 
also gives larger apartments. But the advantage of the 
larger kitchen is neutralised, in turn, by the unwholesome 
Scottish habit of having a bed in it, always used in pre- 
ference to " the room." In the newer tenements a recess is 
generally made for the bedstead, happily, as yet, never 
enclosed. In houses of three apartments, the parlour 
sometimes contains an enclosed bed-recess ; but more 
generally a folding bed is used. In more recent dwellings, 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 93 

the kitchens measure about 13 or 14 feet by 11 feet, with 
hot and cold water scullery, and the rooms 12 or 14 feet 
square. The required height is 9 feet 6 inches on the 
ground floor and 9 feet on the floors above. Some of the 
newer tenements are equipped with water-closets in each 
house, more rarely with a bathroom. In general, how- 
ever, the closets are on the stairs, sometimes one for each 
family, more usually one for the two or four families on 
each flat. Each tenement is supplied with a wash-house 
and some kind of back space or drying ground. The 
drying of clothes is accomplished by means of a tall pole 
erected in the rear, to which ropes run on blocks from the 
kitchen windows. In rare cases, a drying chamber is 
fitted under ground, with direct ventilation. 

MUNICIPAL EFFORT. 

It is noticeable that the Municipal rulers of Dundee, 
singularly advanced and successful as they are in varied 
Municipal enterprises, have not hitherto seen the necessity 
of embarking upon any scheme of Municipal housing. It 
is held that the number of unlet subjects proves the 
demand to be fully met by private enterprise. For similar 
reasons, it has established no Municipal lodging-house, 
contenting itself with the supervision of several privately- 
managed houses. Municipal land-ownership is in the 
same position, the civic rulers contenting themselves with 
the purchase of lands necessary for parks, cemeteries, 
offices, and yards. The Small Dwellings Acquisition Act, 
1899 (which empowers the Town Council to advance loans 
for house purchase) has not been put into operation. No 
" Public Utility " or "Co-partnership " company has under- 
taken to develop any local estate. No Trade Union has 
invested its funds in dwellings for its members. Through 
Building Society operations a small number of working 
men, something under 200, have become the owners of the 
houses they occupy ; while 80 per cent., or something like 
1,000, of the "villa" residents i.e., those rented at 30 
and upwards are, it is calculated, owners as well as 



94 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

occupiers of their dwellings. So far as the housing of its 
people is concerned, Dundee has trusted unreservedly to 
private enterprise. 

On the other hand, the Local Authorities have made 
efforts to guard against the possible defects of private 
ownership, by stricter enforcement of the laws against 
insanitary properties. Profiting by the experience of 
other cities, they have not proceeded by way of the 
wholesale purchase and clearing of insanitary areas, either 
under the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890, or 
the Housing and Town Planning Act, 1909. The City's 
" slum crusades," as they are popularly called, have been 
carried out under the local " Police and Improvement 
Consolidation Act, 1882." The large heritage of decayed 
property has already been referred to. As is to be ex- 
pected from the nature of its staple trade, Dundee possesses- 
a full average of persons afflicted with the baneful slum- 
habit, who detest the Sanitary Inspector almost as much 
as they do the landlord. The policy of the Town Council 
is to keep the property owner up to the level of the legal 
requirements on the one hand, and on the other hand to 
improve the social feeling of the tenant. From time to 
time the Council has made inroads upon dwellings proved 
to be injurious to health, or unfit for human habitation, 
has entirely closed many, and has caused the owners to 
improve many more. During the last four years they 
have entirely closed 298 houses with a population of 836 
persons, and have caused the owners to improve 800 others 
with a population of about 4,000. This is the steady 
policy it is likely to pursue with the approbation of the 
public, and the co-operation of the landlords themselves, 
who are usually quite alive to the advantages all round of 
the policy and ready to co-operate. 

When it comes to the demolition of insanitary dwellings, 
difficulties again arise peculiar to the Scottish tenement 
system. The buildings are tall, enduring, costly ; one flat 
may remain habitable while the rest are decayed, or vice 
versa; the decayed portion may get a new lease of life 
through being turned into a store or workshop ; shops on 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 95 

the street front make clearance costly, and prevent that 
process of " loop-holing," or cutting away one house out of 
three, by which some English towns have let light and 
air into their most congested areas. For these reasons, a 
Scottish Town Council is almost forced back upon the 
policy of clearing whole areas by Improvement schemes. 
Dundee Town Council is even now considering an exten- 
sive scheme of central improvement which will have the 
effect, if carried out, of entirely removing one of the City's 
" black spots," dishousing some hundreds of families, for 
whom other dwellings must be provided, either by the 
Municipality or by private enterprise. 

TOWN PLANNING. 

While availing itself of existing powers to improve the 
housing of the existing City, Dundee Town Council is 
alert to protect the City of the future against similar 
errors by utilising the Housing and Town Planning Act, 
1909. Anticipating that Act, the Town Council, in 1907, 
appointed a Special Committee to enquire into the whole 
question of Housing as it affected Dundee, and a Keport 
was presented which contained an exhaustive examination 
of the City's powers under the various Acts, both local and 
general, making also definite recommendations under three 
heads : (1) The improvement of the existing City ; (2) the 
planning of the unbuilt-on areas ; (3) Municipal methods, 
especially the creation of a permanent Housing and Town 
Planning Committee. 

The Housing and Town Planning Committee, which was 
thus constituted in 1907, took over from the Public 
Health Committee the responsibility of dealing with 
insanitary properties. In addition, it was entrusted with 
the administration of the Town Planning powers con- 
ferred by the Act of 1909. Since that time, the City has 
steadily pursued a policy of gradual and opportune im- 
provement of the older areas, as described in the previous 
paragraphs, while planning the City of the Future on the 
yet unbuilt areas. Town plans for three small districts 



96 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

are already passing through their constitutional stages, 
preparatory to receiving the sanction of the Local Govern- 
ment Board ; and first steps have already been taken for 
the preparation of a Plan for the entire Burgh. The City 
Engineer's first draft now hangs in the Committee Boom 
of the Town House. 

A large part of the City area being yet unbuilt on, 
Dundee has a great opportunity for Town Planning ; and 
the undeveloped territory possesses, moreover, so many 
natural advantages such " amenities " as the Town 
Planning Act desiderates that future extensions cannot 
fail to avoid the mistakes of the past, and to embody 
housing ideals that could not have been expected from an 
earlier generation. If old Dundee presents some of the 
anachronisms common to all ancient cities, new Dundee 
holds the promise of surpassing most of its compeers ; and 
there is a manifest desire on the part both of Local 
Authorities and private landlords to realise the potentialities 
of the situation. By common consent and co-operation 
the development of the City on Garden Suburb lines is 
proceeding with all the despatch permitted by the some- 
what slow r growth of the population. A ramble through 
the newer parts of Blackness, Downfield, Maryfield, or 
Craigie will furnish examples of general estate lay-out, or 
of individual house architecture, which would confer 
additional credit upon Bournville or Port Sunlight. With 
the industrial development of the City, the artisan Garden 
Suburb will fill a larger portion of the scene. District 
plans are ready and waiting, pigeon-holed in various 
architects' offices, provided for in the City Engineer's draft 
Town Plan. The complete, elastic, and low-fare Tramway 
system of Dundee lends itself admirably to Garden Suburb 
schemes ; and these, by attracting the better-paid worker 
from the centre to the outskirts, satisfying his just social 
aspirations, will also bring sure relief to the poorer 
labourers compelled by work or poverty to live at the 
centre, by promoting a general move up, the poorest 
gradually rising to the better dwellings vacated by those who 
have migrated higher or to the Garden Suburb,every stratum 
being raised, the population being spread out, the slums fall- 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 97 

ing into disuse, and the City becoming, as Aristotle defined 
it, "a place where men live a common life for a noble end." 
With the revival in local industry, bringing increase of 
population and stimulation of building, Dundee may be 
trusted to realise the possibilities of its unexcelled natural 
situation and the projects of its more advanced citizens. 
Within the semi-circle extending from the umbrageous 
slopes of Balgay on the west, sweeping round by the 
plains of Strath Martin on the north, to the wave-washed 
Strips of Craigie on the east, lie all the possibilities of a 
real City Beautiful, which the Authorities are fully minded 
to secure by well-considered schemes of Town Planning. 
A walk east and west, say, by Perth Road, or along the 
higher shoulder of Blackness, or round to the noble heights 
of Clepington with, on the north, glorious views of the 
hills, and, on the south, far vistas of the river widening 
out into the Firth and great North Sea, such a walk will 
reveal possibilities of health and beauty capable of making 
Dundee the envied among the cities of our native land. 
And if the pilgrim will ascend to the summit of Balgay 
Hill, and from thence survey the unrivalled prospect of 
plain and hill, of sea and inland water ; or, crossing to the 
yet higher summit of Dundee Law, allow his eyes to roam 
over the magnificent panorama extending from the Carse 
o' (rowrie on the west to the German Ocean, with Buddon 
Ness and Bell Rock on the east ; and the great Grampian 
chain Schiehallion, Ben-y-gloe, Ben-Macdhui encircling 
him on the north, and southwards, at his feet Tay's watery 
plain, with, beyond, the Fife hills the Lomonds, Norman's 
Law, Largo Law, sloping far down to a gigantic needle- 
point at the East Neuk, across the great Bay of St. 
Andrews, at the head of which the historic city beckons 
with all its towers over the shoulder of Scotscraig the 
pilgrim who will do this may be heard admiringly to 
adapt the words of King Duncan before the Castle of 
Madieth, murmuring to himself 

" This [city] hath a pleasant seat : the air 
Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself 
Unto our gentle senses." 
G 



98 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 



What Dundee Contributes to the Empire. 

By H. T. Templeton, "Dundee Courier." 

DUNDEE'S contribution to the British Empire is a large 
and an honourable one. The City has given and continues 
to give of her best to His Majesty's forces, and to the 
services, and Dundonians constitute a gratifying proportion 
of those enterprising Scots who in the Colonies and 
Dependencies are assisting to build and consolidate the 
outposts. Greater commercial diversity would undoubtedly 
have accelerated the City's material prosperity, but 
through all the cycles and tides of trade there is no sign 
of decadence in her population. Their outlook is wide, 
their temperament optimistic, and this is in accordance 
with the City's traditions In trade and commerce Dundee 
is more than " the place where they make the marmalade," 
or even the centre of the jute trade in the United 
Kingdom. Shipbuilding at the port, although not on the 
scale that could be where facilities second to none are 
possible, is nevertheless a very nourishing industry. It 
is a strong link with the distant parts of the Empire and 
the world at large. Dundee built ships are to be found 
on every sea, and in recent years the number of vessels 
constructed for owners in British possessions has been 
very gratifying. Into the Arctic regions, away from the 
beaten tracks of navigation, Dundee ships each year carry 
the British flag. Of the whaling industry in the Arctic, 
Dundee practically holds a monopoly. The City is thus 
no mere parochial community, sleeping on a river bank 
and knowing nothing of the mighty ocean beyond. 
Dundee's interests are world-wide. Patriotism and love 
of nationality have ever dominated the inhabitants, and 
recent history proves that these admirable qualities still 
animate them. This was unequivocally demonstrated 
when the South African War broke out. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 99 

DUNDEE AND THE ROYAL NAVY. 

The establishment of a submarine base at Dundee has 
quickened the interest in naval affairs in the district. 
Ten years ago the arrival of a torpedo boat in the Tay 
was so unusual that its presence amounted almost to a 
nine days' wonder, but now, due to the establishment 
permanently of a gunboat and a submarine flotilla, such 
a state of affairs has passed away. 

Yet Dundee had an honourable connection with the 
navy of an earlier period chiefly through the great 
victory at Camperdown by Admiral Duncan, a native 
of Dundee, and ancestor of the Earl of Camper- 
down. The victory at Camperdown was nearly as 
important as Lord Nelson's achievement at Trafalgar, and 
had almost as far reaching effects. Adam Duncan, the 
future Admiral, was born in 1731 in a house long since 
demolished in the Seagate of Dundee, and was the son of 
Alexander Duncan of Lundie, then Provost of the town. 
The Town House is a monument to the latter's memory, 
the building being begun during his tenure of office. 
Adam Duncan joined the frigate Shoreham, then com- 
manded by his cousin, Captain Haldane. It was a century 
of war, and to use Duncan's own phrase, he got " into the 
midst of the enemy " in the many fights for the supremacy 
of the sea. He was raised to the rank of Admiral at a 
critical season. The American Colonies had been lost, 
Ireland was in rebellion, Holland had formed an alliance 
with France and Spain, and Great Britain stood alone 
against the nations of Europe. In February 1795, Duncan 
became Commander-in-Chief of the North Sea Fleet, and 
for a whole year he blockaded Texel, where the Dutch 
Fleet was anchored, and keeping it securely in the road- 
stead, he thereby defeated the proposed invasion of Ireland. 
When the mutiny at the Nore broke out, Admiral Duncan 
was deserted in front of the enemy by all his ships with 
the exception of the Adamant and his own ship the 
Venerable. With his own vessel and the Adamant he 
continued to blockade Texel, manoeuvring and signalling 
as if the whole fleet were at hand to support him, and by 



100 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

that ruse he succeeded in deceiving the enemy who never 
knew that they were being kept at bay by only two 
vessels. When the mutiny was suppressed Duncan was 
joined by the rest of the fleet, and on October llth, 1797, 
the battle of Camperdown was fought. The battle raged 
for three hours, and in the course of it a terrific duel 
occurred between the Venerable and the Vryhaid, which 
had on board De Winter, the Dutch Admiral. De 
Winter's ship was totally dismasted, while the Venerable 
lost her main top gallant mast, and this brought down 
the Admiral's flag. An incident which can never fade 
followed Duncan nailed his colours to the mast. That 
memorable event is the subject of the following lines 
attributed by Lady Jane Hamilton to the Marquis of 
Wellesley : 

" At three o'clock nine mighty ships 
Had struck their colours proud, 
And two brave Admirals at his feet 
Their vanquished Hags had bowed. 

Our Duncan's towering colours streamed 

All honoured to the last, 
For in the battle's fiercest rage 

He nailed them to the mast." 

The carnage on board De Winter's ship was dreadful, 
every man on the poop being either killed or wounded, 
except De Winter, who on seeing that further resistance 
was impossible struck his flag to Admiral Duncan. 

At Camperdown House there is a very interesting 
collection of relics. On the walls of the public rooms 
are displayed numerous paintings of the battle and 
portraits of the Admiral. Among the art treasures 
is a large picture, painted by J. S. Copley, E.A., 
representing the scene on the quarter-deck of the 
Venerable when the Dutch Admiral De Winter surrendered 
his sword to Admiral Duncan. The painting hangs on 
the wall of the grand staircase, and was purchased by the 
Camperdown family for 1000. An outstanding relic is 
Admiral Duncan's sword, and in the case beside it are the 
swords captured from the Dutch Admirals, De Winter, 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 101 

Reyntijes, and Meuren. Among other relics are the bell 
of De Winter's flagship, a gold medal presented by the 
nation to Admiral Duncan, and a decoration of the Order 
of St. Alexander Newsky presented by the Emperor of 
Russia. The centenary of Camperdown was celebrated in 
Dundee in 1897, when the Earl of Camperdown was 
presented with the freedom of the City in recognition of 
the services given to the nation by his gallant ancestor, 
and of the interest which his Lordship has taken in 
promoting the prosperity of Dundee. 

During the Napoleonic Wars a naval officer (originally 
a Lieutenant, but later an officer of the 'rank of Captain) 
was stationed at Dundee on Impress Service. When 
Dundee was visited in 1844 by Queen Victoria with the 
Royal yacht Victoria and Albert, Her Majesty was 
attended by a squadron of warships, and Captain John 
Washington, R.N., reporting on the occasion to the 
Admiralty on the Tay Navigation said : " As this road- 
stead has no name on the Admiralty plans . of the river, 
we have ventured to call it Queen's Road in remembrance 
of Her Majesty's auspicious visit to this part of Scotland. 
. . . The alterations and improvements in the sea face 
of the town of Dundee since the date of Captain Slater's 
survey in 1833 are great; but compared with its state 
within the memory of man ' when its harbour was a 
crooked wall enclosing but a few fishing or smuggling 
craft,' they almost exceed belief every requisite for a 
first-class commercial port. The good result of such 
enterprise and energy, directed by a skilful engineer, is 
shown by more than doubled revenue of the port and the 
increase in the number of the shipping that frequent it : 
In June 1833, the total revenue was 10,291 ; in June 1844, 
it was 23,895, while the number of shipping had increased 
to 3,791, having a burthen of 272,239 tons." In an 
appendix to a report of Commissioners appointed in 1842 to 
inquire into tidal harbours, there is a communication from 
Mr John Sturrock, Dundee, urging the suitability of the 
port as a depot for the construction and repair of war 
steamers. That demand is still made. The immense 



102 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

improvements effected in the interval and the great 
dredging schemes in contemplation will provide a water 
way sufficient for the launching of the largest ships. 

The submarine base at Dundee has familiarised the 
people with naval affairs and naval methods. Navymen 
are constantly in our streets, and as many of them reside 
in the town they have in a measure become an organic 
part of Dundee, and have an interest in its welfare and 
progress. Under the arrangement entered into between the 
Admiralty and Dundee Harbour Board, a rent of 4000 a 
year is paid for the use of the West Graving Dock and 
the half of King William Dock. The Graving Dock is 
used for the repair and overhaul of naval craft, and the 
submarines can be berthed 'in the dock, and also have 
moorings in the river off Newport. The flotilla consists 
of twelve submarines, the parent ship Vulcan, and one 
gunboat, and there is usually a destroyer in attendance. 
The base necessitates keeping at the port a complement 
of 600 navymen, a considerable proportion of whom reside 
in Dundee. Of the total, 500 officers and men have 
quarters on board H.M.S. Vulcan moored near the Fife 
shore off Newport. The Vulcan is of 6,620 tons dis- 
placement, her engines are of 12,000 I.H.P., and her speed 
is eighteen knots. Next there is the torpedo gunboat 
Hebe, which has a speed of nineteen knots. The sub- 
marines have each a displacement of 380 tons, and attain 
an average speed of fourteen knots. The engines are 
driven by petrol when the craft are on the surface, and by 
electricity when they are moving under water. On board 
each submarine are two lieutenants and a crew of fourteen 
-men. These interesting vessels can dive safely to a depth 
of 100 feet they would withstand the pressure at an even 
greater depth and sufficient air can be stored to keep the 
crew alive for eighty hours under water. But the submarine 
is really only effective as an assailant at an average 
depth of eighteen feet, and it is at this depth that the 
practice takes place. Fitted with two torpedo tubes each 
submarine carries out very frequent practice with torpedoes, 
and attacks are also made on the various vessels attached 



SOCIAL SEKVICE AND CITY PKOBLEMS. 103 

to the flotilla. The practice takes place in the North Sea, 
dummy heads being attached to the torpedoes, and the 
flotilla makes periodic cruises on the East Coast of Scot- 
land, visiting Aberdeen, Invergordon, and other ports. 

As showing the interest which the Admiralty takes in 
Dundee, it should be stated that under the Harbour Act 
of 1911 the Admiralty obtained a seat on the Harbour 
Board, and their representative is Commander Donald J. 
Munro, R.N., King's Harbour-Master at Kosyth. 

In many districts of Scotland the claims and attractions 
of the Navy have not been brought so vividly before 
young men as those of the Army, and that has doubtless 
much to do with the disproportion of recruits for the 
Navy when contrasted with the Army. A higher standard 
is, of course, insisted on for admission to the first line of 
offence and defence, and as practically everything is done by 
machinery on board a modern ship muscle merely does not 
suffice. Intelligence is needed, and experience shows that 
the young artisans and shop assistants of fair education 
who have gone into the Navy from Dundee have made good 
progress. In most districts of the country the rejections 
largely outnumber the admissions, and in this neighbour- 
hood faulty teeth have barred the admission of many 
likely youths. But these are days of change, and now 
that the School Board have a fully equipped medical 
department it is believed that a corollary will be an 
increased standard of health, and while what are known 
as the home ports will always have a pull over all other 
parts of the country in relation to the Navy, Dundee may 
be expected to contribute more liberally in suitable men. 
The existence of the submarine base will undoubtedly 
give an impetus to recruiting. 

Dundee is one of the few ports in these islands which 
can boast of having a share in the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve. There are but three such ports in Scotland 
Go van (the headquarters), Greenock, and Dundee, the 
iMmdee Companies forming part of the Clyde Division. 
The Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve was established by 
Act of Parliament in 1903, and through the agency of the 



104 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROPLEMS. 

force an increased interest in the Royal Navy and in 
naval matters has been stimulated. The men who join it 
become closely associated with the fleet. Under the terms 
of enlistment they undertake to serve and are liable to be 
called upon to serve in any part of the world, and whereas 
the territorials never lose their identity as units, the 
Eoyal Naval Reserve men are automatically absorbed in 
the Navy. When the Dundee Company was formed 
nine years ago the numbers did not exceed forty, but 
there has in the interval been practically continuous 
growth until to-day the strength has reached 200 men 
divided into two companies with a complement of ten 
officers. A high standard of intelligence is essential 
to the making of an efficient naval volunteer. The work 
is of a kind which needs men who can be trusted to be of 
service to the country on board ship in time of war. The 
recruits are drawn principally from the young artisan 
class, preferably shipwrights, mechanics, engineers, painters, 
and plumbers, and the training not only fits them for naval 
service but contributes to their efficiency as craftsmen. 
The home training takes place on board the old wooden 
wall Unicorn and on the river Tay, and the men have 
opportunity from time to time of embarking for sea 
training on a Dreadnought for optional periods of fourteen 
or twenty-eight days. The enlistment is for a period of 
three years, and the minimum number of drills is forty 
the first year and twenty-five in each of the succeeding 
years. The Dundee men do not work upon the minimum 
plan, the average number of drills put in last year being 
seventy- six. The training adheres as closely as possible 
to the scheme for the training of recruits in the Navy, 
and consists chiefly of gunnery, seamanship, signalling, 
boatwork, rowing, sailing, steering, and using the log and 
line. When the men ship for temporary training in the 
Navy they are regarded as part of the Dreadnought's 
crew, and they have there the advantage of tuition under 
special instructors. About one-third of the Dundee 
Companies are afloat each year on His Majesty's battle- 
ships. When at sea these men can do well for themselves 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 105 

in remuneration as well as training. If they succeed in 
passing the examination set for the particular trade they 
profess they are accorded the naval trade certificate a 
diploma which carries with it the standing of an artificer, 
and as such the young man at sea is not only given his 
naval pay but the naval standard of payment for his 
capacity as an artisan should he be employed as such on 
board. 

The Dundee Companies have seven guns, viz., a 6 inch 
q.f.c., a 47, a 5 inch b.L, a 3 pounder Hotchkiss, a 12 
pounder field gun, a Maxim, and a Nordenfeldt, along with 
a 6 inch loading teacher, and the sailing craft include a 
steam pinnace, two cutters, three whalers, and a dinghy. 
The Companies have had a number of distinctions. They 
supplied the guards of honour on various occasions when 
Queen Alexandra embarked at Dundee for Denmark and 
Norway, and a number of Dundee men were on board 
H.M.S. Venus when King George (then Prince of Wales) 
visited Canada on the occasion of the Tercentenary of 
Quebec. A common experience is that after having been 
associated with the Dundee Companies for four or five 
years, many of the men seek to discover personal advance- 
ment in the Colonies and their training is thus not lost to 
the Empire. Lieutenant Commander H. S. Glenny, who 
had command of the Dundee Companies until a few 
months ago, was the officer in charge of each of the 
Guards of Honour, and as senior officer he was selected 
for the command of the men from the Division who went 
to Canada. Mr Eobert Still now holds the post of 
Lieutenant Commander of the Dundee Companies. 

A branch of the Navy League was established in 
Dundee in 1898 chiefly through the exertions of Com- 
mander Maitlaml Dougall, RN. The branch has a 
membership of sixty, and seeks to inspire interest in the 
Navy by lectures and the distribution of literature. 

Dundee's connection with the Royal Navy is of out- 
standing importance in another way. There is not a ship 
in His Majesty's fleet which does not bear the impress of 
Dundee, because it is here that the bulk of the canvas is 



106 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

made for the Admiralty, just as the War Office has 
annually to make a call upon Dundee for tent duck and 
kindred articles for the Army. According to an official 
communication issued by the Admiralty for the purposes 
of this article, " the greater part of the ships' canvas for 
the Royal Navy has been for many years and is still 
manufactured at Dundee." Various firms, including the 
Boase Spinning Company, Ltd., have a share of this 
Government work. The contract is very largely under- 
taken by Messrs Baxter Bros. & Co., Ltd., Dens 
Works, a firm which has an honourable connection with 
Dundee, and gives employment to about 4000 operatives. 
The canvas contract consists of the following Royal 
Navy canvas (for sails), Merchant Navy canvas (for 
awnings), duck (for seamen's clothing), hammock cloth, 
sheetings, osnaburgs (for coverings for beds), coal sack 
cloth, Navy hessian, biscuit bagging, and twines. The 
Government canvas contract runs into hundreds of 
thousands of yards, and the annual Dundee canvas output 
would stretch from the city to London and far beyond it. 
In order to produce a high class and servicable canvas, 
especially for sails, the yarns have to be carefully selected 
and boiled, and it says much for the Dundee manufactured 
article that it has for so long been in such high repute in 
the Navy. 

One of the Members of Parliament for Dundee, Mr 
Edmund Robertson, K.C.. LLD., D.L. (afterwards Lord 
Lochee of Gowrie), had a seat on the Board of Admiralty, 
from 23rd August 1892 to 3rd July 1895 as Civil Lord, 
and from 21st December 1905 to 15th April 1908 as 
Parliamentary and Financial Secretary. The present First 
Lord of the Admiralty, the Right Hon. Winston S. Churchill, 
M.P., has represented Dundee in Parliament since May 
1908. 

The Mars training ship has long been a feature of the 
Tay. Anchored off the Fife shore at a point to the east of 
the Tay Bridge, the Mars was brought to the Tay in 
1869 at the instigation of the late Mr W. E. Baxter, then 
First Secretary to the Admiralty. The Mars, which is the 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 107 

property of the Admiralty, has a tonnage of 3842, and 
under the charge of Captain-Superintendent Scott, has an 
average of 400 boys on board. Mr Baxter, who was 
Member for the Montrose Burghs for precisely thirty 
years, was First Secretary to the Admiralty from 18th 
December 1868 to llth July 1870, and Parliamentary 
Secretary from 12th July 1870 to 16th March 1871. 

DUNDEE AND THE ARMY. 

While the patriotic instinct remains with the Scottish 
people they will always regard with pride the response 
Scottish Volunteers made to the Empire's call in the days 
of the South African War. In that magnificent rally to 
the colours Dundee Volunteers were not surpassed by any 
other district. On the call for Volunteers for the front 
the Dundee officers had shoals of applications from young 
men ablaze with military enthusiasm. The task of the 
officers delegated to select the active service detachments 
was difficult because of the large number of men sound in 
physique and efficient in training presenting themselves 
for enrolment. When the active service draft was picked 
and ready to join the regiment all classes showed an 
interest in the preparations. Encouraged by the wide- 

>read desire that they should be fitly honoured, the 
town Council bestowed on the Volunteers the freedom of 
the City. This ceremony took place on 18th January 
1900, the burgess tickets bearing that the freedom of the 
jity was conferred in recognition of the men's patriotism 
in volunteering for active service in the South African 
War. Each man was presented by Mr William Hunter, 
then Lord Provost, with a silver commemorative 

ledal. The detachment left Dundee amid a demonstra- 
tion of unsurpassed enthusiasm. At Perth the Dundee 

mtingent joined the active service company, composed 
of complements from the various Black Watch Volunteer 
Battalions, and proceeded to South Africa. Two smaller 
contingents left later. The Volunteers marched through 
the Orange Free State to Bloemfontein where they joined 



108 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

the Highland Brigade. One of the principal events they 
participated in was the enveloping movement which 
resulted in the capture of General Prinsloo and some 
4000 Boers at Fouriesberg. 

Dundee has an enviable reputation as a prolific recruit- 
ing centre for the military forces, and at no time was the 
Army more popular amongst the youth than to-day. A 
steady stream of eligible young men " take the shilling," 
although there is no such coin given now, and the vast 
majority of them do well. The records kept by the 
Authorities prove that the class of men who enlist are 
above the average standard, and a feature of the Dundee 
recruit is that he gains in physique at a rapid pace and 
makes an efficient soldier after he has been but a few months 
under discipline. And from what class are these men 
drawn ? In every centre of the country unemployment 
affects enlistment, and idle men with no great predilections 
for a military life are obliged to seek the Army. But it 
is not by any means this class which furnishes the great 
proportion of recruits in Dundee. The bulk of the men 
who join the service are youths who have spent some 
years at a trade or in a textile establishment, and whose 
only reason for enlistment is a love of soldiering, and it 
frequently happens that after acceptance the recruiting 
officers have to allow the men time to enable them to 
work off a " warning." Moreover, the standard of education 
amongst them is steadily rising, and many of them, had 
they stuck to civilian life, would have made positions for 
themselves. Under the new regulations men can either 
enlist in the Regular Army or in the Special Reserve, and 
if they join the latter they have the option of entering the 
Army, and the majority of Dundee recruits do so. 

For gold the merchant ploughs the main, 
The farmer ploughs the manor ; 

But glory is the sodger's prize, 
The sodger's wealth is honour : 

The brave, poor sodger ne'er despise, 

Nor count him as a stranger ; 
Remember he's his country's stay 

In day and hour of danger. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 109 

Ask these men when they return upon furlough how 
they like the Army, and in nine cases out of ten you will 
be answered in the Dundee colloquialism " champion," and 
their martial bearing and gleaming eyes confirm their 
speech. Government officials are chary of giving details 
affecting departments, but the War Office Army Council 
kindly furnished the following statistics bearing upon 
Dundee recruiting for the Regular Army and the Special 
Eeserve during the past three years : 

Kegular Special 

Array. Eeserve. 

1908-09 - 265 171 

1909-10 - 240 144 

1910-11 - 298 215 

these 58, 36, and 54 ultimately joined the Territorial 
Regiment the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders). Next 
to the Black Watch, the Scots Guards is the most popular 
ent with the Dundee youth, and the others gravitate 
the Royal Scots, the Royal Scots Fusiliers, and the 
ious Highland regiments. A fair proportion join the 
billery, and amongst Cavalry units the Scots Greys is 
strongest magnet. 

This same national spirit is strikingly illustrated in the 
support the auxiliary forces have received and continue to 
receive as Territorials. For over half a century the city 
has been the headquarters of a series of auxiliary corps, 
artillery, infantry, engineers, and ambulance, each of which 
has drawn commendation from officers of high standing in 
military councils. Successful service in the auxiliary 
'forces necessarily entails application and enthusiasm, and 
makes an appreciable inroad on what would otherwise be 
leisure time. History records that these essentials have 
at all times been given freely by officers and men, and 
this explains the high reputation the city forces hold. 
At one time volunteering units suffered from the in- 
difference of popular opinion. To-day there exists a 
clearer perception of the necessity for a strong and 
efficient auxiliary force, and in this regard Dundee is 
striving to maintain her traditions. 



110 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

The Volunteer movement in Dundee had its inception 
in 1859, a period in the Empire's history when a flood of 
military ardour swept over Great Britain. Dundee 
followed the developments with close interest. A meeting 
was held in the Town Hall on May 20th, 1859, and was 
attended by a large number of the leading citizens of the 
day, including Sir John Ogilvy, Bart., Provost Jobson, and 
Mr Francis Molison. That gathering witnessed the 
inauguration of the volunteer movement in the city. 
Recruiting started immediately, and by July 27th 11 
honorary and 175 ordinary members had enrolled. A 
month later the enrolment had risen to 218. A poll was 
taken for the election of officers, and when the new system 
of arranging battalions came into force this pioneer corps 
in Dundee became known as the 1st Volunteer Battalion 
Royal Highlanders, and later the words " City of Dundee " 
were added. Under Lord Haldane's territorial scheme 
the title was changed to 4th (City of Dundee) Battalion, 
the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders). 

Sir John Ogilvy was the first commanding officer of 
the unit, and he was succeeded in 1865 by Colonel G. 
Lloyd Alison, the succeeding officers being Colonel Patrick 
Anderson in 1870; Colonel P. G. Walker in 1874; Colonel 
W. R. Morrison in 1878; Colonel George Mitchell in 
1888 : Colonel James Rankin in 1891 ; Colonel Howard 
Hill in 1901 ; and Colonel Harry Walker in 1910. 

The 10th Forfar Rifles, afterwards styled the Dundee 
Highlanders, consisted until 1868 of two companies. In 
that year the War Office granted permission to raise the 
establishment to that of a six companies' battalion. The 
first to have command was Colonel David Guthrie of 
Carlogie, who on retirement was succeeded by Colonel 
Lamb. It was during Colonel Lamb's period of command 
in 1880 that the battalion discarded the kilt for the 
trews, assuming the title 3rd Forfar (Dundee Highland) 
Rifle Volunteers. Colonel R. N". Reid was given command 
of the battalion in 1882, and he was succeeded in 1887 by 
Colonel W. Smith, who died in the command in 1905. 
Colonel Batchelor succeeded and remained in charge till 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. Ill 

the Territorial Force became operative in 1908, when the 
battalion was reduced to two companies in command of 
Major P. S. Nicoll, and fused with the Forfar County 
battalion known as the 5th Battalion Black Watch. 

The year 1860 also witnessed the inception of an artillery 
unit, which from the start maintained a healthy standard 
of efficiency. In 1868 the establishment was extended, 
and Colonel Frank Stewart Sandeman became com- 
mandant, and four years later was given control of the 
Forfarshire Artillery Brigade, which included batteries at 
Broughty Ferry, Arbroath, Montrose, and Perth. In 
succession this appointment was held by Colonel Thomas 
Couper, 1898 to 1901 ; Colonel W. Gordon Thomson, 1901 
to 1902; and Colonel Luis, 1902 to 1906. Colonel 
Lindsay Henderson assumed the command in 1906. 

One of the drastic changes affected by the introduction 
of the territorial scheme was the conversion of garrison 
artillery into field artillery. Dundee had gained a high 
reputation in garrison artillery work, the skill and 
smartness of the men having been established at various 
artillery meetings, and one year a detachment secured the 
Queen's Cup after a keen competition at Shoeburyness. 
Dundee artillerymen adapted themselves to the changes, 
and the work of the Field Artillery Brigade (Dundee is 
the headquarters of the 2nd Highland Brigade, com- 
prising the City, Forfarshire, and Fifeshire Batteries) is 
being successfully pursued. The ammunition column 
attached to the Brigade also has headquarters at 
Dundee. 

On the conversion of the Dundee Artillery to Field 
Artillery, a new corps, the North of Scotland R.G.A., was 
established with headquarters at Broughty Ferry, where 
there is also stationed No. 3 Company of that unit. 

In addition to the units specified, Dundee supported for 
a period of forty-eight years in one form or another a 
corps of submarine miners (Colonel W. H. Fergusson) 
with headquarters at Broughty Ferry, and a squadron of 
Fife and Forfar Light Horse (now Fife and Forfar 
Yeomanry). 



112 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

The Officers Training Corps has now been three years 
in existence in Dundee, and is increasing in popularity 
among Dundee students. It numbers two officers and 
sixty cadets. The training consists of drill, musketry 
practice, route-marching, and camp duty. Cadets who 
pass the prescribed Government examinations are exempted 
from the examinations for the promotion of officers in 
the territorial forces ; they also obtain considerable 
advantages in the event of their taking a commission in 
the Special Keserve. 

Under the provisions of the Territorial Scheme a City 
of Dundee Territorial Force Association was formed. 
Lord Provost Urquhart is President (ex qfficio), Mr 
William Henderson, Chairman, and Major John Vair, 
Secretary, and the units administered by the Association 

Q T*> 

d-LC? 

Headquarters Black Watch Infantry Brigade Brigade 
Commander, Colonel A. de S. M'Kerrell, C.B. ; Brigade 
Major, Captain J. E. Wethered, P.S.C., Gloucester Eegiment. 

Yeomanry Fife and Forfar (one squadron) Major J. 
L. Lumsden commanding. 

2nd Highland Brigade R.F. A. City of Dundee 
Battery Hon. Lieutenant-Colonel E. A. Mudie, Com- 
manding City of Dundee Battery (strength, 142) ; and 
Major J. C. Eobertson, the Ammunition Column 
(strength, 153). 

City of Dundee Fortress Engineers One Works Com- 
pany (strength, 115) Captain H. Eichardson. 

4th Battalion Eoyal Highlanders (eight Companies, 
1009 all ranks) Hon. Colonel Lord Provost Urquhart; 
Lieutenant-Colonel Harry Walker. 

5th Battalion Eoyal Highlanders (two Companies, 234 
all ranks) Captain Adam Malcolm. 

No. 4 Company Highland Division Army Service Corps 
(101 all ranks) Captain C. W. Cochrane. 

3rd Highland Field Ambulance (296 all ranks) 
Lieutenant-Colonel W. E. Foggie. Colonel Kinnear, who 
has just demitted Command, has been appointed D.A.M.J 
to the Highland Division with headquarters at Perth. 




PHYSICS LABORATORY. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 




CAMPERDOWN HOUSE. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 113 

Dundee University College Company of the Officers 
Training Corps (St. Andrews University Contingent) 
Lieutenant Hugh Marshall. 

A Battalion of National Eeserve has also been formed 
(strength, 814), with Colonel J. Lindsay Henderson as 
Commandant. This is a most valuable body, consisting of 
ex -officers and men of all branches of the Service, fully 
trained. They are classified according to age, the register 
being kept by the Secretary of the T.F. Association. 

A branch of the National Service League exists in 
Dundee. The branch is not yet a large one as the move- 
ment is only in its infancy, but one important feature is 
that all shades of politics are represented upon it. The 
immediate object of the League is to provide for universal 
military training for home defence being made the law 
by Act of Parliament, the chief principles being (1) that 
it is the duty of every able-bodied man, high or low, rich 
or poor, to defend his country in case of national danger, 
and (2) that to perform this duty efficiently he must be 
trained in time of peace. 

THE DUNDONIAN IN THE EMPIRE. 

Through her many educational institutions primary, 
mdary, technical, and university Dundee contributes 
no unstinted fashion to the building up of Empire. 
)rd Rosebery once said that Britain could do with fewer 
jople leaving her shores. The exodus unfortunately 
mtinues, but there is some satisfaction in thinking that 
admirable facilities existing in Dundee amply equip 
le men who leave her to court fortune in the Colonies 
id Dependencies. The City spends the stupendous sum 
fully 160,000 a year on education, and has considerably 
)ver half-a-million sunk in school buildings, although the 
ipital debt has by the operation of the sinking fund been 
luced to 133,543. Important building schemes now im- 
linent will considerably increase the capital account. The 
idowments for education in Dundee run into hundreds of 
lousands. The following tables indicate what Dundee is 
)ing not only for herself but for the Empire through her 
educational machinery : H 



114 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

ANNUAL EXPENDITURE. 

Dundee University College ... ... 13,809 

Dundee Technical College .,, . ... 6,900 

Dundee Training College ... ... 5,300 

Dundee High School 9,500 

Dundee School Board (Day Schools) 108,311* 

Do. (Evening Schools) 4,450 
Dundee Eoman Catholic Schools, in- 
cluding Lawside Convent School 13,292 
Dundee Episcopal Schools ... ... 1,855 



Total 163,417 

*The expenditure for the year now current will be nearly 6,000 
additional, the amount estimated for being ,114,034, and the 
education rate is Is. 9|d. per . 

NOTE. This expenditure is exclusive of Private Schools. 



DUNDEE EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS. 

Dundee University College ... ... 122,154 

Dundee Technical College 80,000 

Dundee Training College 65,000* 

Dundee High School 14,161 

Dundee School Board Schools ... 229,600 

All other Schools and Colleges ... 72,468 



583,383 

*In course of erection. 

NOTE. The St. Andrews Committee for the Training of Teachers 
have acquired Mayfield Mansion House as a hostel for women and 
also playing fields (twenty-five acres). This will eventually involve 
an expenditure of 17,600. A hostel for men is also to be built, 
and later probably a second hostel for women. These will cost 
respectively 9,000 and 8,000, making the hostel expenditure 
34,600, and bringing up the capital expenditure to almost 100,000. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 115 

ENDOWMENTS. 

Dundee University College ... ... 168,919* 

Dundee Technical College 13,000 

Dundee High School 37,000 

Dundee Educational Trust 61,063f 

The Morgan Trust 86,800} 



366,782 

*The Trustees of the late Miss Harris also hold 24,000 for 
behoof of the College. They make contributions when the need 
arises, and meantime are paying annually 1,000 from the Trust 
Revenue a figure which is being set aside for repayment of -the 
College debt. 

fThrough its endowments Dundee Educational Trust spends over 
3,000 a year on education. The income is expended by means of 
bursaries, tenable at the Scottish Universities, at Dundee High 
School, at the Harris and Morgan Academies (Day and Evening), 
and also at the Technical College. Grants in aid are given in the 
interests of instruction in domestic economy, and a specific sum 
has been hitherto annually earmarked to provide school books for 
poor children. 

The Morgan Trust Expends about 2,250 per annum on the 
maintenance of foundationers at the primary and secondary Schools. 
There are on an average about 200 foundationers on the roll. 

NOTE. The Burgh Committee on Secondary Education have the 
allocation of about 12,000 received annually from the Scottish 
Education Department. Out of this sum grants are made to the 
High School, School Board, and Convent School for Secondary 
Education, and the sums allocated are included in the tables 
referring to the expenditure by the High School and School Board. 
The Burgh Committee also expend 3,000 annually upon bursars 
taking intermediate and secondary courses, also upon bursars 
attending Technical Colleges and the Universities, and the balance 
is divisible among the grant earning schools of Dundee. 

Positions of distinction and responsibility are held all over 
the British Dominions by Dimdonians who carry with them 
to those distant lands the hall mark of her schools and 
colleges. Established in 1883, University College had as 
its first Principal Dr. William Petersen, now Principal of 
M'Gill University, Montreal, and since 1894 Principal 



116 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Yule Mackay has admirably filled the position of his 
distinguished predecessor. The Chair of Engineering in 
University College affords an admirable illustration of 
what the College is doing. The Chair was one of the first 
five established, and the first Professor was Mr (now Sir) J. 
A. Ewing (himself a Dundonian), and now a Director of 
Naval Education. The School of Engineering has had a 
steady and continuous growth, and a large number of 
students have left it to fill responsible posts in the wide 
world of engineering at home and abroad. In the avenue 
of mechanical engineering proper, some of Dundee's old 
students have come to be partners or principals in well- 
known firms, others occupy positions of influence in the 
works of mechanical engineers or shipbuilders at Glasgow, 
Edinburgh, Belfast, and Dewsbury, and in the locomotive 
works of English railways, and there are others who have 
taken good appointments in the Patent Office, in the 
National Physical Laboratory at Teddington, and in the 
offices of eminent London engineers. The majority of the 
graduating students have preferred to find their occupation 
in the wider world of civil engineering, and are now to be 
found in the position of resident engineers, or in some 
equivalent professional position, superintending the 
execution of great public works, as for example, the widening 
of Blackfriars Bridge, London, the construction of water 
works in Yorkshire and elsewhere, the extension of home 
railways in Scotland and England ; the dock works of 
Kosyth Naval Base, in the Public Works Department of 
India, in mining operations in South Africa, and in 
railway construction in the Malay Peninsula, the Argentine, 
the United States, and British Columbia. 

Secondary Education is provided by Dundee High 
School and by the Harris and Morgan Academies. The 
High School, which is governed by a Board of Directors, 
has an honourable record and stands well in the public 
eye. The following is a list of the School's most dis- 
tinguished pupils : 

James Walker, D.Sc., F.E.S., Professor of Chemistry at 
Edinburgh University ; Sir James Alfred Ewing, K.C.B., 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 117 

F.R.S., Director of Naval Education (Baxter of Balgavies 
Scholar, 1871); William Edward Philip, M.A., H.M.I.S., 
Harris Gold Medallist, 1866-1867; Frank W. Young, 
F.R.S.E., H.M.I.S. ; J. Gordon Lorimer, Indian Civil Service 
entered third on list, 1889-1890 ; Alfred W. W. Mackie, 
M. A., Indian Civil Service entered 1900-1901; C. Fred 
Grant, M.A., Indian Civil Service- entered 1900-1901; 
Ralph A. Wilson, M.A., Indian Civil Service entered 
1901-1902; Thomas Couper, B.A. (Oxon.), Indian Civil 
Service entered seventh on list, 1901-1902; Alexander 
Gray, M.A. (Edin.), Indian Civil Service entered second 
on list, 1905-1906 ; A. M. Anderson, K.C., Solicitor-General 
for Scotland. 

The Academies are conducted by the School Board, and 
yearly they furnish recruits for various Universities. To- 
day there are many in Greater Britain who look back with 
veneration to the Academies. Mr Sinclair Laird, Professor 
of Education in Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, is an 
old pupil of the Harris Academy, and another is Mr 
Herbert Smith, Lecturer in German in Glasgow University. 
The Morgan Academy can boast of such former pupils 
as Mr William Nicoll, M.A, M.B., Ch.B, D.Sc. Ernest 
Hart Memorial Fellow, Lister Institute, London, Lecturer 
on Helminthology, Royal College of Science, London, and 
a member of the Special Scientific Investigation Com- 
mittee of the Local Government Board. Dr. Nicoll has 
made many valuable original contributions to the subject 
of Zoology. Another former pupil is Mr Russell L. Jones, 
M.A., author of " International Arbitration as a Substitute 
for War between Nations." Mr Jones is Lecturer in 
Political Economy in Queen's College, Belfast. Dr. Peter 
Fleming Gow, now of the Indian Civil Service, was also 
educated at the Morgan Academy. 

The New Technical College is still in its infancy, but 
technical education is no new thing in Dundee, the establish- 
ment of the New Technical College being due to the fact 
that the old Technical Institute was inadequate to meet 
the claims upon it. The Technical College attracts 
principally textile students, engineers, architects, joiners, 



118 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

and plumbers, and the records show that the instruction 
obtained is utilized by its possessors in various parts of 
the world. Many of the engineering students go to sea as 
marine engineers, arid the Clyde and the Tyne are favourite 
starting places for Dundee youths. Quite a number of those 
trained as civil and electrical engineers go to London, and 
a few have left for the older towns in Canada. Architect 
students find situations in London, but the most of the 
men in the building trades have gone to America and chiefly 
to Canada, while lately a considerable number of students 
have been finding their way to posts in Burmah, Singapore, 
New Zealand, Mexico, and elsewhere. 

By his will the late Mr James Duncan of Jordanstone 
bequeathed a share of the residue of his estate for the 
purpose of founding a School of Industrial Art and 
Women's Industries at Dundee. The amount of the 
bequest is expected to be not less than 70,000. It is 
understood that Mr Duncan's trustees intend to devote 
the larger portion of the fund to establishing and endow- 
ing a School for Women's Industries, including the erection 
of an Institute. After the scheme has been set agoing 
the administration will be handed over to a body of 
official trustees named by the testator, and they are 
practically the same as the trustees who control the 
Technical College. In all probability a commencement 
will be made with the teaching in the coming winter. 

DUNDEE AND THE INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY. 
Calcutta is Dundee's most formidable opponent in the 
jute industry, yet Dundee brains and capital have been 
chiefly instrumental in establishing and developing the 
trade on the banks of the Hooghly. The overseers, managers, 
and mechanics in the Indian jute mills are almost wholly 
recruited from Dundee. There are hundreds of such men 
who have passed through Dundee's technical classes, and a 
certificate of attendance at the Technical College has come 
to be regarded as proving that the holder has been willing 
to devote part of his spare time to acquire a knowledge of 
the principles of jute manufacture. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 119 

The story of the spinning and weaving of jute in India 
is an interesting one, and, as has been said, Dundee has 
had a big hand in the business. The spinning and weaving 
of jute was carried on by natives on a moderate scale by 
hand long before the introduction of machinery to India, 
but it was only very coarse fabrics that could be produced 
by this process. It was not until 1855 that the first jute 
spinning machinery was erected near Calcutta. In 1859 
the second venture, which embraced spinning and weaving, 
was that of the Borneo Company started by Messrs George 
Henderson & Co., London, and now known as the 
Barnagore Jute Factory Co., Ltd. Dundee supplied the 
machinery for the Borneo Mill, and Mr Thomas Duff', a 
Dundee man, during the first ten years of its existence 
watched over the Company's interests in Messrs George 
Henderson & Co.'s Calcutta office. It was in the Mutiny 
year (1857) that Mr Duff, along with experts in the 
different departments of mill work, sailed for Calcutta in 
the vessel which carried the machinery for this mill. In 
these days the voyage was looked upon as a considerable 
undertaking, having to be made via the Cape and taking 
about six months to accomplish. Of these men it may 
fairly be said that they were the pioneers of jute manu- 
facturing by machinery in India. In 1873 Mr Duff, some 
time after his return home, got into touch with a few 
Dundee men, in conjunction with whom he floated the 
Samnuggar Jute Factory Co., Ltd., the success of which 
encouraged them in 1884 to establish the Titaghur Jute 
Factory Co., Ltd. About this time another group of 
Dundee capitalists floated what is known as the Victoria 
Jute Co., Ltd, and the capital, including debentures, 
invested in the three Companies named, viz., 1,320,000 
is largely held by Dundee and district shareholders. These 
locally owned Companies have a total of 3,714 looms, 
manufacturing sackings and hessians, which are distributed 
to all parts of the world, and their consumption of the 
raw material is nearly equal to the half of Dundee's total 
requirements. They give employment to 25,000 native 
workers. 



120 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

Dundee has played a further part in the expansion of 
jute manufacture in India, inasmuch as the City is one 
of the principal centres from which Calcutta mills have 
drawn their machinery. Complaints have been made 
that the Dundee capital invested in Indian mills has the 
effect of diverting the industry from Dundee, but out of a 
total capital of 10,000,000 sunk in jute mills in India 
only about one-eighth is from Dundee and district, and 
Dundee shareholders have benefited by comparatively 
good and steady dividends. It is claimed that the 
expansion in India would have taken place sooner or 
later although Dundee capital had not been forthcoming, 
and the results show that those Dundee men who entered 
the field in the earlier stages of the trade's history had the 
foresight to discern what the probable developments 
would be. 

EMIGRATION TO THE BRITISH COLONIES. 

During the past five years 10,000 Dundonians have 
emigrated. The large exodus which begins annually 
every spring and lasts well through the summer causes 
many to wonder whether all is well at home. Dundee's 
loss through the departure of these enterprising Scots is 
the gain of the Colonies. Of the total it is calculated that 
45 per cent, have gone to Canada; 30 per cent, to the 
Australian Commonwealth, 15 per cent, to New Zealand, 
and 10 per cent, to South Africa. Again, of the total 20 
per cent, have been married men and their families, 70 
per cent, single men, and 10 per cent, single women, 
Through the granting of free and assisted passages, 
Queensland has received the greater number of single 
men (for sugar plantation and railway construction work), 
of single women domestics, and of families having a 
capital of 50 and upwards, while Western Australia, 
Victoria, and New South Wales have drawn the bulk of 
the agricultural workers. 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 121 



Social and Philanthropic Institutions. 

By T. M. Davidson, M.A., B.Sc.. and 
J. Armstrong Barry. 

A CASUAL observer viewing the City of Dundee from the 
Fifeshire coast would be favourably impressed with its 
situation ; it has been liberally provided by Nature with 
all the conditions that make for health and comfort, it 
has a noble river, delightful suburbs, and it slopes towards 
the sun. It might be difficult for such an observer to 
believe that poverty, disease, and misery are to be found 
in a City so favoured, arid that " the cry of the children " 
is never absent from the voices of the City. Unfortunately 
such things are true. 

The employment of female labour in the staple industry 
of the City, too early marriages and a consequent lack of 
responsibility towards offspring, the housing conditions of 
the poor, intemperance on the part of parents, and mis- 
fortune of various kinds may be regarded as amongst the 
principal causes which contribute to the existence of 
poverty, infirmity, and destitution in our midst. 

" Suffer little children to come unto Me " and " Bear 
ye one another's burdens " are abiding commands, and 
if needs abound in our City, so, also, do sympathy and 
benevolence ; and it is the main purpose of this article to 
enumerate the various agencies which are endeavouring to 
ameliorate the conditions of the needy and unfortunate. 

PREVENTION OF CRUELTY. 

The Dundonian who is unacquainted with the numerous 
agencies at work in his native City, or the stranger within 
its gates, may notice two individuals who make it their 
business to pay particular attention to young children in 
the streets, and on inquiry he will be informed that these 
are the guardian angels of the City children, whose head- 
quarters are at a building known as "The Shelter," situated 






122 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

about ten minutes' walk from the High Street. These 
guardians are commissioned by the Dundee Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, which for over 
twenty years has proved itself to be a necessity in a state 
of things still far from perfect. During the period covered 
by the latest report, 645 cases, involving the welfare of 
1,784 children, were dealt with; 153 children passed 
through the Shelter, and through the instrumentality of 
this Society 50 children were committed to Industrial 
Schools and other Institutions, Homes, etc. The Society 
renders valuable assistance to the Police Authorities in 
the administration of the Children Act. More than any- 
thing else, the intemperance of fathers and mothers seems 
to justify its object " to protect and rescue children from 
cruelty, injustice, and degradation." This Society is un- 
doubtedly, to use the phrase of a supporter, a strong 
screen at the top of one of life's precipices. 

FEEDING. 

Although less deplorable than the actual cruelty of 
parents to their offspring, the poverty into whicli so many 
homes are frequently launched affords, alas ! ample oppor- 
tunity for " feeding the multitude," and through various 
channels the little hungry mouths are fed. The Children's 
Free Breakfast and City Mission, which commenced its 
operations in 1874, has for one of its objects the providing 
" a hearty meal once a week to poor and destitute children," 
and on Sabbath mornings several hundreds of breakfasts 
are served out by sixty willing workers. At the recently- 
acquired premises of the Catholic Day Nursery in Park 
Place, under the superintendence of the Sisters of Charity, 
a similar provision is made for providing 40 to 50 
breakfasts; and for some years the Boys' and Girls' 
Eeligious Association has given a prominent place to its 
daily free breakfast work, and under its auspices during 
the past winter over 17,000 such breakfasts have been 
given to necessitous children. 

The securing of practically free dinners during the 
winter months to poor children attending the public 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 123 

schools is the special object of a fund which has been 
in existence for over a quarter-of-a-century, and since its 
inauguration over one million dinners have been supplied 
at a cost of 5,000. The thanks of the ratepayers are 
due to those responsible for this fund, inasmuch as they 
have proved that their reliance upon the voluntary con- 
tributions of generous citizens has not been misplaced; 
and thus it is demonstrated that, in Dundee at anyrate, 
taxation for free-feeding purposes is not called for. It 
should be pointed out that under the latest Education Act 
the School Board assists in the carrying out of the dinner 
scheme, and teachers render valuable help, but the actual 
cost of food is defrayed by voluntary contributions. The 
Social Union interests itself in this as in other forms of 
charity; the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children provides meals in the Shelter; and at the 
Catholic Day Nursery a warm mid-day meal is provided 
mostly during the winter for some 60 to 80 children. 
In times of stress, such as during strikes, assistance is 
forthcoming from many quarters, and notably from the 
Salvation Army and the Independent Labour Party 
through its Holiday Home Committee. 

HOMES IN THE COUNTRY. 

Dundee is rich in air- centres, and its parks are numerous, 
but somehow full advantage is not taken of these breathing 
spaces ; and in the case of City children it is desirable that 
for some time in the year they should obtain the benefit 
to be derived from the fuller and fresher air of the country 
or the seaside. With this purpose in view, there are at 
least five Holiday Homes, all more or less for the benefit 
of poor children, for which the generosity of the citizens 
makes itself either wholly or partially responsible. The 
Pitlochry Home, where, between April and October last, 
under the shadow of Ben Vrackie, 77 Dundee children 
were enabled to spend a fortnight in the Highland air ; 
the Kingennie Home, and Newport Home (Comerton) 
both referred to in Dr. Koger's article on " The Care of 
the Children " ; Boys' Holiday Home at Carnoustie (but 



124 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

which in future is to be situated at Barnhill), where in 
the course of last summer 38 boys spent a fortnight at the 
seaside ; and the Clarion Home (presently at Liff), which 
has been instituted for twelve years. The last mentioned is 
administered by a Committee under the Independent Labour 
Party, and during the past two seasons over 100 have been 
benefited through its instrumentality. The Social Union 
is in particular identified with the Country Homes and 
Holiday Movement, and makes itself the dispenser of the 
grant from the Pearson's Fresh Air Fund. The Boys' and 
Girls' Keligious Association and the Children's Free Break- 
fast and City Mission arrange for sending some of their 
children to Comerton, and the latter organises annually a 
" Week's Trip in the Country " ; last summer during the 
local holiday week it secured enjoyment at Montrose for 
458 boys and girls. 

DEAF AND DUMB CHILDREN. 

Other articles in the " Handbook " have dealt with the 
labours of love which are being bestowed upon children 
who are laid aside either permanently or temporarily 
through disease, sickness, or deformity; but there still 
remains to be mentioned the work amongst the Deaf and 
Dumb. At the Institution, whose headquarters are pre- 
sently in Lochee Eoad and which was established in 
1846, some 30 to 40 children are boarded and educated, 
and there, in addition to language acquisition, which is 
their principal work, and to ordinary school lessons, the 
girls are taught plain cooking, laundry work, needlework, 
and paper flower-making ; the boys woodwork, clay model- 
ling, cardboard modelling, and repousse work; and the 
younger children paper folding and cutting, and basket 
weaving. The premises have recently been extended, and 
tuition in boot making and repairing and tailoring has 
been introduced. It will thus be seen that the Directors 
are devoting considerable attention to the practical aspect 
of education, and are equipping the children under their 
care for taking a place in the work-a-day world. The 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 125 

school, which is partly self-supporting, has a staff' consist- 
ing of a headmaster, a matron, and five assistant teachers. 

ORPHANAGES. 

The ORPHAN INSTITUTION was founded in 1815, and for 
nearly a hundred . years has been a home for the orphan 
boys and girls of the City. It is interesting to recall the 
circumstances of its beginning: it was due to a sad 
disaster which occurred on the Eiver Tay, whereby a 
number of children were rendered fatherless. The follow- 
ing extract referring to the disaster is from the " Dundee 
Advertiser " of 2nd June 1815 : 

" On Sunday forenoon one of the pinnaces plying between 
Dundee and Newport in Fife suddenly sank about half-a- 
mile from the latter port, and out of twenty-four persons 
supposed to have been on board, many of whom were going 
to Kilmany Church to hear Dr. Chalmers preach his fare- 
well sermon before leaving for Glasgow, only seven were 
saved." 

It is interesting also to note that one of the first inmates 
of the Institution was the child of a soldier who was killed 
at Waterloo. Following on the disaster above mentioned 
steps were at once taken by benevolent citizens to provide 
for the maintenance and education of the orphan children. 

The first Orphanage was situated in Paradise Eoad, the 
second (1816-1869) was in Small's Wynd, and the present 
house in the Ferry Koad was occupied in 1870. 

The Institution is upheld entirely by endowments and 
subscriptions, and its affairs are administered by a body of 
Directors and Lady Governesses. 

For many years the average number of children in 
the Orphanage has been 70. Until the year 1895 the 
children received their complete education in the Institu- 
tinu. The Directors, however, then resolved that the 
older pupils should complete their education by attend- 
ance for a year or two at a Public School, and thereby 
obtain the discipline and other benefits pertaining to 
Public School life. Experience has proved this step to be 
ni considerable benefit to the older pupils, many of whom 



126 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

have completed their education at the Dundee High 
School or Morgan Academy by means of bursaries and 
scholarships. Pupils leave the Orphanage at the age of 
sixteen ; most of the girls are trained for domestic service, 
a few becoming clerkesses, nurses, and teachers; and, while 
several of the boys choose a seafaring life and a few com- 
mercial pursuits, the greater number are apprenticed to 
trades, and are maintained by the Apprentice Fund of the 
Institution until the completion of their apprenticeship. 

The LADY JANE OGILVY ORPHANAGE, Baldovan, was 
instituted in 1854 by Lady Jane Ogilvy, wife of Sir John 
Ogilvy, Bart., and was established for the education and 
support of orphan children in connection with the Episcopal 
Church. The average number of children in the Home is 
8, and the girls are mainly trained for domestic service. 
The affairs of the Institution are administered by a body 
jof Directors, and the Orphanage is upheld by voluntary 
support. 

At the LAWSIDE CONVENT, under the administration of 
the Sisters of Mercy, about 20 orphan girls are main- 
tained, partly by voluntary subscription. When grown-up 
the girls have the option of remaining in order to be 
trained in laundry work and in different branches of 
domestic service. 

At the BARNHILL ORPHANAGE, founded by the late Kev. 
T. N. Adamson in 1886, a few children are maintained 
partly by payment and partly by members and friends of 
St. Margaret's Parish Church, Barnhill, under whose 
auspices the work is carried on. 

WORKING BOYS' HOMES. 

There are two such Homes in the City. The Dundee 
Working Boys' Home occupies a part of the premises of 
the Curr Night Eefuge, and was opened in 1884. It has 
for its object the providing of home comforts with 
Christian association to orphan, friendless, and destitute 
boys of fourteen years and upwards; their training in orderly 
and industrious habits, their apprenticeship to recognised 
trades, and their voluntary retention in the Home until 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 127 

able to keep themselves in lodgings. About a dozen lads 
are generally lodged, and at the local holiday-time arrange- 
ments are made for housing them in the country. Under 
the auspices of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul there is 
a similar, although smaller Home, where several boys are 
boarded, and, when necessary, provided with suitable 
clothing. 

TEMPERANCE WORK. 

There are many valuable agencies in the City for the 
education of children and others in the principles of 
temperance. The work is carried on by means of weekly 
meetings, at which speakers devoted to the temperance 
cause deliver addresses, and here it might be mentioned 
that the Dundee Gospel Temperance Union conducts a 
class for the benefit of speakers in temperance work. The 
lantern is largely adopted, and proves a valuable medium 
for conveying temperance truth. 

One of the principal agencies for carrying on this work 
in the City is the Dundee and District Band of Hope 
Union. There are now 46 Societies enrolled in this 
Union, with a membership of nearly 9,000 children; other 
Bands of Hope not affiliated with the Union have a 
membership of about 1,500. Every Band of Hope is con- 
nected with some Church or Mission, and the weekly 
meetings are a source of great interest and delight to the 
young people, particularly in Mission districts. 

Other agencies carrying on similar work are the Juvenile 
Good Templar Lodges, which number 18, with a member- 
ship of nearly 1,700; and Juvenile Eechabite Tents, which 
number 17, with a membership of 948. 

Temperance workers are greatly gratified at the steady 
progress the work is making amongst the youth of the City. 

TRAINING AND DISCIPLINE. 

If, as Miss M. L. Walker emphasises at the outset of her 
article on "Work among Women," Dundee is pre-eminently 
a City of women and of women workers, and few will con- 
tradict her, it is equally true, but possibly in a less degree, 
that it is also a City where the preponderance of young work- 



128 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

ing lads is very noticeable. The demand for cheap labour 
is responsible largely in the latter as it is in the former 
case for this state of matters. Hence there is a vast scope 
for social and philanthropic effort amongst the rising male 
generation, and although much more requires to be accom- 
plished, the organisations in the field are giving excellent 
results. 

Chief amongst the agencies concerned with the welfare 
of the City youth is the local Battalion of The Boys' 
Brigade, which was formed in 1891. During its career it 
has undergone many changes. Of the six Companies 
which formed the Battalion at that date only two remain ; 
but in spite of the changes and losses which have occurred 
from time to time it has grown steadily, and in January 
last it numbered 22 Companies, comprising 94 officers, 45 
staff-sergeants, and 1,122 N.C.O's and boys. Second only, 
and in furtherance of the Brigade's primary and direct 
object the advancement of Christ's Kingdom among boys, 
and the promotion of habits of obedience, reverence, dis- 
cipline, self-respect, and all that tends towards a true 
Christian manliness is the disciplinary training the 
Battalion provides by means of military drill and physical 
exercises; and for a Company to gain the trophy for pro- 
ficiency in either of these departments is no easy matter. 
The standard of drill is kept at a high level, and the 
Battalion has been frequently complimented by dis- 
tinguished officers of His Majesty's Forces, who have 
inspected it, on the efficiency of its work. The branches of 
work undertaken include ambulance, signalling, swimming, 
gymnastics, and instrumental music, all of which, along 
with recreation, are supervised by special Committees. 
Besides the local contingent of the original Boys' Brigade, 
and with a similar object and similar methods, are several 
independent Brigades. The St. Andrew's Parish Brigade, 
numbering 8 officers and 92 KC.O's and boys, has been in 
existence since 1891 ; the Blackscroft Brigade, connected 
with the Mission of Dundee (St. Mary's) Parish Church, 
numbers 40 officers, KC.O's and boys ; and the St. Mary's 
(Catholic) Brigade, 50 members. Two valuable branches 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 129 

of work are the provision made by nearly all, if not all, 
these Brigades for a summer camp in the local holiday 
week, and for boys' club-rooms during the winter. 

Akin to The Boys' Brigade are the three Companies 
having a total membership of 70, excluding Guardians and 
Assistant Guardians of The Girls' Guildry, which en- 
deavours to develop in girls capacities of womanly helpful- 
ness. Like the organisation it has imitated, the Guildry 
is essentially religious ; but the physical exercises, drill, 
nursing, and first-aid, by which it seeks to attain its chief 
object, are reasons why mention of it should be made here. 
This movement is especially to be commended to Dundee, 
where there are so many young girls who are girl- workers 
and wage- earners, and to whom physical culture and the 
whole training of the Guildry would be of infinite value. 

The Boy Scout movement, although not so strong in 
Dundee as its leaders would like, is a power for good 
among its 200 members, and it is satisfactory to know 
that about a dozen lads who have gone through the 
ranks are now acting as Assistant Scoutmasters. The 
diverse work of the boy scout is too well known to require 
any explanation, and it suffices to state that the Dundee 
scout is acquainted more or less with them all. One 
particular feature, however, is the excellent brass band, 
numbering 35 boys, which the City Scouts possess, and a 
guarantee of its worth is found in its engagements for 
Corporation Concerts. 

The Boys' Life Brigade and The Girls' Life Brigade are 
each represented by one Company the former has about 50 
members of all ranks and the latter about 70. The whole 
principle and tone of The Boys' Life Brigade is life-saving. 
As stated in the constitution, its objects are sought chiefly by 
means of drill which is not associated with the use of arms, 
in it with instruction and exercises in the saving of life 
from fire, from drowning, and from accident. It is in- 
tended that the physical training thus given should prepare 
I'm- helpful service to others, while imparting healthful 
vigour to the body, and giving the moral discipline which 
comes from the obedience and self-regard and mutual 

I 



130 SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

trust necessary in effective drill. The object of The Girls' 
Life Brigade is also the saving of life, and this is accom- 
plished by teaching the girls sick-nursing, ambulance 
work, hygiene and its relations to household management, 
swimming, and giving them such other exercises as will 
enable them to lead clean, healthy, and useful lives. 

The local branch of the Y.M.C.A., and the Social Club 
Rooms of the various P.S.A. and Brotherhood Meetings do 
considerable work among lads and young men; and while 
not relying to any very large extent for outside assistance, 
they are nevertheless indebted partly to voluntary help in 
services both personal and monetary, and need only to be 
mentioned. 

THE POOR AND HOMELESS; AND EX-PRISONERS. 
To the poverty-stricken the Dundee Charity Organisa- 
tion Society, which is supported entirely by voluntary 
subscriptions, is a veritable good Samaritan. It readily 
gives assistance where this is required ; it makes inquiries 
as to the merit of every applicant, whether at the door or 
by begging letter; it prevents imposition and directs 
charity to the deserving. During the last twenty-six 
years in the course of carrying out its two-fold object 
viz., the proper distribution of charitable relief and the 
amelioration of the condition of persons in temporary 
distress it has enrolled over 36,000 cases and directly 
relieved over 28,000 at an expenditure of about 10,000. 
Since its institution in September 1882 the Curr Night 
Refuge in West Bell Street has given temporary shelter 
to thousands of the homeless. While the rule of admission 
is one night only, and not again for a month, the re- 
admission of the applicant is left to the discretion of the 
Superintendent, this being chiefly intended as a defence 
against idlers of all kinds. Unless intoxicated or well- 
known as loafers and impostors, few are refused on a 
second application. The Prison Aid Society, which has 
been in existence for forty years, has for its object the 
rendering of assistance to discharged prisoners of both 
sexes. This assistance usually includes varied help to the 



SOCIAL SERVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 131 

one individual. Those who have earned no gratuities 
from Governors of Prisons may be helped with clothing, 
lodgings, etc., and where there is reason to believe that 
imprisonment has awakened thought and a desire for a 
better life, such hopeful cases are upheld until they are 
settled in employment and in home-life again. 

SAILORS' HOME. 

The philanthropy of the citizens of Dundee is not con- 
fined to its own citizens and its own children; it has 
consideration also for " the stranger within the gates." 

For many years British and foreign sailors coining to 
our port had to find accommodation in boarding-houses in 
the vicinity of the Harbour. Such neglect of strangers 
was considered by many a reproach on our City; and 
in 1879 a movement was originated for the establishment 
of a Sailors' Home in Dundee. Through the generosity of 
several benevolent citizens 12,000 was subscribed towards 
the purchase of a site and the erection of a Home. 

For thirty-one years the Home has fulfilled its object, 
namely : " To provide for seamen who frequent the Port 
of Dundee a well-appointed residence at moderate charges 
during their stay on shore, where they may be supplied 
with ordinary comforts embracing medical attendance, 
means of professional improvement, recreation, and 
religious instruction and always find a home." 

During the past year nearly 10,000 beds have been 
occupied by the men of the Royal Navy stationed at the 
port ; over 300 merchant seamen of various nationalities 
have made the Home their headquarters while at Dundee, 
and over 100 officers attending the Board of Trade exami- 
nations have resided at the Home. 

PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. 
For nearly half-a-century the horses, dogs, cats, birds, 
etc., of the City and district have found a friend in the 
local Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 
Through the agency of two salaried Inspectors the Society 
keeps careful watch over their interests, and when neces- 



132 SOCIAL SEEVICE AND CITY PROBLEMS. 

sary it utilises the machinery of the law to obtain its 
object, which is, to quote from a recent speech, " to foster 
such reverence of all sentient life as would make 
cruelty be deemed an impiety and kindness to animals 
part of everyone's religion." It will thus be seen that the 
Society is not merely punitive, but seeks to promote the 
Franciscan spirit of affection for the animal kingdom. 

From the foregoing statistics and references it will be 
seen that not a few of the citizens of Dundee, inspired by 
Christian ideals, are giving time, energy, sympathy, and 
means to protect dumb creatures, to help the poor, neglected, 
unfortunate, and infirm of the City, to guard its orphans, 
to train and discipline its youth, and to provide hospitality 
for the homeless and the stranger; and in so doing are 
rendering valuable service to the City and to the State. 




133 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 



Introduction. 



THAT the public services of a city, entering as they do so 
largely into the life of the people, are of supreme value to 
its wellbeing goes without saying, and the following brief 
papers are submitted as indicative of the standard laid 
down for itself by the Local Authority of Dundee. 

The subject of municipal trading is, of course, a some- 
what controversial one, and it is difficult to get unanimity 
on such a question. Apart from those services which in 
the interests of public health it is essential should come 
under the control of Local Authorities, as well as matters 
pertaining to streets and policing, there are certain lines 
upon which all might agree that it is well in the public 
interest that these should come under the control of Local 
Authorities. This would to my mind be true of (1) Public 
utility undertakings which are a practical necessity for all 
citizens in common, such as Water, Gas, Electricity, and 
in a lesser degree Tramways, and (2) Where the need is 
so general, or has such a bearing upon questions of public 
health, moral or physical, as to justify its provision. This 
latter is true of such departments as Parks and Cemeteries, 
Baths and Wash-houses, Markets and Slaughter-houses, 
Libraries and Museums. In all of these directions it will 
be found that the City of Dundee takes a high place. 

An endeavour has been made in the following pages, as 
already indicated, to briefly outline these services. Some, 
however, while most interesting, have so much in common 
with similar services elsewhere, or, while of the utmost 
importance, are so difficult to write of otherwise than by 
mere statistics, that it is not thought desirable to give 
them a special heading. 



134 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

Among these latter one might refer to the very efficient 
POLICE service, so long presided over by Mr David Dewar, 
and now by his capable lieutenant, Chief Constable Car- 
michael. There is a total staff of 225 Constables and 
Officers. While the city has been comparatively immune 
from serious crime for the past few years, that the watch- 
ful care of this department is needed will be apparent 
when it is pointed out that during the year just ended 
5016 offences, involving 5445 persons, were dealt with by 
the police, 370 of such persons passing the bar of the 
Police Court (which is presided over each morning by one 
of the Magistrates) before being remitted to the Sheriff 
Under the probation system, first inaugurated in Scotland 
at Dundee, 290 persons, 164 males and 126 females, were 
dealt with, in most cases with beneficial results both to 
themselves and the public interest. Before the Juvenile 
Court, established under the Children Act, 1908, 849 per- 
sons under 16 years of age were brought up, 60 of whom 
were committed to Industrial Schools or Eeformatories. 

The PUBLIC LIGHTING of the city is intimately associated 
with the function of Watching discharged by the Police. 
This has, during past years, been steadily improved both 
in regard to gas and electric lighting. An automatic gas 
lighting system is presently being experimentally tested, 
which is likely to give important results both in economy 
arid efficiency of working. 

The EOADS and STREETS, extending now to 90J miles, 
under the watchful care of the City Engineer, are kept in 
a state of the highest efficiency. During the past two 
years he has been devoting much time and attention to 
the treatment of road surfaces, and as a result a Tar 
Macadam plant has just been installed, and a beginning 
made in treating road surfaces with this binding material. 
An extensive scheme of road bottoming has also been 
approved by the Town Council, which will greatly enhance 
this department of civic service. 

The DRAINAGE system of Dundee, allied as it is with 
a general improvement in sanitary appliances on the water 
carriage system, owing to the natural slope of the city, is 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 135 

of a supremely satisfactory nature, and does much to 
ensure the good health of a densely packed industrial 
population, which has not yet found opportunity to follow 
the natural trend of great urban communities, which, for 
residential purposes, leaves the city with a hollow heart, 
and migrates more and more towards the outskirts. That 
this trend is evident, and will be accelerated in the near 
future, must be patent to all students of communal 
progress and development. 

Under a FIRE BRIGADE representing the highest standard 
of efficiency, with the latest equipment in petrol motor 
vehicles and pumping apparatus, the city's needs in fire 
fighting are adequately cared for ; indeed, the service is so 
managed and equipped that it is found of the utmost 
value to a district radiating out for thirty miles into the 
country. 

In Public BATHS and WASH-HOUSES Dundee occupies a 
specially favourable record. Its proximity to a wide tidal 
estuary enables it to provide Swimming Baths of a most 
advanced type. There are now at the Central Institution 
three swimming ponds, providing a constant supply of the 
purest sea water, while at Lochee there is also an excellent 
pond supplied from the city mains. In addition, there are 
east and west end open-air ponds, as well as the majestic 
sweep of the river itself available. Facilities for cleanli- 
ness in the way of Private and Turkish Baths are also of 
a high order, and that all of these are fully appreciated 
must be recognised from the fact that over a quarter-of-a- 
million bathers annually make use of the service. Excel- 
lently equipped District Wash-houses are also provided in 
central working-class districts, which prove most useful to 
the housewives who find it impossible in a great city to 
secure that adequate drying accommodation which is only 
possible in less congested areas. These Wash-houses pro- 
vide for 300,000 washings annually, and play a most 
important part in the city's life and this practically on a 
self-supporting basis. Probably no public department is 
performing a greater service in a less ostentatious manner 
than this carried on in the interest of personal cleanliness, 



136 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

and that at a cost to the community approximating 
(inclusive of Sinking Fund and Interest) Jd. per of 
rates. 

To the interested visitor fuller particulars in regard to 
special departments of the city's life and work will be 
gladly made available ; to help in this direction brochures 
have been prepared in those departments which are more 
likely to interest in this way, and these will be supplied 
on application. 



The Evolution of Public Health in Dundee 
since 1870.* 

By Chas. Templeman, M.D., D.Sc., Medical Officer 
of Health. 

WHEN the British Association last visited Dundee, Pre- 
ventive Medicine was just beginning to take its place 
among the sciences. In common with all the large towns, 
Dundee had been devastated from time to time by 
epidemics of cholera, smallpox, typhus fever, and other 
infections, and was just emerging from the period when 
these were regarded somewhat complacently as a visitation 
from God, and not recognised as the direct result of the 
violation and neglect of the simple laws of Nature. The 
measures devised to cope with these epidemics were often 
hasty and ill-conceived carried out in a panic of fear to 
combat its ravages, but making no attempt to seek out and 
remedy those permanent conditions which were the real 
cause of them. Whenever the epidemic which gave 

* Copies of Dr. Templeman's Eeport on Public Health iii Dundee 
during 1911 are available on application for Members of the 
British Association. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 137 

occasion to those temporary and palliative measures had 
passed away, matters were allowed to drift back to the 
old conditions, till a fresh outbreak gave another warning 
of the dangers of neglecting the elementary natural laws. 

We can fairly claim that since the passing of the Public 
Health (Scotland) Act, 1867, the Local Authority of this 
City has recognised its responsibilities in the matter of 
safeguarding the health of the inhabitants, and has taken 
advantage of all the machinery provided by Parliament 
since that time to improve the amenities of the life of its 
citizens. 

POPULATION. 

In 1868 the population of the City had just reached 
100,000. By the census of 1871 it was found to be 
118,977, an increase of 28,560 over that of 1861. This is 
the period of greatest expansion in the history of the 
City the increase being greater than that of any decennium 
since the census was taken in 1821. During the next 
decennium the increase was next in size viz., 21,817 
the population in 1881 being 140,794. The next ten years 
shewed a further increase of 14,881 the census of 1891 
shewing a population of 155,675. Since then, in spite of 
an extension of our boundaries, which included the village 
of Downfield, the increase in the population has been slow, 
and the census of 1911 shewed that the City contained 
165,006 inhabitants. 

The early seventies saw the culmination of a municipal 
policy which had a very marked effect on the health of the 
City. Under an Improvement Act, the closely-packed 
area in the centre of the City was taken over by the 
Corporation and gradually demolished. In this part the 
streets were narrow, and running off them were narrow 
closes, flanked on both sides by high buildings, consisting 
of dwellings into many of which the rays of the sun never 
penetrated and round which fresh air could not possibly 
circulate. These were largely occupied by the lowest 
stratum of the population. There typhus fever found a 
suitable habitat. Indeed this disease, which only flourishes 
amongst dirt, darkness, and poverty, was never absent 



138 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

from the City, and burst out in epidemic form from time 
to time with direful results. Earely fewer than 200 cases 
per annum were treated in the Royal Infirmary before the 
City Improvement Scheme was carried out, and the narrow 
streets and rookeries in the centre of the town were swept 
away, and wide streets with well-ventilated and sunlit 
dwellings took their place. In 1865-66, when the popula- 
tion only numbered 97,000, no fewer than 1084 cases were 
treated in the Infirmary, and this, of course, gives no 
reliable index of the number of cases in the City, as at 
that time there was no system of compulsory notification 
in force. By the enlightened policy of opening up this 
congested and insanitary area, and dealing in a similar 
manner with other parts of the town, this disease has 
been practically banished from our midst. 

DEATH-RATE. 

During the forty years under review the death-rate of 
the City, in common with that of the country generally, 
has decreased. In the decennium 1870-80 the highest 
death-rate recorded was 31*74 per 1000 in 1874, and the 
lowest 21-05 in 1879, while the average was 24'9S per 1000. 
From 1900-10 the highest recorded in any year was 21*14 
in 1900 and the lowest 17'97 in 1905. The average for 
the past ten years was 19-19, shewing a decrease of 579 
per 1000, or a saving of 950 lives per annum calculated on 
the present population. This result is the reflex of an 
enlightened municipal policy pursued throughout this 
period. I have already referred to the great Improve- 
ment Scheme which did so much to rid us of many of our 
worst slums, and as the subject of Housing is dealt with 
elsewhere, I need not detail the measures since carried out 
to improve the conditions under which the poor of the 
City live. 

The active supervision of our milk supply since the 
introduction of the first Order by the Privy Council in 
1879, and the improvement which has taken place in the 
conditions under which this important article of food is 
produced and distributed, has had a very beneficial result 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 139 

on the health of the community which it is not possible to 
express in figures. Much, however, remains to be done to 
put the milk supply of the country in general, and our 
large cities in particular, on a satisfactory basis. 

By the Dundee Police and Improvement Consolidation 
Act, 1882, we obtained powers much in advance of the 
general legislation of the country, and this gave a great 
impetus to the Public Health and Sanitary Service in the 
City. This Act dealt with such matters as drainage, 
sewerage, laying out of new streets, mitigation and pre- 
vention of disease, etc. Many of the provisions of this 
Act, such as the power to prohibit the sale of milk from 
infected dairies, compulsory notification of infectious 
disease, compulsory closing of houses unfit for human 
habitation, etc., did not come into operation over the 
country generally for many years, and in many respects 
we forestalled the Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1897. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

The incidence and fatality of the common infectious 
diseases have undergone a remarkable change since 1870. 
The introduction of a system of compulsory notification in 
1882 did much to bring the ordinary infectious diseases 
under control. The power to enforce this was sanctioned 
by Parliament in the Dundee Police and Improvement 
Consolidation Act of 18H2. This has enabled us to study 
more closely the more or less regular periodicity which 
characterises outbreaks of infectious diseases. These as a 
rule move along in waves, the crests of which are separated 
from each other by more or less regular intervals. These 
waves vary in height, and sometimes the crest of one may 
extend over more than a year. The incidence of scarlet 
fever in Dundee illustrates this, although we have long 
enjoyed a comparative immunity to this disease which is 
difficult to explain. The last great wave, in the case 
of scarlet fever, passed over Dundee in 1886-87. During 
these two years we find that 5515 cases were notified. 
Between these years and the present time the yearly 
incidence has varied greatly. The disease remained at 



140 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

a lower level till 1896-97, when a wave of lesser height 
passed over the City. This was followed by another 
period of quiescence lasting for ten years. In 1906 it 
again rose somewhat, subsiding in the following year, and 
then increasing till it culminated in the outbreak of 1910. 
Of late years its prevalence has decreased very con- 
siderably throughout the country, and its fatality has 
diminished so greatly that it is not now the dreaded 
disease it once was. Whether this is due to a lessened 
virulence in the infective agent, or an increased resistance 
in the population, or to a combination of both, it is 
impossible to say. The case mortality for the first ten 
years after the introduction of compulsory notification 
was 4'5 per cent., and during the outbreak of 1910 this 
was reduced to 2*7 per cent. 

Typhoid Fever. The incidence of typhoid fever in 
Dundee has been remarkably low during the past thirty 
years. The City has the advantage of an abundant supply 
of excellent water, and situated as it is on ground which 
rises from the river northwards, it affords unusual facilities 
for an efficient system of drainage ; while the proximity of 
a wide tidal river permits of the sewage being disposed 
of without offence. While one or two limited outbreaks 
of typhoid have occurred from infected milk brought in 
from the country, we have been altogether free from those 
extensive outbreaks associated with polluted water. 

Typhus Fever. As already mentioned, the great 
improvement which has been effected in the older parts 
of the City has practically abolished this disease, so that 
now-a-days it does not constitute a serious factor in our 
bills of mortality. 

Diphtheria. This disease has of late years shewn a 
tendency to increase in all Urban Districts, and Dundee 
has been no exception to the rule ; but while its incidence 
has increased considerably, its fatality has been greatly 
reduced since the treatment by anti-diphtheric serum was 
introduced. Before this time, in the quinquennium 1886 
to 1890, the case mortality was 54 per cent. From 1891 
to 1895 it was 36 per cent. About that time the serum 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 141 

came into use, and in the period from 1886 to 1900 the 
mortality was reduced to 22 per cent. ; and from 1900 to 
1905 it was still further reduced to 15*7 per cent.; and 
from 1906 to 1910 it was equivalent to 15*6 per cent. 

Smallpox. During the past thirty years Dundee has 
been free from any serious epidemic of smallpox. The 
greatest prevalence of the disease was from 1901 to 1905, 
when altogether 172 cases occurred. The erection and 
equipment of a modern Hospital for Infectious Diseases 
(opened in 1889), a special Hospital for Smallpox (erected in 
1894), and the possession of a Eeceptiori House for Contacts 
have enabled us successfully to cope with any threatened 
outbreaks, and have been the means of saving many lives 
which would otherwise have been sacrificed, Till this was 
done the hospital accommodation in the City was very 
defective, and special accommodation was only provided 
under the stress of epidemics and available only during 
their prevalence. Such an institution as a means of pre- 
venting epidemics was undreamt of its only function was 
to prevent their spread once they had appeared and to 
treat the individual cases. 

The first Public Hospital was a wooden structure erected 
on the outskirts of Lochee. It was used during an 
epidemic of smallpox. Previous to that time cases of 
infectious disease were treated in the Koyal Infirmary, 
but when the accommodation there was overtaxed pro- 
vision had to be made by the Local Authority. When an 
epidemic of typhus occurred, and the resources of the 
Infirmary were again overstrained, another wooden erection 
was built on the same site. An outbreak of scarlet fever 
in 1873 necessitated some special provisipn, and this was 
made by the provision of a wooden structure at King's 
Cross on the site of the present Hospital. With the 
erection of a permanent building those temporary struc- 
tures were demolished, and from time to time the accom- 
modation at King's Cross has been increased with the 
needs of the public, till we have now an excellent Hospital 
of about 140 beds doing a good public service 

Of the non-notifiable diseases, measles and whooping- 



142 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

cough are the chief. Like all other cities, we have a 
visitation of these diseases every two or three years. 
They are the most fatal of all the infections in children, 
and unfortunately modern science has not yet succeeded 
in evolving any plan which has been successful in pre- 
venting their prevalence or diminishing their fatality. 
An extension of the Hospital is in progress to make 
provision for the treatment of those cases where their 
home conditions jeopardise any chance of recovery they 
may have, and we hope in this way, if we cannot prevent 
the occurrence of outbreaks, we may at least lessen their 
mortality. 

Consumption. This disease is now classed amongst 
the infections. Dundee has shared with the country 
generally in the remarkable decrease which this disease 
has shewn. During the past forty years its prevalence 
has steadily diminished, and the mortality reduced from 
nearly 30 per 10,000 of the population in the early 
seventies to 17 per 10.000 during the quinquenium 1906- 
1910. This decline has been in the main due to the great 
advance which has taken place in general sanitation, and 
had commenced before any measures had been adopted 
dealing with the individual, as well as his environment. 
Of late years public attention has been called to the 
infectious nature of this disease and to the simple measures 
which are necessary for preventing its spread from person 
to person ; and as the community comes to realise how 
much the infected person has it in his power to render 
himself a safe member of society, the proper care of the 
cough and spit will in all cases be insisted on. 

In Dundee the diminution of our death-rate in the early 
part of the fall was undoubtedly due to an improvement 
in the housing conditions, to the closing of narrow courts 
and alleys, to the prevention of overcrowding, and all 
these improvements in those conditions of environment 
which have led to the abolition of typhus ; but in addition 
to these, the great improvement in the social conditions 
and the general amenities of life have led to the building 
up in the individual of a greater power of resistance to the 
invasion of the tubercle bacillus. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 143 

Naturally, the improvements which might reasonably 
be expected from the advance in general conditions has its 
limitations, and we are now tackling in addition to these 
the individual himself as a source of infection, arid the 
measures adopted here are the following : 

1. Voluntary notification of cases of the disease. This 
is admitted to be ineffective, and considerably handicaps 
our efforts. Without a complete knowledge of the locale 
of the disease it is evidently impossible to deal effectively 
with it. There is reason to believe, however, that in the 
immediate future compulsory notification will be obligatory 
in all parts of the country. 

2. Domiciliary visits by a nurse to educate patients in 
the means necessary for protecting other members of the 
family and the public generally, as well as protecting 
themselves from further infection. 

3. Disinfection of infected rooms. 

4. The provision of sputum flasks. 

5. The bacteriological examination of sputum free of 
charge to medical men. 

6. The Municipal Dispensary. This was the first 
Dispensary of the kind in Scotland. It is managed by 
the Town Council, and the work is done by a special 
Medical Officer under the supervision of the Medical 
Officer of Health. The Directors of the Royal Infirmary 
have kindly placed at our disposal the splendid suite of 
Out-Patient Rooms recently erected by the generosity 
of J. K. Caird, LL.D., and a number of cases are being 
treated by the Tuberculin method. The institution is 
being largely taken advantage of by the public, and the 
fact that many of them who are not found to he suffering 
from phthisis at all, or are still in the earliest stages of the 
disease, shows that many who are apprehensive of a 
general breakdown are willing to go there when they 
would not otherwise think of going to a doctor. In this 
way a considerable number come under observation at the 
stage when the treatment is likely to benefit them, and 
they can best be taught to carry out those simple pre- 
cautions necessary to prevent the spread of the disease. 
A< I vantage is taken on their application to examine the 



144 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

other members of the family, and in this way unsuspected 
cases are sometimes discovered. These cases are kept 
constantly under observation, and are visited by a trained 
nurse, who sees that the instructions given at the 
Dispensary are carried out. 

7. Provision at Sidlaw Sanatorium for a few of the 
early cases. 

Under arrangement with the Directors of the Royal 
Infirmary we have placed at our disposal at the 
Sanatorium at Auchterhouse seven beds for the treat- 
ment of early cases. For this the Town Council pay 
546 per annum that is, 30s. per week per bed. In 
addition to these measures the Town Council have agreed 
to make provision for the isolation and treatment of 
advanced cases at King's Cross Hospital. These cases 
will be removed from homes in which the conditions are 
such as to endanger the health of the other inmates, or 
when the patient is so ill that he cannot take the necessary 
precautions to prevent him becoming a source of danger to 
the other members of the family. In view of the fact that 
the immediate future is likely to see a great addition made 
to the responsibilities of Local Authorities in connection 
with phthisis, this project has meantime been postponed 
till the whole subject can be tackled in the light of the 
necessities of the case, and the financial help to be given 
by the Government towards the increased expenditure 
this will involve. 

INFANT MORTALITY. 

As a result of the exceptional industrial conditions 
prevailing in Dundee the very low wages paid to un- 
skilled male workers in our mills and factories and the 
large number of women (including married women) em- 
ployed in them our infant mortality has generally been 
higher than that of any of the cities in Scotland. Much 
has been done by the Town Council to lessen this, and 
their efforts have been on the whole successful. These 
have been, of course, directed towards the improvement of 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 145 

the health of the mother, and her education in the 
elementary principles of infant hygiene. 
These measures are as follows : 

1. Distribution of leaflets by Registrars giving simple 
directions as to Infant Hygiene. 

2. Early Notification of Births and Home Visitation by 
Health Visitors and by a Corps of Voluntary Workers. 
Each of the Visitors is prepared to act as a friend and 
counsellor to a few families, and one of the chief points 
they try to impress on the mother is the great advantage 
to both the infants and themselves of suckling their child 
for at least three months. In many cases they procure 
help financial and otherwise to many of these poor 
mothers, who are ill-prepared for any addition to their 
households ; but they early recognised that if any sub- 
stantial and permanent benefit was to result from their 
visitations they must be prepared to give something more 
substantial than advice and sympathy in the case of those 
necessitous mothers. Recognising this, the Town Council 
have for the past four years voted a sum of 250 from the 
Common Good for the establishment and maintenance of 
two Restaurants for Nursing Mothers in Lochee and 
Blackscroft, and have granted 50 to assist in the support 
of the first Restaurant of the kind started in any city in 
Scotland, which is carried on by the Dundee Social Union. 

The work of these Restaurants include : 

(1) Infant visiting. 

(2) The providing of good and nourishing dinners at 

a moderate charge. 

(3) Weighing the babies once a week and giving 

advice as to management. 

(4) Mothers' evening. 

The objects are : 

(1) To encourage breast feeding of infants. 

(2) To discourage married women's work. 

(3) To provide a centre for educational work among 

mothers. 



146 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

The value of this work cannot be overestimated. The 
mere reduction of the death-rate of infants does not 
express it. The educational side of the work, as well as 
the material help afforded, has a lasting beneficial effect 
on those children who survive, in the improvement of 
their health, thus helping them to become healthy and 
useful members of the community. 

We also had in Dundee a Municipal Milk Depot, the 
object of which was to lessen our infant mortality by 
supplying a pure and physiological infant food for those 
children who have to be brought up by hand. Care was 
taken to provide this as far as possible only to mothers 
who, for some reason or other, are unable temporarily or 
permanently to suckle their infant. The supreme import- 
ance of breast feeding was always emphasised, but where 
this was impossible we tried to provide the best physio- 
logical substitute. Even this was, of course, not found to 
be suitable in every case, and had sometimes to be given 
up. Advantage was not taken of this to the extent 
anticipated, nor altogether by the class of the community 
for which it was specially provided, and the preparation 
and distribution of the milk was for a time handed over 
to a private company, who carried on the work on the 
same lines as the Municipality did, and to prevent any 
financial loss the company received a subsidy per child 
from the Town Council. This, however, has since 
reluctantly been abandoned. 

Our infant mortality in Dundee during the past 25 
years varied from 142 to 217 per 1000 births. 

Most valuable work is also being done by two Lady 
Health Visitors, whose duties are mainly educative. These 
consist in house-to-house visitation in the poorer quarters 
of the City to induce cleanliness of house, person, and 
clothing ; giving instructions to mothers on infant feeding 
and on the steps necessary fof keeping children in good 
health ; calling attention to bad clothing and neglected 
conditions; advising as to the prevention of infectious 
disease ; and the care necessary in cases of such diseases 
as measles and whooping-cough. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 147 

A qualified Veterinary Surgeon is also a member of the 
Public Health Staff, and his work in supervising the cows 
in the city dairies and preventing the milk from tuber- 
culous animals being sold is of great public benefit. 

Altogether the equipment of the Health Department 
compares favourably with that of any of the other cities 
in the kingdom; and the great reduction in our general 
mortality and in the improvement of the amenities of life 
in the City are largely due to the forward and enlightened 
policy our Municipal representatives have always adopted 
in dealing with matters affecting the health and comfort 
of the citizens. 



Sanitation and Pure Air in Dundee 50 Years 
Ago and Now. 

By Thomas Kinnear, Chief Sanitary Inspector. 

FIFTY years ago Dundee was in a state of sanitary chaos ; 
to-day the City may claim to stand comparison from a 
sanitary point of view with any other large centre of 
population in the United Kingdom. This change from an 
unhealthy to a sweeter environment I am able to speak of 
from personal experience as I can, unlike any of my other 
colleagues, look back over tifty years of official service, 
1 uiving begun the revolutionary process indicated above as 
Chief Inspector at the time when the British Association 
last honoured Dundee with a visit in 1867. 

In large towns the process of advance from more primitive 
methods up to present day requirements of Public Health 
and Sanitary Laws is not the work of a few years, but with 
us it has taken half-a-century of persistent work at 
reconstruction to keep up with developments in Sanitary 
Science. 



148 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

When the Public Health Act of 1867 came into force 
the late Sir John Skelton strongly urged the various local 
authorities in Scotland, as far as possible, to appoint Police 
Officers to the then new posts of Sanitary Inspectors. I had 
been in police service for seven years, when I was then 
offered and accepted charge of the new Sanitary Depart- 
ment then created. Prior to this time I had, however, 
been helping in the Sanitary Work of the Burgh. The 
new conditions which it was my duty to enforce met with 
a fierce resistance, but resolute and persistent effort on my 
part were successful in enforcing the first essential 
elements necessary for improving the sanitation and air of 
the town ; providing increased facilities for cleansing, and 
thus helping to prolong life and eradicate the insanitary 
and atmospheric pollutions which were so hideous and 
fruitful a cause of infectious disease and death. 

At this time Dundee was wholly devoid of sanitation. 
Drainage of even the most meagre description was barely 
in evidence and what there was consisted of stone built 
rubble, allowing the liquid to percolate through and soak 
into the ground, thus poisoning the soil. A few public 
sewers were put down but these were confined to the 
leading thoroughfares. There was no proper supply of 
water for domestic, culinary, or Hushing purposes. All 
there was was largely obtained from wells situated at various 
places throughout the Burgh, the supply being limited and 
derived entirely from springs. Many of the population 
had to carry their supplies at least half-a-mile to their 
homes in pails. In dry weather water was carted into the 
Burgh in barrels from outwith the boundaries and sold on 
the streets. Monikie provided the only permanent supply, 
but it was very scanty and altogether insufficient. Under 
such conditions water closets were an impossibility. There 
were five such places only which came under this designa- 
ation. Three were in hotels and two in private houses 
all of them being of a very primitive description, the 
flushing water having to be carried in buckets. The only 
other conveniences of this nature were wooden or brick 
privies (of which there were about 1,000), with holes sunk 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 149 

in the ground of from four to five feet deep under them as 
dung pits, into which all filth and foul liquids were thrown. 
The emptying of these pits was attended with the most 
horrible odours. The scavengers, equipped with sea boots, 
started about 4 a.m. to empty them and wheeled the 
contents out to the streets, on which they were deposited 
prior to being carted away. A few of the streets in the 
centre of the town were paved with cobble stones, while 
the surface of the others was of ordinary earth. The 
liquid spread about, formed pools, and the operations of the 
scavenger's broom only accentuated matters. This was the 
odour which met the mill and factory employees in the 
mornings ere they reached their work. The effluvium 
was in evidence throughout a great portion of the day, 
and if a whiff of fresh invigorating air was desired a 
pilgrimage had to be made to the foreshore or outskirts. 
The attempt to disinfect the streets and closes with chloride 
of lime only emphasised the nausea. The indecencies of 
children and others were constantly to be met with in the 
streets, lanes, courts, and entries owing to the inadequacy 
of the public accommodation of this kind. 

The public lavatories, of which there were fourteen, con- 
sisted of large open 10 to 30 seated wooden erections with 
trenches four and five feet deep, which were cleaned out 
in the same way as above described. After being emptied, 
these trenches or holes were filled in with two or three 
feet of mill dust to absorb the liquid. This proved a most 
valuable financial asset to the town. At that time the 
Corporation paid about 1,000 per annum for mill dust, 
while the income from manure totalled between 10,000 
and 11,000. Last year only 14 was paid for mill dust, 
while the total income for all manure sold was between 
3,000 and 4,000. One of the largest of these lavatories 
stood at the top of New Inn Entry, whilst the ground on 
which the Albert Galleries now stands was a soft, marshy 
evil-smelling bog. There were no Exchange Buildings 
then ; the merchants congregated in the Cowgate and St. 
Andrew's Square. The lavatories for males and females 
at the works were of the same primitive nature before 



150 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

described and were emptied in the same way. Water for 
flushing was an impossibility and although this had been 
available there were no drains to carry it away. 

All the courts, footways, and passages in the centre of 
the town of which there were about 300 were entirely 
unpaved. Where there was any attempt at this it con- 
sisted of pieces of stone, bricks, or wood used as stepping 
stones to allow passengers in wet weather to negotiate the 
quagmires. These courts were also largely used for the 
deposit of the contents of slop pails. 

Overcrowding was rampant and the staff was much too 
weak to cope with it energetically, inspections being carried 
out only between midnight and 4 a.m. Many of the 
buildings in the denser parts of the town were simply 
rotten, whilst there were between 200 and 300 underground 
cellars used as dwelling-houses. 

There was no attempt made to enforce the Smoke Abate- 
ment Act for modifying the pollution of the atmosphere 
by smoke emitted in dense volumes from factory stalks and 
which was full of smut and coom. Dairies were of the 
most insanitary character, being without drainage, paving, 
light, ventilation, or dung stances, while the milk was 
drawn from the cows in the most undesirable surroundings. 
Piggeries were numerous and scattered all over the town 
in undesirable places, even ben rooms, cellars, and attics 
being utilised as stys, the pigs mixing freely with the family. 

Bakehouses were at this time small and chiefly under- 
ground, ill-ventilated places. Workshops were mostly 
underground with no facilities for the passage of fresh air. 
Shops in which food supplies were stored and sold were 
dark, stufi'y places, and so carelessly kept that the food 
was open to considerable contamination. 

It cannot therefore be surprising that under such con- 
ditions as I have described, the most loathsome of infectious 
diseases were more or less constantly present in epidemic 
form. From the year 1860 onwards smallpox, typhus, and 
typhoid or gastric fevers were serious menaces to the 
health of the community. In 1865 over 1000 cases of 
typhus came to light. For many years subsequent to this 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 151 

there were never less than from 300 to 500 cases per 
annum, and the treatment of these without proper hospital 
accommodation other than the Eoyal Infirmary, which was 
invariably full, was a problem which the local authority 
long hesitated to deal with. Occasional cases of cholera 
cropped up in the warm weather from 1860 to 1867, since 
which date there has been no recurrence of this. 

All these deplorable conditions, in fact, have now entirely 
passed away. A new town has arisen into which has been 
absorbed the old little Burgh, and although many of the 
older land-marks and buildings still remain these latter 
have mostly been modernised. Old buildings which were 
simply warrens for vermin and filth in back closes, as well 
as the nurseries of vice and crime, have been demolished, 
leaving wide streets, open spaces, and stately buildings in 
their place. After the passing of the Act of 1871 property 
improvements were begun in earnest. The old sunk holes 
gave place to cistern stone ashpits properly drained, a good 
system of house drainage was laid down, the public sewers 
were extended and the closes, areas, footways, and courts 
were drained and laid with pavement flags. 

Then the sanitarian's greatest asset, a plentiful supply of 
pure water, was got from Lintrathen in 1875, when another 
reform was made in supplying water into houses instead of 
from wells and taps on stair heads, and also the addition of 
water-closet accommodation. In 1901 the final stages of 
converting the whole town into one of sanitary convenience 
on the water carriage system was entered upon, and I am 
satisfied that there is now no town in Scotland better 
equipped in this direction, as there is practically not a 
single building within our 4,755 acres which cannot boast 
of ample accommodation. Almost every house has a 
plentiful supply of water brought into the kitchen by 
water taps and sinks. Since the year referred to 5,500 
water closets have been added to properties displacing 
privies and old and defective closets. On this work alone 
over 80,000 has been expended by property owners. The 
wooden public lavatories have been cleared away and the 
Corporation has provided fireclay enamelled underground 



152 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

buildings of the most modern type. At the time of writing 
overcrowding has practically disappeared from our com- 
munity, any cases discovered being of a trifling nature. 
There is not a single underground house in occupation. 
These have all been demolished or been converted into 
and used as storage premises. The underground bake- 
houses have disappeared and finely equipped premises with 
excellent accommodation and the best of facilities for the 
workers keeping themselves clean, so that the food of the 
people may be produced under the most hygienic conditions, 
take their place. Workshops are either on the street level 
or above it, airy, and with all the requirements necessary 
for securing that the workers perform their duties under 
the most healthy conditions. The pollution of the 
atmosphere by smoke from factory chimneys has been 
dealt with where necessary, and a great reduction of this 
nuisance obtained although further improvement is still 
looked for in this direction. Dundee was the first town 
in Scotland to deal with this problem. 

That part of our milk supply within the Burgh is pro- 
vided under the most sanitary conditions. Old byres have 
given way to modern structures, fully drained and pro- 
vided with water for flushing and cleansing, and proper 
houses are provided in which to store the milk. Those 
handling same are instructed on the absolute necessity of 
personal cleanliness, whilst the animals are under 
Municipal Veterinary Inspection. In place of the dirty 
and ill kept shops we have now handsome, well lighted, 
ventilated, and cleanly kept premises in their stead. 

Looking back over the period under review I can better 
see the importance and value of the work than when I 
entered upon my duties as a sanitarian. Under existing 
conditions I have shown our community is living and 
working in an atmosphere infinitely more conducive to 
health and happiness than existed fifty years ago. The 
main cause of air impurities has been removed and as 
evidence of the beneficial effect that this, in conjunction with 
improvements in sanitation, has effected, one need only 
refer to the fact that the death-rate, then about thirty-two 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 153 

per thousand of the population, has now been reduced to 
an average of about nineteen, whilst the more dangerous 
and infectious diseases are never with us in epidemic and 
rarely in any form. 

Unfortunately, those responsible for enforcing Sanitary 
Laws are always fighting on an unpopular side, as their 
labours necessitate the spending of private money, and 
this perhaps tends to obscure the enormous economic 
value of the work carried out by them. 



Dundee Public Parks and Cemeteries. 

By John Carnochan and Alex. Macrae. 



I THE citizens of Dundee have provided for their use ten 
parks, consisting of 266 acres or thereby. These are 
is follows : 
BAXTER PARK (36{ acres), after being laid out in an 
ornamental manner, was presented to the community by 
the late Sir David Baxter in 1863. This park was en- 
dowed by the Honor, and was administered by Trustees up 
to 1903, when the investments by which the endowment 
was secured had depreciated to such an extent that the 
Trustees felt themselves unable to maintain the park. It 
was then handed over to the Town Council, so that the 
endowment might be supplemented from the rates as 
required to maintain it in proper condition 

While the greater part was laid out ornamentally, a 
considerable space is allocated for recreation purposes, 
there now being three bowling greens and two cricket 
pitches. One green (laid out by the late Provost Moncur) 
in occupied by a Club and maintained at the cost of 
the Parks Department, to whom the members of the 
Club pay 5s. each per annum and provide their own 



154 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

bowls and green equipment. All other greens are open 
to the public, have bowls and all equipments pro- 
vided, and these are charged for at a penny per hour. 
The cricket pitches were specially laid out, are main- 
tained at the cost of the Clubs frequenting the park, and 
are used for matches only, as such Clubs may arrange ; of 
both greens and pitches full advantage is taken, and they 
are much appreciated. 

From the highest point in the park, where a flag-pole 
stands, a beautiful view can be obtained of the estuary of 
the Tay and the Fifeshire shore and hills for a considerable 
distance. An ornamental, substantial, and roomy pavilion 
stands in the centre of the park, on each side of which 
ample space is devoted to flowers. 

BALGAY PARK (35f acres) was acquired by the Corpora- 
tion in 1870. This is a naturally-wooded hill, and connected 
with its cemetery, forms perhaps one of the finest public 
open spaces in the country. Walks and carriage drives 
have been laid out, so that the highest point may be 
reached on an easy gradient, from which a magnificent 
view in all directions may be obtained. There is not 
much in the way of ornamental gardening attempted in 
this park, the naturally-wooded slopes left undisturbed 
being more in keeping with the nature of the ground. 
There are a few flower beds at the two entrance gates and 
some in the centre, but otherwise the park is in its natural 
state. There is no ground suitable for games. 

MAGDALEN GREEN (20J acres) is an open park, the 
greater part thereof having been reclaimed from the fore- 
shore. As it is of limited extent crossways and close to 
dwelling-houses, it is unsuitable for football and cricket, 
and these games are prohibited, but there is one bowling 
green. The park is, however, largely used for Volunteer 
drill, also for excursions visiting the town. The Dundee 
Horticultural Society, one of the most successful of its 
kind in Scotland, holds its annual show here, and being 
close to the railway stations, it is specially suited for that 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 155 

purpose. There is a gymasium at the east end of the 
Green, consisting of swings and maypoles, for children 
under fourteen years of age, which is taken full advantage 
of, especially during the summer months. 

DUNDEE LAW (17J acres) was acquired by the Corpora- 
tion in 1878. On this natural hill, which dominates the 
landscape, and is largely responsible for the shape taken 
by the City circling its base, no laying out has ever been 
attempted, and it is too precipitous for games of any sort. 
At the summit is an indicator in the form of a dial, with 
lines marked pointing out by name the outstanding features 
in the distant landscape that can be seen therefrom ; and 
as this is the highest point in the vicinity of Dundee, a 
very extensive view can be obtained. 

LOCHEE PARK (23 acres) was presented to the com- 
munity by Messrs Cox Brothers in 1899 and also partially 
endowed by them. It is used entirely for recreation 
purposes. Football is played in winter, and cricket in 
summer, also golf in the early morning all the year round. 
There are six laid-out pitches for cricket, maintained at 
the cost of the Corporation, for matches only, and one 
bowling green, and the ground outwith can be used for 
cricket practice to any extent. There are two shelters in 
the park, also a gymnasium for children under fourteen 
years of age. 

This park lies to the north of Kalgay, but is separated 
from it by a parapet wall and iron railing. 

STOBSMUIR (9J acres), situated at the north-east end of 
the town, is divided up into two skating ponds, surrounded 
by ornamental pleasure grounds. Swans are kept at one 
of the ponds during spring and summer, but removed 
when the skating season comes round. The other pond is 
largely used in summer for sailing model yachts. There 
is here also a gymnasium for children. 



156 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

FAIRMUIR (17 acres) is an open park, and at one time 
was largely used as a market and fair stance, and is still 
occasionally used as such. It was extended some years 
ago by the Corporation, and used for recreation purposes, 
football being played in winter and cricket in summer. 

DUDHOPE PARK (23 acres) was acquired by the Corpora- 
tion in 1893. Previously it was held under lease by the 
Government as a Military Station, but some time earlier 
its use had been discontinued. The three buildings in 
connection with the Military Station are still standing, 
part being an old castle of historic interest. 

Acquired with the view of providing facilities for recrea- 
tion such as the nature of the ground would permit laying 
out, this object was kept closely in view. The only orna- 
mental gardening attempted was on steep, sloping banks 
and contracted corners unsuitable for recreation. There 
is one bowling green, and cricket (confined to youths) is 
the only other game allowed in this park. There is a large 
macadamised square round the buildings in the centre of 
the park, which is used for Volunteer drill, public meet- 
ings, demonstrations, etc., as required. There is also a 
gymnasium at the west end of the square. 

ESPLANADE (at present 30 acres) is being extended year 
by year by reclamation from foreshore with town's refuse. 
This is an open park, one-half of which is surfaced with 
danders, well rolled down, on which football goalposts are 
kept up at the town's expense, and the ground devoted 
exclusively to football. The other half is in grass, on 
which goalposts are erected for youths. Cricket is also 
played here during the summer months. 

VICTORIA PARK (22 acres) has been lately acquired for 
recreation purposes by the Corporation. It adjoins Balgay 
Park to the south. A gymnasium was erected for children, 
while there is also a bowling green, and golf is allowed 
from 6 to 9 a.m. as season allows. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 157 

Besides the foregoing parks, there are throughout the 
town open spaces, on six of which gymnasiums for children 
have been erected. Some of the spaces are planted out in 
an ornamental manner. 

CEMETERIES. 

Dundee takes a high position in respect of its public 
services, and in none more than in this. Of the three 
cemeteries now in use in the City, two belong to the 
Corporation (the Eastern Necropolis and Western 
Necropolis), only one (the Western Cemetery) being 
owned by a private Company. 

It obviously is a great advantage to a community when 
the Local Authority provides burial grounds, as the cost to 
purchasers and the dues chargeable is thus greatly lessened 
tand a greater public interest is possible. 

The Corporation Cemeteries of Dundee and the cost 
thereof are as follows : 

EASTERN NECROPOLIS 
(Arbroath Eoad). 

Acquired. Acres. Cost. Enclosing, Laying-out, Etc-. 

1862-3 20 9,000 10,421 

1876-7 20 18,000 6,698 

1905-6 3J 1,575 935 

WESTERN NECROPOLIS 
(Balgay Hill). 

1869-70 25 7,594 7,985 

1893-4 17 4,400 (None of this laid out) 

1902-3 15 6,000 (5 acres) 2,312 

Totals 100$ 46,569 28,351 

74,920 



158 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

The total number of interments made in the above 
Cemeteries up to 31st December 19 LI was : 

Eastern Necropolis 92,844 

Western Necropolis 42,263 

Total 135,107 

A public assessment of IJd. per was levied in 1862-3, 
and was continued at a decreasing rate up till 1892-3. 
Since that time the Cemetery Kevenue has been equal to 
meeting Interest and Sinking Fund on all Capital outlay 
incurred. The outlay in acquiring and laying out ground 
during the period the assessment was levied was 56,740, 
and since the assessment ceased 18,180 a total of 
74,920. 

Previous to these Cemeteries being acquired, the needs 
of the citizens were met by six old burying grounds, viz. : 
The Howff, Logie, Constitution Eoad, St. Peter's, St. 
Andrew's, and Koodyards. When the closing order was 
made by the Chief Secretary of 'State on 16th May 1871, 
under certain conditions right was reserved to a consider- 
able number of old residenters, but very few of these now 
remain. The Howff, however, was .definitely closed in 
1840, and only one interment has been made therein 
since that of Mr George Duncan, M.P. for Dundee, 
whose death took place on 6th January 1878. Before 
the grave could be opened special permission had to be 
obtained from the Secretary of State. 

The Howff was presented by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 
1564, to be used as a burying ground outwith the City. 
The reason for this, as stated at the time, was owing to 
the burying grounds then in use being surrounded by 
dwelling-houses, and consequently a source of danger to 
the health of the citizens. This being the principal 
burying-place in Dundee for 276 years, points to the slow 
growth of the population for a long period. Its interesting 
history is, however, more adequately dealt with elsewhere 
in this book. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 



159 



Markets and Slaughter-Houses. 

By J. A. Baxter and James Walker. 




THESE are all owned and controlled by the Corporation. 
They consist of (1) The Cattle Market, this being the 
Market for the sale of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, 
agricultural produce, vehicles, and agricultural imple- 
ments; (2) The Public Slaughter-Houses; (3) The Meat 
Market ; (4) The Greerimarket ; (5) The Flower and Fruit 
Market; (6) The Fish Market. 

The first three of these, viz., The Cattle Market, 
Slaughter Houses, and Meat Market, have been very 
wisely provided for on one site and are under one manage- 
ment. 

The site selected by the Police Commissioners in 1875 
is well isolated from dwelling-houses, and is fairly con- 
venient for all parties using the premises. It is situated 
about three quarters of a mile to the east of the High 
Street on the Dundee and Monineth tramway route, and 



160 -PUBLIC SERVICES. 

is conveniently near the Dundee and Arbroath Joint 
Bail way Station, where there is also a loading bank for 
cattle in Dock Street, within half a mile of the Market ; at 
least three-fourths of the cattle brought to the Market are 
unloaded at that bank so that they can be driven along 
East Dock Street, a route clear of all dwelling-houses and 
business premises, thus reducing the danger and incon- 
venience of driving cattle through the streets to a 
minimum. 

The site for the premises is about 6 acres in extent ; it 
lies immediately to the east of Market Street, and is 
bounded on the north by the Broughty Ferry Boad, and 
on the south by East Dock Street, direct access being had 
to the Cattle Market from Market Street and to the 
Slaughter- Houses from Dock Street. 

THE CATTLE MAEKET. 

The Cattle Market occupies the upper part of the site. 
It is about 2^ acres in extent, accommodation being 
provided for the sale on any given sale day of about 500 fat 
cattle, 300 to 400 store cattle, 1000 sheep, 125 pigs, and 
120 dairy cows ; there are also 3 sale rooms for agricultural 
implements, and an open square, about two-thirds of an 
acre in extent, on which agricultural produce, such as 
hay, straw, turnips, and potatoes in carts, also horses, 
vehicles, etc., are sold. 

The pennage accommodation for fat cattle, dairy cows, 
sheep, and pigs is all under cover ; the equipment includes 
two sale rings for fat cattle with an automatic dial weigh- 
bridge in each, sale rings for dairy cows and horses, and 
steelyards for weighing carts, and cattle or sheep sold by 
live weight, this method of dealing being largely in vogue 
here. There is also a range of enclosed sheds for the 
purpose of housing and feeding animals left over night. 

THE SLAUGHTER-HOUSES. 

The Slaughter-Houses immediately adjoin the Cattle 
Market to the south with direct communication between 
them by means of an inclined roadway. They consist of 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 161 

3 ranges of Slaughter- Houses on the booth system, 10 
booths in each range. These are fully equipped with 
overhead hoists and other appliances for the efficient 
handling and dressing of the carcases. 

The other buildings comprise 3 Slaughter-Houses for 
sheep; a pig Slaughter-House; tripery; boiler house; 
blood-house, where facilities are afforded for separating 
the serum from the clotted blood ; a gut-house ; premises 
for condemned meat ; and two hide and tallow collecting 
stores ; in fact, all the necessary equipment of a modern 
public abbatoir. 

These were opened in 1876, when all private Slaughter- 
Houses in the Burgh and within two miles of the 
boundaries were abolished in virtue of the powers 
conferred by Clauses 358 and 363 of the General Police 
and Improvement (Scotland) Act of 1862. 

The Superintendent of the Markets and Slaughter- 
Houses resides on the premises. He is also a certificated 
Meat Inspector, and acts as such the Veterinary Inspector 
of the City being associated with him in this work. 

The Clearing House system of meat inspection is in full 
operation under the following Eule, Order, and Eegulation 
enacted by the Commissioners of Police for the Burgh in 
1894, viz. : 

" All dead meat brought or sent into the Burgh for sale 
'or consumption there shall, first of all, be brought or 
" sent to the Slaughter-Houses of the Commissioners at 
" Carolina Port, Dundee, and the said meat, and the meat 
" of all animals killed in the said Slaughter-Houses, shall 
" be examined in the Slaughter-Houses by an Inspector 
" appointed by the Commissioners. 

" If such dead meat and meat be found sound and fit for 
" consumption, it shall be passed by such Inspector. 

" If, on the other hand, it be found unsound, it shall be 
*' forthwith destroyed by, or at the sight of, the Inspector." 

Ever since their adoption, these Kegulations have been 
strictly adhered to. They enable all meat destined for 
sale or consumption in the City to be examined under the 
most favourable conditions, the Inspector being provided 

K 



162 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

with the necessary microscopic equipment for carrying out 
this work effectively. 

During the year 1911 the seizures of diseased or unsound 
meat from the carcases of animals slaughtered on the 
premises were 87,798 Ibs. of beef, 555 Ibs. of veal, 1,773 
Ibs. of mutton, and 2,781 Ibs. of pork, a total of 92,907 
Ibs. ; and from the carcases of animals sent in under the 
Clearing House system, 66,582 Ibs. of beef, 1,296 Ibs. of 
veal, 5,549 Ibs. of mutton, and 3,876 Ibs. of pork, a total 
of 77,303 Ibs., making a total for the year of 170,210 Ibs. 
of meat condemned, besides 4,198 Ibs. of cattle livers, 524 
sheep's plucks or livers, and 52 pigs' heads ; the numbers 
of carcases examined being respectively 15,657 cattle, 
222 calves, 34,810 sheep, and 3,545 pigs slaughtered on 
the premises, and the carcases of 3,358 cattle, 339 calves, 
5.810 sheep, and 587 pigs sent in. 

MEAT MARKET. 

The Meat Market occupies the southernmost portion of 
the site, and abuts on East Dock Street. There is direct 
communication between it and one of the ranges con- 
taining ten slaughtering booths by means of overhead 
rails, thereby enabling the carcases to be run across to the 
Market immediately after they have been slaughtered and 
examined. 

It is rented in sections to six different firms of meat 
salesmen, and is the medium through which a large 
number of the retail butchers of the City procure their 
supplies. It is also largely patronised by butchers from 
surrounding towns and villages for the same purpose. 

The number of carcases exposed for sale in this Market 
during last year was 10,488 cattle, 413 calves, 23,687 
sheep, and 1,850 pigs. 

Separate accounts are kept for the Markets and for 
the Slaughter-Houses, the charges for the use of the 
premises being adjusted periodically and so arranged that 
the establishment shall be at least self-supporting; as a 
matter of fact, there has been a surplus from both the 
departments every year since their inception with the 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 163 

exception of the first two years, the surpluses last year 
being 145. 3s. lid. from the Markets and 99. 14s. Id. 
from the Slaughter-Houses. These are placed to the 
credit of the General Police Purposes Eevenue Account of 
the City. 

The capital expenditure on the Markets, including 
purchase of site, has been 33,539. 3s. 10d., and on the 
the Slaughter-Houses 47,549. 17s. 4d. 

FISH MARKET, CAROLINA PORT. 
Dundee and Monifieth Tramway Craigie Terrace Station. 

Prior to 1902 the business was carried on in Craig 
Street Market. In this year the fish trade was trans- 
ferred to the new Market and dock at Carolina Port. 
The progress made since then has not been so great as 
could have been wished. 

The Fish Dock as yet is in an incomplete state. When 
finished, it will contain 2,700 lineal feet of quay and 
6,700 square yards of depot and 8 acres or thereby of 
water space. In addition to that, the Harbour Trustees 
have at a reasonable rent an unlimited supply of ground 
adjacent suitable for curing yards, stores, etc. 

Railway sidings connect the dock with the Caledonian 
and North British Railways. A hydraulic hoist, at which 
vessels can be expeditiously coaled, adjoins the Fish Dock 
on the east, and in close proximity on the west are the 
premises of the Dundee Ice and Cold Storage Co., who 
turn out ice at the rate of 25 tons per day. 

During the past year trawlers and liners landed a total 
of 84,947 boxes of fish and 2,780 scores of cod, equal to 
3,800 tons. This supply was supplemented by an 
additional 200 tons fresh and 320 tons cured fish by rail, 
making a total supply for the year of 4,320 tons. 

GREENMARKET. 

Behind the Municipal Buildings. 

The origin of this Market is lost in the mist of 
antiquity. On Tuesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays the 
visitor can purchase anything from the proverbial " needle 



164 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

to an anchor," and it proves to be an irresistible attraction 
for the thrifty housewife and eager bargain hunter. It is 
alike the Mecca of the lover of the antique and the 
frivolous pleasure seeker, and here also for the modest 
sum of Is., 6d., or 2d., according to the status of the 
vendor, or it may be the credulity of the buyer, one may 
purchase an infallible remedy that is warranted to cure all 
the ills incidental to humanity. At holiday seasons all 
the " fun of the fair " is to be found at the Greenmarket 
Carnival. 

FRUIT AND FLOWER MARKET, CRAIG STREET. 
Dundee Tramways Craig Pier Terminus. 

Prior to the transference of the Fish Market to Carolina 
Port there was no covered Market for the sale of fruit, 
flowers, and vegetables, the business being conducted in the 
open street Shore Terrace. In 1904 the old Fish Market 
was converted into a Fruit and Flower Market, and for 
three days per week, Tuesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, it 
is a busy centre of activity, and has done much to 
cultivate an interest in and love of flowers amongst the 
working classes, who are its principal patrons. It is also 
largely utilized as a popular sales bazaar. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 165 

Water Supply.* 

By George Baxter, M.Inst.C.B., Engineer and Manager 
to Dundee Water Commission. 

FROM the polluted, scanty, and oft parched fountains of 
our ancient town to the magnificently pure and in- 
exhaustible waters of the Grampian Hills was a long and 
important step on the march of communal development, 
meaning, as it did, so much to the health, comfort, and 
industrial prosperity of the people. 

This great achievement was accomplished at a cost of 
over 1,000,000 during the brief life-span of many who 
daily go in and out amongst us. The writer has 
known several citizens who took their stand with the 
picturesque throng of Water Caddies and Aquadors of 
Old Dundee, as they good-humouredly jostled each other 
and strove or schemed for precedence round the old 
fountains where, at all hours, were to be seen more empty 
pitchers than flowing spouts. 

As a convenient point from which to measure the great 
progress which has been made, the writer may quote from 
the authentic records of the public press. The following 
is culled from an editorial in the "Dundee Courier" of 
date 1st June 1827: 

" We observe that the complaints of our citizens of want 
of an adequate supply of water at our wells are likely 
to be, in a great degree, removed soon. The cast 
metal pipes conveying water from the new cistern in 
the neighbourhood of Ladywell have been completely 
laid to Dog Well in Murray gate." 

The author of the article notes with satisfaction that the 
water rose twenty feet above the street level, and hopes 

* A comprehensive illustrated brochure on "Dundee Water Under- 
taking" has been specially prepared by Mr Baxter on the 
instructions of his Commissioners, and is available on appli- 
cation to all Members of the B.A. who may be further 
interested in the subject. 



166 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

that if the supply at the fountain head proves sufficient 
the water will rise to all the wells in the town. 

That there was need for reservation and doubt is un- 
fortunately too apparent from a letter which appeared in 
the same paper on the 29th August in the following year. 
It was as follows : 

" Were you, Sir, to witness the distress the poorer part of 
our community are put to for want of water I am sure 
yon would pity them Mothers, of a morning, with 
their infants on their arms, half-dressed, carrying 
water not fit for a cow to drink the aged, the infirm, 
and the sickly, all are allowed to crawl as they best 
may to seek for the element so essential to their 
health, and which they can obtain only in quantities 
limited and very impure." 

The age of sanitary restlessness was not yet, and the 
deplorable state of affairs depicted by the anonymous 
writer of the above letter was unfortunately prevalent, not 
in Dundee only, but in every city in the kingdom. In 
the large towns at that date, and for long after, water was 
hawked about the streets and sold from casks at |d. or Id. 
per bucket The fortunate few who could afford it had 
their favoured Water Caddie, who knew the capacity of 
the house cistern and regularly replenished it at a fixed 
retainer of Id per barrel. 

Taking a pennyworth of water as the full supply of a 
household, it represented barely one twenty-fifth of the 
quantity now delivered in Dundee for every man, woman, 
and child of the population. From the financial side it 
was a very serious tax on the poor, representing, as it does, 
a yearly charge equivalent to the water rate now assessed 
on a house of 40 rental. 

The sources of supply were chiefly from Logie Spout in 
Milnbank Road, Smillie's Well off Lochee Eoad, and Lady 
Well near the foot of the Hilltown. None of these sources 
was above suspicion, and one at least, and that the main 
supply, Lady Well, was horribly polluted by sewage and 
by animal matters of the most disgusting origin. The 
reservoir of Lady Well was divided from the Slaughter- 
House by a not impervious masonry wall, and the 1868 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 167 

Royal Commission on Water Supply reported on this 
water as follows : 

" The water is bright, sparkling, arid piquant to the 
palate, but our analysis shows that this is nothing but 
a very thoroughly purified sewage, to the properties of 
decomposition of which it owes its pleasant flavour." 

That disease and death lurked in impure water had 
long been understood and acknowledged, but we were 
slow to apply the knowledge we possessed. 

It was not until 1831 that the Town Council of Dundee 
made their first serious attempt to supply the town with 
water. The Burgh had then a population of 45,000 and a 
rental of 73,000. Mr Thorns, Engineer to the Greenock 
Water Works, was employed by the Town Council to 
report, and in 1835 the plans of the project recommended 
by him came before Parliament. The Local Authorities 
\\vre to supply at prime cost by compulsory rating. They 
\\vre opposed by a private Joint Stock Company, who 
sought powers to supply at prices to be agreed on, with 
powers to assess users only. The Bills were consolidated 
after discussion, and the Local Authorities obtained the 
powers they sought, but, on calmly reviewing the situation 
after the fight, they realised that by the time they imple- 
mented their agreements and provided the water they had 
guaranteed to the riparian proprietors and the millowners 
on the Water of Dighty, there would be no water at all 
for the town and they abandoned the scheme. 

In 1836 the same scheme was again revived by a Joint 
Stock Company, and opposed by the Dundee Town 
Council, who submitted a new project, their proposal 
being to tap the River Isla near Meigle and raise the 
water by three lifts of pumping engines to the depression 
in the Sidlaw Hills at Pitnappie near Auchterhouse. 
This Bill passed the Commons but was thrown out by the 
Lords. 

Following this, the Town Council promoted a scheme to 
tap the Monikie Burn, and obtained Parliamentary powers 
to execute the Works. The scheme was sanctioned by 
Parliament, but was immature. Legal difficulties arose, 



168 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

and a successful issue was prevented by submission to an 
opinion of Counsel. 

The Town Council's imperfectly developed scheme of 
1837 was taken up by a private Company and carried to 
maturity under the Dundee Water Act, 1845. 

A review of the steps taken by the Town Council for 
many years preceding the date of this Act clearly proves 
that it was not through lack of endeavour or enterprise on 
their part that the responsibility, which ought to have de- 
volved on the citizens as a corporate body, was by this Act 
of 1845 left in the hands of a company of speculators. 

The Town Council were opposed for years by the 
Merchants and Traders represented by the Guildry and 
the Nine Trades. In the words of their Advocate before 
the House of Lords " they (the Guildry and Traders) did 
not see the peculiar circumstances that should make men 
idiots enough to prefer paying by taxation what ought to 
be a vendible article in the market like any other com- 
modity." 

Having successfully frustrated the efforts of the Town 
Council, these gentlemen, in time, formed a private Com- 
pany. The affairs of the private concern matured to a 
nine per cent, dividend, and when the resources of the 
Water Shed were exhausted they were taken over by the 
community after prolonged negotiations between the 
Town Council and the shareholders, the terms being a 
payment to the shareholders, for all time coining, of 
14,315 per annum. This represented a capital sum of 
over 400,000, which these merchants and their heirs 
and successors received for Works which could have 
been erected by the community for considerably under 
200,000. 

The water supply under the Company was far from 
satisfactory. The service mains were inadequate, and 
practically no use whatever for fire purposes. The service 
was frequently intermittent and sometimes one district 
was sluiced off' to assist another district. 

The Company charged their rates according to a sliding 
scale. Small dwelling-houses were charged Is. 8d. per , 
and the average rate was about Is. lOd. per . A house 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 169 

rented at 9 paid 1. 2s. 6d., which is equivalent to the 
Water Kate on a rental of 30 under the Commissioners 
at the present time. 

The Works were taken over by the Municipality, 
incorporated as Water Commissioners, under the Act of 
1869, and the improvements and development which have 
taken place since show that the Town Council have 
realised from the beginning that the establishment and 
maintenance of a sufficient water supply is probably the 
most important duty resting on a Municipal Authority. 
In providing for the domestic, commercial, and public 
wants of the large district embraced under the Dundee 
Water Acts, the authorities in Dundee have discharged 
this vast responsibility in a manner second to none in the 
United Kingdom. Whether tested on the ground of 
purity, quantity, or service, the Dundee water supply is in 
the very front rank. 

The Works belonging to the old Company went dry the 
first year after they were purchased, and the inhabitants 
suffered great inconvenience. Water was pumped from 
the Fithie Burn and brought from other sources to tide 
the community over the difficulty. 

After their incorporation the Commissioners lost no 
time. Almost immediately they appointed eminent 
Engineers, first Frederick la Trobe Bateman, Esq., who 
designed the Glasgow Water Works, and later James 
Leslie, Esq., Engineer of the Edinburgh Water Works. 
The Dundee Water Extension Act, 1871, was launched, 
and under it and the amending Act of 1872 and the 
Dundee Water Additional Powers Act, 1874, the Lin- 
trathen Scheme was introduced. 

The Lintrathen Works have cost, to date, 430,000. 

Within the Dundee Water Area are included the police 
burghs of Broughty Ferry, Monifieth, Carnoustie, New- 
port, and Tayport, and, in addition, the outlying districts 
of Meigle, Birkhill, Longforgan, Invergowrie, etc., are all 
dependent upon the Dundee Water Works for this first 
necessary of life. The total population supplied by the 
Works is 210,000 or thereby, and the mains and conduits 
throughout the area of control extend to 330 miles. 



170 PUBLIC SERVICES. 



Gas Supply. * 

By Alex. Yuill, General Manager and Engineer. 

A COMPANY was formed in Dundee in 1823 under the Joint 
Stock Companies Act for the supply of Gas to the town. 

In 1824 they purchased ground at Peep-o'-Day Lane 
(present position of Works), and proceeded with the erec- 
tion of Works, which were completed in the year 1826, 
when Gas was first supplied. 

In 1828 a rival Company was formed, and an application 
was made to Parliament for powers. Certain negotiations 
took place between the existing Company and the Com- 
pany proposed to be incorporated, which resulted in the 
Bill being withdrawn, arrangements having been come to 
between the parties. 

The original Company applied to Parliament for pro- 
visional powers, and obtained an Act of Incorporation. 

Section 10 of this Act, dealing with price and quality, 
is interesting, and is worth repeating. It is known as 
" Hume's " Clause : 

" Provided also, and be it further enacted, that the Gas 
to be furnished by the said Company shall be of as good 
quality as that furnished by any other Gas Light Company 
iu Scotland, and the said Company shall be bound to 
furnish such Gas at a rate or charge as low as shall be the 
average price demanded for Gas by the Gas Companies in 
the several towns of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Paisley, Perth, 
Arbroath, Montrose, and Aberdeen." 

It may be interesting to note that the average rate of 
the above towns for last year was 2s. 7'89d. per 1,000 
cubic feet ; Dundee for the same period was 2s. 2'66d. 

No record of the quantity manufactured during the 
earlier stages was kept, but we find the price charged was 
at the rate of 15s. per 1,000 cubic feet. 

*An interesting illustrated Brochure on Dundee Gas Undertaking 
has been prepared by Mr Yuill, and, on the instructions of 
the Commissioners, is available, on application, to all members 
of the British Association who may be interested. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 171 

Meters were first introduced about this period. In the 
history of Companies who undertook the supply of Gas in 
other towns prior to this date a charge was made per 
burner in use for a definite period ; this was regulated by 
Inspectors, who perambulated the town to see that all 
lights were turned off at the time arranged. It is needless 
to mention that this arrangement was a source of both 
trouble to the Gas Company and annoyance to those of a 
studious nature. 

The Dundee Gas Company held absolute sway till 1846, 
when another Company entered the field as a competitor. 
This rivalry, no doubt, was fostered by a feeling that the 
parent Company was making an exorbitant charge and 
benefiting pecuniarily from the Gas consumers. 

As in the case of other towns inflicted with a dual 
Gas supply, Dundee ultimately paid the penalty when 
the two Works were taken over by the Gas Commissioners. 

The position of Gas matters in Dundee was not to be 
envied. The two Companies vied with each other in 
gaining business. Two sets of Gas mains were laid in the 
streets dual supplies laid to consumers Gas sometimes 
made by one Company and payment received for Gas 
consumed by the other was against the best interest of 
the shareholders. The high percentage of unaccounted for 
Gas testifies to this, which stood one year at 26 per cent. 

The financial position of the two Gas Companies was as 
follows at date of transfer in 1868 : 



OLD GAS COMPANY. 


Annuities 
allowed. 


Calculated 
at 


Original Stock 


29 


,706 


18 


1 


2,875 








9 


677 p.c. 


New Stock 


50 


,000 








3, 


250 








6 


5 p.c. 


79,706 


18 


1 


6, 


125 














NEW GAS COMPANY. 


Original Stock 


40 


,000 








1,900 








4-75 


p.c. 


New Stock 


15 


,000 










637 


10 





4 


25 


p.c. 



55,000 2,537 10 



172 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

which represents a total of 8,662. 10s. for Annuities as 
the purchase* price payable by the Gas Commissioners. 

The price of Gas charged and the consumpt from the 
beginning to the date of transfer was as under : 

Rate of Gas. Old Company. New Company. 

1826 15/- 

1830 12/- 7,484,000 

1840 8/6 27,330,000 

1847 6/- 36,753,000 7,500,000 

1850 6/- 37,317,000 18,660,000 

1860 5/6 58,165,000 43,785,000 

1868 5/2 103,893,000 68,799,000 

Date of transfer to Gas Commissioners, llth November 
1868. 

The proximity of the Works of the Old and New Gas 
Companies to some extent hampered the re-arrangement 
of the plant after transference to the Gas Commissioners, 
as they had to deal with two Works spread over the area 
with small units. 

This necessitated structural alterations at the time of 
transfer, so as to have the two Works united in one com- 
plete whole. 

Various alterations and improvements have been carried 
out since then, to keep pace with the increasing demand 
for Gas. 

About 10 years ago a reconstruction scheme was carried 
out, involving an expenditure of over 120,000, which 
included new Carbonising Plant, with Hydraulic Stoking 
and Discharging Machines, which tended greatly to the 
economical production of Gas. 

Every economy requires to be exercised, so that the 
price of Gas may be given at a reasonable rate to con- 
sumers, as it is obvious that a low-selling price conduces 
to an extended use of same. 

At the present time the productive power of the Dundee 
Gas Works is equal to 6J million cubic feet of Gas per 
24 hours. No difficulty would be experienced in dealing 
with 10 million cubic feet per day on the present site. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 173 

The maximum output is 4J million cubic feet per 24 
hours. 

The annual make of Gas since the Works were acquired 
by the Gas Commissioners is as under : 

1869-70 200,838,000 cubic feet. 

1879-80 340,489,000 

1889-90 421,948,000 

1899-00 622 304,000 

1900-01 611,452,000 

1910-11 924,313,000 

1911-12 946,796,000 

Undernoted are Statistics of our working for the past 
year (30th April 1912) : 

Coal used 81,733 tons. 

Oil used 165,880 gallons. 
Gas made 946,796,000 cubic feet. 

Coke sold 51,098 tons. 
Sulphate of Ammonia 

made 983 tons. 

Tar made 893,026 gallons. 

With a consciousness of the part that an efficient Gas 
supply in large towns is destined to play in the lessening 
of the Smoke Nuisance, the Gas Commissioners have placed 
at the command of their consumers differential rates for 
Gas, ranging from 2s. to Is. 6d. per 1,000 cubic feet for power 
arid industrial purposes ; public lighting, Is. 8d. ; and for 
cooking, heating, and lighting, 2s. 2d. per 1,000 cubic feet 
all subject to 5 per cent, discount. 

Appliances for cooking and heating are given to con- 
sumers on loan/ree and fixed free ready for use. 

As an index of the popularity which has attended the 
policy of the Gas Commissioners in giving free cookers and 
fires to their consumers, it may be noted that at the close 
of the last financial year (30th April 1912) the following 
apparatus were in use : 



174 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

Gas Cookers > - 10,077 

Hot-plates 1,430 

Grillers - i 4,236 

Rings 7,752 

Fires, etc. - - - 6,455 



Total 29,950 

At the same date there were 28,390 ordinary consumers 
and 19,673 consumers using automatic meters, or a total 
of 48,063. 

This practically gives one cooking or heating apparatus 
for every two consumers. 

On the authority of the Right Hon. John Burns, M.P., 
the increasing use of Gas apparatus for cooking, heating, 
and motive power in the Metropolis has had a beneficial 
effect on the atmosphere, and, in his opinion, as well as in 
the opinion of other authorities, it is to the increased use 
of Gas that the main solution of the smoke problem must 
be looked for. 

By the low prices charged for Gas in Dundee (consider- 
ing its distance from the coalfields), the Gas Commissioners 
are giving valuable assistance to the furtherance of this 
desirable object. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 175 



Supply of Electricity. :i: 

By H. Richardson, M.I.B.B., General Manager and 
Engineer. 

DUNDEE was one of the first cities in the country to 
inaugurate a private supply of Electricity, and it is much 
to the credit of the city that unlike so many other towns 
it did not shirk its municipal responsibilities and allow a 
private company to do the work, but immediately secured 
powers and worked the supply from its very inception, 
municipally. 

After all, the local confidence in the future of Electricity 
was perhaps not so very remarkable, bearing in mind the 
close connection with the town which several of the early 
experimenters had, and notably the revered name of 
Bowman Lindsay must come to mind directly in con- 
nection with all scientific and electrical research. Against 
considerable difficulty his versatile genius did much to 
further the interest of experimental Electricity, and his 
early work affords much interesting study to engineers of 
to-day, but the greatest lesson of all he teaches is 
perseverance. 

From his time to the present is a big stride as time in 
modern engineering progress is measured, and much 
advance has been made, but Dundee can show at the least 
that she has kept abreast of the times, and to-day her 
enterprise is evidenced by the facilities afforded for a cheap 
and reliable source of public Electricity supply. 

As giving some idea of the progress which the Depart- 
ment has made since commencing supply in the year 1893, 
the following figures may be quoted in the form of a table : 

*A special illustrated Brochure has been prepared by Mr Richardson 
on the instructions of his Committee, and is available on 
application to any members of the B.A. who are interested. 



176 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

Average 
Selling Price 
Year. Units Sold. Revenue, to Consumers. 

1893 66,228 1,379 5d. 

1898 451,942 7,267 3'86d. 

1903 2,609,718 24,042 2'21d. 

1908 4,719,085 35,901 l-90d. 

1909 5,173,036 37,610 l'75d. 

1910 6,144,927 40,670 l-59d. 

1911 7,720,018 46,040 l-43d. 

1912 8,340,749 51,383 148d. 

Thus, it is seen that, while the progress was sure, yet 
it was slow, and nothing approaching a " boom " occurred 
until quite recently ; indeed the accelerated rise in output 
is coincident with the provision of greater facilities for 
supply in the nature of the erection of the large High 
Pressure Generating Station at Carolina Port, which fact 
only goes to show all those interested in public works 
that the enterprise in providing facilities must come first 
and the advantages of increased trade must follow if there 
has been the faintest semblance of shrewd judgment in 
the exercise of such enterprise. This is further borne out 
by the fact that extensions will have to be gone on with 
at Carolina Port Station immediately to meet the increas- 
ing demand for supply. 

The original station was erected on the site of the old 
Cattle Market in Dudhope Crescent Eoad, and the public 
supply was commenced in March 1893. The first plant 
installed consisted of three Lancashire boilers and six 
Willans Siemens generating sets, current being generated 
at 200 volts and consumers being supplied at 100 volts. 
Additional generating sets were gradually added until all 
the space on the original plan was occupied. 

The original engine-room was lengthened, another 
engine-room built alongside, and a further boiler-house 
and new chimney built, while three generating sets 
totalling 1,150 Kw. were installed. 

In 1903 extensive alterations and improvements were 
made in the arrangements of the plant, steam piping, and 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 177 

switchboards, while the 100 volt system was suspended 
and all consumers supplied at 200 volts. 

In spite of all the improvements, however, the inherent 
disadvantages of the site and the want of elasticity in 
the system of generation gradually ' made themselves 
manifest when the problems of supplying large powers 
over a- widely extended area had to be met. 

After careful consideration, it was recommended that a 
new station be built in the most favourable position possible 
with a high tension transmission system. 

This was eventually adopted, and in 1907 a suitable 
site having been got within the boundary of the Harbour 
close to the River Tay, the actual work was commenced. 

The ground, which consisted of deposited material, was 
wholly unsuitable for carrying any permanent weights, 
and as trial boring showed that rock existed at a depth of 
30 feet, or so, it was decided to support the whole of the 
buildings and plant upon piles. Reinforced concrete was 
chosen as the material for the latter, and over three 
hundred were used, being arranged in groups according to 
the loads to be carried. Over the heads of the piles was 
constructed a reinforced raft, varying in thickness from 3 
indies to 4 feet, according to circumstances. In general 
design, the generating station consists of two complete 
units more or less symetrically arranged about a centre 
line through the chimney, and while there is ample room 
for extension, the buildings are not larger than sufficient 
for the plant installed at present. Very little inflammable 
material has been used, and everything possible has been 
done to render the buildings and plant fireproof. 

The generating plant consists of two Willans-Parsons 
steam Turbines coupled to Dick Kerr Alternators. Each 
set is rated at 2,000 Kw., but is capable of giving 2,500 
Kw. for two hours, or 3,000 Kw. for half an hour. The 
generators give three phase current at 6,000 to 6,600 
volts and 50 cycles per second. The condensers are of 
the Contra-flo-type, and can maintain a vacuum of 28 
inches at full load. There are two feed pumps made by 
G. & J. Weir with a capacity of 8,000 gallons per hour 



178 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

each, and, contrary to the usual land practice, these are 
situated in the engine-room between the two hot wells, being 
thus removed from the dust of the boiler-house, while for 
equal convenience of regulation, the stop valve spindles 
are prolonged through the boiler-house. 

Two motor generators, each of 300 Kw. normal capacity, 
are used for transforming down from the main supply at 
6,000 volts to direct current at 200 and 400 volts for 
driving the auxiliary machinery and for public supply in 
the adjacent area. 

There are two main switchboards, one for the direct 
current supply, and the other for controlling the extra 
high tension system. The greatest care has to be taken 
in the interests of safety. All bus-bars, connections, etc., 
are held in porcelain insulators and are separated from 
each other by concrete partitions. 

The pumping machinery for circulating cooling water 
through the condensers is situated in an underground 
pump room sunk at the edge of the river. The main pipe 
line consists of 30 inch cast-iron pipes supported on a 
reinforced concrete raft carried on piles, the length between 
the pump room and the main station being 785 feet. 

There are at present four sub-stations (one being situated 
at the old station at Dudhope Crescent) in which energy 
supplied from the main generating station at 6,000 volts 
is transformed down to 400 volts direct current for 
general supply. 

The machinery and gear are identical in type in all 
sub-stations and differ only in capacity and number of sets. 

The British Westinghouse Company's rotaries are used, 
each one having a three phase to six phase static transformer 
in which the current is transformed down from 6,000 
volts to about 380 volts, alternating at which it is fed into 
the converter, thus no part of the moving machinery is 
exposed to high pressure. 

The direct current switchboards are arranged for two 
separate supplies, one at 400 volts for general purposes, 
and one at 500 to 550 volts for tramway traction. 

The extra high tension mains consist of three core 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 179 

paper insulated lead covered cables, armoured with two 
layers of steel tape and, have a layer of compound jute 
over all to protect the armour. A further coat of 
compound was served on after the cables were laid. 
Immediately below the lead, though insulated from it, is 
the B.O.T. copper earth shields. The cables are laid direct 
in the ground at a depth of 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet and 
covered with a line of specially shaped hard burnt tiles to 
give warning of their presence and protect them from 
damage. 

Since the new generating station and sub-stations have 
been opened, the sale of current for power purposes has 
gone up by leaps and bounds causing quite a boom in the 
motor business, so much so that it is evident further 
extensions to the plant will have to be considered in the 
near future. Stair lighting by Electricity, a scheme 
which was recently inaugurated, has already made rapid 
strides, and many applications are being received for a 
supply for that purpose ; in fact, it is only a matter of 
time before electrically lit stairs and closes will be the 
rule rather than the exception. In short, the advantages 
of Electricity are being recognised more and more all over 
the country, and it is quite evident that the Dundee 
public are now realising its immense advantages and the 
very cheap prices at which it is supplied. 



180 PUBLIC SERVICES. 



Dundee Corporation Tramways.-'' 

By Peter Fisher, Manager and Engineer. 

THE Tramways in Dundee have all been constructed at the 
expense of the Corporation, and have always been and are 
now the Corporation property. The first section opened was 
that between Albert Square and the top of Windsor Street 
via Keform Street, High Street, Nethergate, and Perth 
Eoad, authorised by the Dundee Tramways Act, 1872, and 
laid down in 1877. This line was leased to the Dundee 
and District Tramway Company for 21 years, dating from 
1st September 1877, at a rent equal to 5 per cent, on the 
cost of construction, and the acquiring property at West- 
field Place as a site for stables. The Company were 
bound to maintain the lines and paving during the cur- 
rency of the lease. Over and beyond the above rent, all 
profits (after paying 7J per cent, to the shareholders on 
the paid-up capital required for the purposes of the lease) 
were to be divided equally between the Corporation and 
the Company. Under the Act of 1878 several other lines 
were constructed and leased to the Company on terms 
very similar to those of the 1877 lease. 

In 1893 a new agreement was entered into with the 
Tramway Company whereby all former leases and agree- 
ments were cancelled and a new lease entered into for 14 
years for the working of the then existing lines and pro- 
posed extensions to Fairmuir and between Arbroath Eoad 
and Stobswell via Morgan Street. Under this lease the 
Corporation relieved the Company of the maintenance and 
renewal of the roadway, in consideration of which the 
rent payable by the Company was increased to 7| per 
cent, on the capital outlay instead of the 5^ per cent, and 
6J per cent, paid under the former agreements, the arrange- 
ment as to division of profits remaining the same as had 
been provided for in the 1877 and 1878 leases. 

* " Dundee from the Cars " (an illustrated Brochure) is available to 
all members of the British Association on application. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 181 

Four years later, however, in 1897, negotiations were 
entered on with a view to the Corporation itself taking 
over the Company's plant, etc., and working the Tramways 
under direct Municipal control. This was successfully 
carried through, and the agreement was confirmed by the 
Dundee Corporation Tramways Act, 1898, which also 
authorised the Corporation to work the Tramways under 
the Acts of 1899, 1901, and 1907. Powers were obtained 
to make considerable additions to the system. The 
Corporation accordingly commenced the operation of the 
Tramways on 1st June 1899. 

From this date active steps were taken to have the 
system converted from the old system of horse or steam to 
that of electric traction. The first section so dealt with 
was that between High Street and Westpark Eoad, and 
the following list gives the various routes, with their dates 
of opening : 

Length. 
Routes. Date of Opening. Miles. Yds. 

High Street to Westpark Koad 13th July 1900 1 1273 

High Street to Liff Eoad 

School, Lochee 22nd Oct. 1900 2 461 

High Street to Burgh Bound- 
ary at Maryfield 6th March 1901 1 981 

Perth Road (Extension) to 

Ninewells llth March 1901 1245 

(Perth Road total length, 2 miles 758 yards). 

Blackness to Balgay Lodge 30th April 1901 1 439 

(High Street to Balgay Lodge, 1 mile 1066 yards). 

Seagate Route to Craigie 

Terrace llth Nov. 1901 1 1106 

Fairmuir to Muirfield Street 15th May 1902 2 180 
Constitution Road to Moncur 

Crescent - 20th Nov. 1901 1 737 

Arbroath Road, Princes Street, 

to Dalkeith Road 20th July 1906 800 

(High Street to Dalkeith Road, 1 mile 317 yards). 

Main Street, Dens Road, to 

Hilltown - . , ' n <> . - - 5th March 1907 516 



182 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

Length. 
Routes. Date of Opening. Miles. Yds. 

Downfield, Muirfield Street, 

to Baldovan Road 19th Dec. 1907 1553 

(Downfield total length, 3 miles 250 yards). 

Union Street, Nethergate, to 

Craig Pier - 12th Nov. 1908 366 

The system consists of eight principal routes, all radi- 
ating from the High Street as a centre, with the result 
that passengers travelling from any part of the system can 
get a convenient connection with cars for any other 
district. 

The following statistics apply to the year ended 15th 
May 1911: 

Total Capital Expenditure - 347,917. 

Street Mileage 15 miles. 

Total Revenue per annum - 62,913. 

Car Miles Run > - 1,326,225 miles. 

Passengers Carried - 17,295,727. 

Scale of Fares Adults Any distance to or from High 

Steeet, Id. Longest possible journey for Id., 3 miles 

250 yards. 
Scale of Fares Juveniles under 14 years Any distance 

to or from High Street, ^d. 
Blind persons are carried free on cars. 
Average number of journeys per head of population per 

annum, 102. 
Amount of Sinking Fund applied in Reduction of Debt, 

71,223. 

Amount of Reserve or Renewal Funds, 52,397. 
Number of Persons Employed on Tramways, 254. 

The Department is at present building a trackless line 
along Clepington Road, linking up Maryfield with the 
Fairmuir, which it is hoped will be in operation prior to 
the British Association Meeting in September. This is 
the first trackless line built in Scotland, and if successful, 
the experiment will no doiibt be followed up by extensions. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 183 



The Albert Institute of Literature, Science, 

and Art : Its Libraries, Museums, and 

Fine Art Galleries. 

By James Duncan, F.S.A. (Scot.), Sub-Librarian. 

THE Albert Institute, erected as a memorial to Prince 
Albert, at a cost of 20,000, from designs by Sir G. 
Gilbert Scott, R.A., was so far completed in 1867 that it 
was first used for some of the Meetings of the British 
Association, which visited Dundee in that year. 

In 1866 the Free Libraries Act had been adopted by 
Dundee, and a central site for the Albert Institute was 
given by the Magistrates at a nominal price, on condition 
that accommodation should be provided in it for the 
proposed Free Library. Two rooms on the ground floor 
were allotted for this purpose, the one on the south 
being used as a Lending Library and the inner room for 
Reference purposes. These were opened in 1869, and 
became so popular that, after only four years' experience, 
the Committee decided to take another step forward by 
the erection of an addition to the Institute, which pro- 
vided for a Museum and Art Gallery. This extension was 
designed by Mr David Mackenzie, Dundee, and was opened 
in 1873 with a Fine Art, Archaeological, and Industrial 
Exhibition. 

At the conclusion of this Exhibition the Permanent Art 
Gallery was opened with a loan collection of pictures, and 
the Museum specimens, which had belonged to the Dundee 
Watt Institution, were displayed in the three Museum 
rooms. The Permanent Gallery, which at that time only 
boasted one picture, the property of the Institute, has now 
proved too small to contain the pictures presented or 
bequeathed to the City. Many fine portraits by artists of 
the highest rank, including Orchardson, Sargent, Reid, 
MacTaggart, Paul Chalmers, Pettie, Macnee, etc., as well 



184 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

as landscapes and figure subjects by artists of similar high 
standing have been generously gifted by local art lovers. 

Another new departure was made in 1874. Both books 
and readers had so largely increased that the rooms pro- 
vided for the Reference and Lending Departments became 
far too small, and, at the close of the Fine Art Exhibition, 
the Reference Library was accommodated in the Albert 
Hall. 

The Exhibition of 1873 proved so popular that another 
was held in 1877, when pictures were offered for sale. 
This was so successful that similar Exhibitions were held 
annually for many years, the sales averaging 5,000. 

In 1887 the Fine Art Committee decided that, in honour 
of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, new Galleries should be 
erected for these annual Exhibitions, and a wing to the 
east of the Albert Institute, designed by Mr William 
Alexander, then City Architect, was built at a cost of 
13,000, and called the Victoria Galleries. These were 
opened in 1889 on the Queen's behalf by the present Duke 
of Argyll. At the same time, through the generosity of 
a leading citizen, electric light was installed throughout 
the whole of the buildings. The addition of this new 
wing provided for an extension of the Museum, many 
specimens being added and the whole rearranged. 

With the assistance of a grant-in-aid from South 
Kensington, a large representative collection of casts of 
Assyrian, Egyptian, Classical, and Renaissance sculpture 
was acquired, and placed on the ground floor below the 
Permanent Gallery. This addition to the Museum neces- 
sitated further development, and the building in Dudhope 
Park, formerly used for military purposes when troops 
were quartered in Dundee, was allocated by the Town 
Council in 1900, and the Technical and Archaeological 
Sections were transferred to that building. Both these 
Sections have developed rapidly, and are now regularly 
utilised by Engineering Societies, Technical Classes, and 
scholars from the Board Schools. 

With the growth of population in Dundee, and the 
overcrowded state of both Reference and Lending Libraries, 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 185 

the Committee had long been desirous of establishing 
Branch Libraries, but while only a penny rate was avail- 
able, this was found to be impossible, until Mr Thomas H. 
Cox bequeathed a sum of 10,000 for the erection of a 
Branch Library in the suburb of Lochee. Mr Cox's 
Trustees resolved to include Public Baths as part of their 
scheme, with the result that a large portion of this sum was 
expended in erecting these, and only a limited space given 
to the Library. This Branch was opened in 1896, with a 
stock of over 5,000 volumes and a large selection of the 
best magazines and newspapers. It proved so successful 
that the Committee in 1901 decided to solicit the 
assistance of Dr. Andrew Carnegie, who responded with 
the offer of 37,000 for District Libraries and Central 
Reading Rooms, adding to the letter these words : 
" Dundee has done so much for herself that it will be a 
great satisfaction to co-operate with her in further 
development." 

The first Carnegie Branch Library was erected at 

| Arthurstone Terrace, in the north-east end of the City, 

[ from plans by Mr Alexander, City Architect, on a site 
gifted by the late Miss Symers. The foundation-stone 
was laid in 1902, and it was formally opened in 1905. It 
at once justified its existence, the number of volumes given 
out for home reading since the opening being 530,900, 
whilst of the Reading Rooms for men, women, and juveniles 

much advantage is taken. 

A site at Coldside for a Northern Branch was presented 
by Ex-Lord Provost Barrie, and a site at Blackness for one 

. in the west end was bequeathed by the late Mr John 
Robertson of Elmslea. Two handsome structures have 

!. been erected on these sites from plans by the present City 
Architect, Mr James Thomson. These were opened in 
1909, with a stock of 6,200 volumes each, the issues since 
the opening being 115,930 and 169,673 volumes respec- 
tively. In the Eastern District, St. Roque's Reading 
Rooms and Book Delivery Station have been built on a 
site given by the Town Council, and opened in December 
1910. 



186 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

Sir William Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., generously offered to 
provide a site in Ward Road for the erection of new Central 
Reading Rooms and Sculpture Galleries. This offer was 
gratefully accepted, and the handsome building, designed 
by the City Architect, was erected. This was opened in 
September 1911 by Dr. Carnegie, who, after inspecting 
it and the other Branches, congratulated the Town Council 
and the Free Library Committee on the magnificently- 
equipped buildings they possessed and the work they were 
accomplishing. This new central building contains on the 
ground floor three large reading rooms, the centre one 
being lit from a dome ; the south room is reserved for 
general readers, the north for ladies and juveniles, and the 
centre room for newspapers. On the first floor are two 
handsome Sculpture Galleries, lit from the roof, in which 
the Collection of Casts removed from the Albert Institute 
have been placed. These have all been chronologically 
arranged, and are displayed to the fullest advantage, 
facilities for copying being given to art students. In the 
Centre Gallery, under the dome, the Lamb Collection of 
" Old Dundee " pictures, a part of the large collection 
of books, MSS., and paintings purchased by Mr Edward 
Cox, and presented by him to the Free Library Committee 
in 1901, is hung on the walls. 

Under the care of the late Mr John Maclauchlan, who 
was Chief Librarian and Curator from 1873 till his death 
in 1907, the work of the Albert Institute developed rapidly. 
The Lending Library, opened in 1869, possessed a stock of 
20,700 volumes, and the average issue for the first three 
years, including that of magazines, was 175,964 volumes ; 
it now possesses over 137,184 volumes, and the issue, 
leaving out the magazines, during last year was over 
240,000 volumes. The first large catalogue of the Lending 
Library, prepared by Mr Maclauchlan in 1901, was pro- 
bably the most elaborate Lending Library Catalogue ever 
issued in great Britain, and it is used in large numbers of 
British Libraries for purposes of literary reference. 

It was left to Dr. A. H. Millar, the present Librarian 
and Curator, to complete this work of extension and 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 187 

improvement. On his taking up the duties early in 1908, 
a number of changes were at once introduced. The 
Lending Library in the Albert Institute, which consisted 
of the original two rooms, was made into one great room, 
the entire length of the building, making one of the finest 
Lending Libraries in Britain ; the part underneath was 
excavated and transformed into fine, well-lit book stores. 
The removal of the Sculpture to the new Galleries in 
Ward Koad provided additional space for Museum pur- 
poses, and this has been entirely rearranged on a scientific 
plan. The transference of the newspapers and magazines 
to the new Eeading Rooms has relieved the Reference 
Library, so that the Albert Hall, after painting, retiooring, 
and having the two great circular windows fitted with 
stained glass, and new electric lighting arrangements 
(gifted by a generous citizen), will be entirely devoted 
to reference readers and students, and is now the finest 
Reference Library structurally in Great Britain. 

The electric light installed in 1889 was generated by an 
engine and dynamos on the premises, but a better and 
cheaper supply of current is now obtained from the 
Corporation. 

Courses of Lectures were inaugurated in the winter 
months of 1908, and these have proved immensely popular, 
the halls being crowded on almost every occasion. The 
lectures are delivered in the Albert Institute and Branches, 
on subjects connected with the work of the Institute, such 
as Art, Literature, History, etc., by the Librarians and 
others who take an interest in the work of the Institute. 
A series of twelve to fifteen lectures is given each season. 

The Lochee Branch has now proved too small for the 
work carried on there, and a large addition has just been 
made on the north side, to be used as a Reading Room, 
while the old Reading Room and Lending Library has 
been altered, arid is now entirely devoted to Lending 
Library purposes. This Branch, like the others, is fitted 
with a new Indicator, a great improvement on the old 
" Kennedy " Indicator, the first device of the kind, which 
is still retained in the Central Library, Albert Institute 



188 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

A second volume to the Catalogue prepared by Mr 
Maclauchlan, but on a different plan, is now almost com- 
pleted, the History and Biography, Science, Art, Fiction, 
and Juvenile Sections having already been issued. 

Such in brief is an account of the history of the Albert 
Institute, which shows that from small beginnings it has 
developed into a great educative, intellectual, and moral 
agency eagerly taken advantage of by the inhabitants of 
our City. 



Dundee Under the Poor Law. 

By Robert Allan, Inspector of Poor. 

WITH a population 83 per cent, of which lives in houses 
of three rooms and under, it will readily "be recognised 
that Dundee has a more than usually heavy roll of poor 
under its care, and that the humane, thoughtful, and 
earnest administration of the Poor Law, as it at present 
stands, is carried out with conspicuous success no doubt 
arises from the fact that the Board, while not always of 
one mind on the various subjects that come under its 
consideration, is in the main actuated by the desire to do 
the best it can for those unfortunate enough to be 
compelled to come under its care. 

At 15th May 1912 there was a total of 2,364 on 
the roll of registered poor, with 1,140 dependents. Of 
these, 760, with 75 dependants, were in Poorhouses, while 
961, with 1,065 dependants, were in receipt of outdoor 
relief. There were also under the care of the Parish 
Council, in its capacity as a District Board of Lunacy, 643 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 189 

mentally affected, 455 of whom were in Asylums, 86 in 
Poorhouses, and 102 boarded out in the country. 

During the year there were 4,887 applications for relief, 
which were disposed of as follows : 

864 were placed on the outdoor or medical relief roll. 
2,428 were admitted to Poorhouses. 
595 were offered the Poorhouse, which they declined. 
65 were sent to Asylum. 
433 were refused relief. 
485 withdrew their applications, while 
17 were sent to their own parishes. 

A classification of the applications shows that 365 were 
from old people without relatives able to assist them, 135 
were from widows, 294 arose from consumption or other 
tubercular diseases, 1,352 through partial disablement, 
improvidence, or indolence, 642 from criminality, deser- 
tion, illegitimacy, immorality, and alcoholism, and the 
balance from misfortune ; 1 20 children are boarded out in 
the country, so that as far as possible they may have a 
chance in life without the taint of pauperism. 

The Education Eate is collected by the Parish Council, 
along with that for the care of the poor. The rates, 
worked out on a nett assessable rental of 759,205. 4s., 
are 7'7d. on owners and 8'8d. on occupiers for poor 
urposes, while education required Dundee Burgh owners 
9d., occupiers. lOld. ; landward, 4'7d. and 5 55d. ; 
Broughty Ferry, 7'8d. and 8'2d. respectively. The 
collections made on account of School Rates are, of course, 
handed over to the several authorities. 

The total income on account of the poor for the year 
referred to was 48,264. 10s. IJd. from rates, 7,520. 16s. 
5d. from Government Grants, 927. 6s. 0d. contributed 
by relatives on account of paupers, 18. 11s. 6d. interest 
was repaid by other parishes, 3,255. 10s. 9d. expended on 
account of other parishes total, 59,986. 14s. 10 Ad. 



190 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

This was expended as follows : 

Provision for Outdoor Poor - 13,209 14 3 

Upkeep of Poorhouses 18,065 8J 

" Lunatics - 16,679 17 3 

Cost of Administration was Mis- 
cellaneous (including Interest, 
Law Expenses, Collecting School 
Rates, etc.) i 1,086 3 6 

Expended on account of Poor of 

other Parishes - 3,126 1 5V 



Giving a total of 55,404 3 6 



The capital indebtednes of the Board, amounting to 
51,100, has been reduced by the application of sinking 
fund to a total of 10,920 outstanding at the end of the 
year, and this against a valuation of outstanding assets 
showing a total of 50,100 Os. 4d. 

This account leaves out of consideration the financial 
side of the work of the District Board of Lunacy, the rates 
for which are collected by the Town Council, and are 
administered under a separate head. The rate for last 
year was l^d. per . each against owners and occupiers. 

It must be satisfactory to the ratepayers of the com- 
munity to learn that the rate for the relief of poor for 
next year is likely to be reduced by l|d. per , making it 
a total of Is. 3d. per in all. This has been rendered 
possible by a reduction in the number of claims falling to 
be dealt with, and by increasing care on the part of the 
Board in the carrying out of its administrative duties. 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 191 



City Finances. 

By John M. Soutar, Honorary Treasurer 
of the City. 

A PARLIAMENTARY White Paper recently issued in regard 
to the financial operations of the principal classes of Local 
Authorities throughout the country contains some remark- 
able figures. It shows that receipts from all sources, 
excepting loans, for the year ending March 1911 were 
122,953,000, and that the expenditure was 122,082,000 ; 
receipts from loans being 16,137,000, and expenditure 
15,300,000; while the outstanding debt at the end of 
the year was 410,695,000. 

The amount of public rates included in the above 
income was 64,004,000, and Exchequer grants, including 
licence duties, 21,073,000. The average amount of public 
rates received by the principal classes of rate-spending 
authorities was equal to 6s. 2|d. per of assessable rental, 
and 1. 15s. 9d. per head of population. 

Dundee is not a highly rated city as compared with the 
other large cities in Scotland although, as elsewhere, 
there is a gradual upward tendency consequent on the 
demands arising from a higher standard of public health, 
and also the exigencies of modern legislation. The follow- 
ing comparative figures indicate the course of local City 
Kates, &c. : 

1881-2. 1891-2. 1901-2. 1911-2. 

City Rates (Occupiers 

and Owners) - Is. lOd. 2s. od. 2s. 6d. 3s. 0|d. 
Water Eates (Public 

and Domestic) - Is. 7d. Is. Id. lOd. lid. 

Gas (per 1000 cubic 

ft), less 5 % 3s. 8d. 3s. 8d. 3s. 6d. 2s. 2d. 

Electricity (per unit) 

maximum, less 5% ... ... 4d. 3Jd. 

Tramway Fares . . . '.*;. 2d. to Jd. Id. & Jd. 



192 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 



The aggregate Capital Expenditure (exclusive of the 
Common Good) down to the year 1912, and the total 
Sinking Funds, etc., applied in reduction of same, have 
been as under : 



1. Police Department 

(excluding Tram- 
ways) - 

2. Tramways - 

3. Burial Grounds 

4. Free Libraries 

5. Water - 

6. Gas 

7. Electricity '- 



For the year 1911-12 the following sums have been set 
aside out of revenue towards Eepayment of Debt : 



1. Police Department (excluding 

Tramways) ... 

2. Tramways 

3. Burial Grounds 

4. Water ... 

5. Gas 

6. Electricity 



Capital 
Expenditure, 
it 


Sinking 
Fund, etc. 


Balance 
Outstanding. 


I- 

- 1,566,918 


673,274 


893,644 


349,854 


82,766 


267,088 


75,334 


62,994 


12,340 


59,842 


59,842 


... 


1,031,067 


183,760 


847,307 


666,111 


294,501 


371,610 


298,861 


59,694 


239,167 


4,047,987 


1,416,831 


2,631,156 




58,048 



The Corporation Ee venue for the year 1911-12 was : 



PUBLIC SERVICES. 193 

1. Police (excluding Tramways) ... 150,549 

2. Tramways 62,680 

3. Burial Grounds 3,732 

4 Free Libraries ... ... ... 7,141 

3. Minor Assessments ... ... 11,203 

6. Water 64,068 

7. Gas 128,057 

8. Electricity 49,366 

9. Common Good (1910-11) ... 7,143 



483,939 

The progressive assessable rental of the city has been as 
follows : 

1861-62 217,521 

1871-72 387,544 

1881-82 602,171 

1891-92 669,818 

1901-02 801,697 

1911-12 908,546 

Under the existing local Acts Capital Expenditure for 
the various purposes is defrayed out of borrowed money, 
the limit of the borrowing powers as regards the Revenue- 
earning Departments being fixed under Statute, and as 
regards the Rating Departments being regulated by the 
limit of the assessing powers; but in the latter case, 
before borrowing, there must be a formal resolution and 
advertisement of the purposes to which the money is to 
be applied. 

The various Sinking Fund obligations for redemption of 
the borrowed moneys are strictly observed, and, speaking 
generally, at the present rate of repayment, the whole 
existing Capital Debts of the city after applying the 

M 



194 PUBLIC SERVICES. 

value of Improvement Feu-duties, etc., still unsold will 
be entirely wiped out well within fifty years from the 
present time. 

The total local rates for 1911-12 (252,514) work out 
at the net rate of 5s. lOd. per of assessable rental, and 
1. 10s. 8d. per head of the population, which, it will be 
observed, compares more than favourably with that 
obtaining over the whole country. 

It is but fair to point out that, while the Capital balance 
at the debit of the city's accounts approximates 2| millions, 
in all of the departments the assets greatly exceed the 
liabilities. This is especially true of the revenue-producing 
undertakings. In the case of the Gasworks, taken as a 
going concern, these are estimated to be worth 1000 per 
million cubic feet manufactured (which would work out 
at 946,000), whereas the Dundee undertaking at present 
stands in the books at 396 per million cubic feet. It 
may be fairly estimated that the Electricity and Tramway 
undertakings are in a similarly favourable condition. 

The same satisfactory financial position also obtains in 
regard to the Dundee Harbour undertaking, Parish Council 
property, and, except in the case of the School Board 
buildings (which are in a constant state of transition 
because of the increasing departmental demands made 
upon the Local Authority), generally the trusts adminis- 
tered in the interests of the public are on an eminently 
sound basis. 

It is out of my province to refer to the finances of 
privately managed institutions, but, as will be observed 
from figures elsewhere provided, these also, thanks to the 
generosity of leading citizens, are in an excellent position. 
The present visit of the British Association offers an 
opportunity for taking stock generally of the city's 
interests financially, and this review gives greater reason 
for optimism than some of us had perhaps fully realised. 



195 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 






The University of St. Andrews. 

By Prof. M'Intosh, St. Andrews. 



As the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, St. Andrews from 
early times had various teaching institutions in connection 
with its monasteries and chapels, the preceptors (who 
generally taught grammar and logic) in which had been 
for the most part trained in the Universities of France 
and Italy, but also in the English Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge, the sons of the Scottish nobles and landed 
gentry, indeed in the 14th century having been frequently 
boarded in St. Andrews for their education ; and this 
practice continued after the foundation of the University 
even to the beginning of the 19th century. In the 14th 
and 15th centuries, however, the friction which existed 
between the Scotch and their neighbours south of the 
border rendered attendance at the English Universities, and 
especially at the Scotch College (Baliol) in Oxford founded 
by Lady Devorguill, less pleasant, so that the Scottish youth 
preferred the French Universities of Paris (where a 
Scotch College had been founded by the Bishop of Moray 
in 1326), of Orleans, and Angers, and the older Italian 
Universities of Bologna and Padua. Even this migration 
to continental Universities was not unattended with risks 
both by sea and land, since, amongst others, a young 
Scottish Prince, on his way to the Court of Charles VI. 
of France, was captured at sea by the English and kept a 
prisoner in London. More especially were the Scottish 
students unwelcome at Oxford during the religious 
troubles connected with their adherence to Peter de 
Luna (Pope Benedict XIII., a east of whose skull is 
in the University Library). Thus in all probability 



196 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

the thoughts of the cultured, munificent, and influential 
Bishop Wardlaw of St. Andrews were strongly directed 
to a project whereby Scottish youth should, on the one 
hand, be freed from such risks and, on the other, provided 
with less expensive instruction. Accordingly, aided by 
several of his colleagues in St. Andrews, especially by 
Prior Jas. Biset and Archdeacon Stewart, teaching on 
University lines was begun in 141 1 , and a foundation 
Charter of the University was drawn up in 1411 granting 
a Studium generate, including Theology, Canon and Civil 
Law, Arts, Medicine, and other lawful Faculties, and 
forwarded by a special envoy to the Pope (Benedict XIII.), 
who by no less than six Bulls endowed the young institu- 
tion with all the privileges of a University, and made 
provision for its teachers, who were chiefly beneficed 
clergymen, retaining their livings while engaged in teach- 
ing, provided efficient substitutes were found for their 
parish work. 

Such was the beginning of a University which largely 
owed its origin to the impetus of learned men to teach 
rather than to endowments, for at this time neither 
salaries nor University buildings were in existence. 

The government of the young University was vested in 
the Chancellor (Bishop Wardlaw) and a Eector, who in 
early times was chosen irom the Provosts of the Colleges 
by all the members of the University, including the 
students. Later, however (1642), it was resolved that "no 
Kegents of Philosophy, but the Principals of the Colleges 
and the public Professors only shall be capable of holding 
the office of Eector." This was the rule for many years. 
After the union of the Colleges of St. Salvator and St. 
Leonard's the two Principals and the two Professors of 
Divinity in the earlier part of the 19th century were 
eligible, and were chosen only by the Masters, and thus 
the students had no official representative in the Senate, 
of which the Eector was President, until more recent times. 

'Joan, de Fordoun, Scotchronicon C. Suppl. et Contin. ; Walt. 
Bo we ; vol. II. , p. 445, 1769. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 197 

In connection with graduation, only those who were fit 
to teach were to be allowed to receive degrees of Master 
or Doctor; and it is interesting that in 1414 eleven 
students obtained the degree of B.A., one of whom was a 
determinant and another a B.A. of Oxford. Every can- 
didate, indeed, is to be presented to the Bishop or his 
Vice- Regent, who shall proceed to examine him in his 
knowledge, eloquence, mode of teaching, and other parts, 
and if he be found fit, admit him to his degree and give 
him licence to teach. From an early period a Faculty of 
Divinity and another of Canon Law existed. Medicine, 
again, though often referred to as a subject of study, had 
apparently no organised Faculty until within comparative 
recent times, though Medicine was nevertheless taught. 1 

The State in the 15th century took a paternal interest 
in the education of youth, so that the University drew its 
students from a wide area. Thus in 1494 Parliament, in 
the reign of King James IV., promulgated the following 
statute : 

" It is statute and ordained throw all the realme, that all barones 
and freeholders, that are of substance, put their eldest sonnes and aires 
to the schules, fra they be sex or nine zaires of age, and till remaine 
at the grammar schules quhill they be competentlie founded, and 
have pertite Latine : And thereafter to remain three zeirs at the 
schules of art and jure, swa that they may have knowledge and 
understanding of the Lawes : Throw the quhilks justice may 
remaine universally throw all the realme." 

This shows that the value of a sound education both in 
the University and the elementary schools was appreciated 
in early times. 

Whilst #,t first no special buildings existed for teaching, 
and the students resided in the city, by and by a 
Pedagogy was provided and a chapel built on the site of 
the present library. A little later than the Ptedagogy the 
good Bishop Kennedy, stated to be the grandson of 
Robert II., though Mr Maitland Anderson 2 observes that he 

1 Vide an interesting History of Medicine in the University by Dr. 

Buist ; " Memorial Votiva Tabella," p. 197. 
2 "The City and University of St. Andrews," p. 41, 1911. 



198 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

described himself as nephew of the King, founded in 1450 
the College of St. Salvator, and the charter was confirmed 
by Pius II. in 1458. In it were a Provost, who was also a 
Doctor of Divinity, a Licentiate and Bachelor of Divinity, 
four Regent Masters of Arts, and six simple students. All 
lived within the College. Theology and Arts were the 
subjects taught. The most imposing part of this College 
was the fine Church of St. Salvator, which now forms the 
University Chapel, and is the sole survivor of the old 
buildings of the College, the " Common Schools " with 
their stone benches and the pigeons swarming in their 
roofs being the last to be swept away about the middle of 
the 19th century. The vicissitudes of the fine old church 
as a place of mediaeval worship and of burial, as a common 
meeting-place for the Reformers, as the temporary Parish 
Church of St. Leonards, and now of the College Chapel, 
have been many and varied, and form a fascinating and 
interesting story. 

In 1412, again a second College, viz., that of St. Leonard, 
was founded by Archbishop Stewart, the natural son 
of James IV., and who fell with his father at Ylodden, 
and Prior Hepburn, the builder of the wall and 
towers round the Cathedral and Priory, and who rightly 
thought that the old and rich Hospital of St. Leonard, 
originally intended for pilgrims, could thus be made avail- 
able for more useful purposes. The buildings and grounds 
were adapted by the Prior to their new functions, and the 
staff consisted of a Principal, 4 Chaplains (two of whom 
were to be Regents), and 20 poor students. As this 
College had 63 J acres of land within the burgh of St. 
Andrews, besides farms, titles, and other property, it was, 
as Mr Maitland Anderson observes, a fortunate addition 
to the University both at that time and now. As the 
College in which Patrick Hamilton, Alesius, Alex. Seton, 
Henry Forrest, and Gavin Logie expounded the new faith 
which was to shatter the mediaeval religious fabric, it is of 
special interest, for it also taught John Nair or Major 
(the Preceptor of John Knox), George Buchanan, and John 
Wedderburn names familiar in the history of Scotland. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 199 

The third College, viz., that of St. Mary's, or New 
College, supplanted the Psedagogium, and was founded 
by Archbishop James Beaton, added to by his nephew, 
Cardinal David Beaton, but only completed and endowed 
by Archbishop Hamilton in 1552. It consisted of a 
Principal, a Licentiate, a Bachelor, a Canonist, 8 Students 
of Theology, 3 Professors of Philosophy, Professors of 
Ehetoric and of Grammar, 16 Students of Philosophy, 
and various offices. All resided within the walls. The 
Papal Bull of 1537 shows that this College was to pro- 
mote to the degrees of Bachelor, Licentiate, Doctor, or 
Master those who may be qualified in Knowledge and 
Good Morals, in Theology, Civil and Canon Law, or any 
other lawful Faculty, including Medicine. The uncertainty 
of human affairs was illustrated when, in 7 years, the 
majority of the Professors and students joined the re- 
formers, and thus the funds given by Archbishop Hamilton 
were applied to the very purposes he strove to combat. 
The Professors of St. Leonard's College followed the 
example of St. Mary's, but the Principal and most of the 
Eegents of St. Salvator's College loyally adhered to the 
ancient faith and quitted their offices. The teaching in 
St. Mary's College, after the inquiry made by order of the 
King, was confined to Divinity George Buchanan being 
one of the " noble worshipful and discreet " persons en- 
trusted with the inquiry. This College has had no 
student more apt or Principal more masterful (1580-1607) 
than Andrew Melville. 

In its earlier years the University and its Colleges 
received considerable endowments from the King, the 
Bishops, and Archbishops in money, lands, churches, and 
other property. About the time of the Reformation, 
however, many of these were seized and appropriated for 
other purposes. The Papal founders of the University 
and subsequent supporters, indeed, were most generous 
in their donations, and the Episcopalians were also liberal 
in this respect ; for example, Archbishop Sharp early in 
1688 procured from the King a permanent mortification 
of 200 per annum, with which he augmented the Profes- 



200 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

sorship of Mathematics and Hebrew. Moreover, from the 
beginning all the members of the University and these 
included masters, students, bedalls, servants, scribes, 
stationers, parchment-makers, and their families were 
freed from the payment of taxes, burdens, and servitudes 
of all kinds, privileges which their successors in modern 
times would gladly revive. 

Before Edinburgh had a University of its own, its 
citizens preferred to send tbeir sons to St. Andrews rather 
than to Glasgow or Aberdeen; and when the Town Council 
of Edinburgh were looking round for a suitable head for 
their University, they fixed on Eobert Pollock, Professor 
in the College of St. Salvator, as their Eegent and Professor 
of Divinity. This camaraderie between the two Universities 
exists to this day, and is even indicated in the grouping of 
the representatives in Parliament. 

For a long time (1411-1559) 1 the University to all intents 
and purposes was a clerical institution, for in the main 
its staff consisted of clergymen, and its policy was that of 
the Church; indeed, several of its members joined in 
heresy-hunts and in condemning the heretics, and had 
other failings common to the religious men of the period. 
Yet with all their faults the Professors were cultured 
men, who trained the youth of every rank from that of 
the King and nobles to the poorer citizens in a manner 
that reflected credit on their learning and abilities. As 
Principal Shairp 2 says their method was not "that of mould- 
ing the intellect merely, but the whole man was in its 
essence deep and true beyond anything we in these modern 
days dream of." Science, it is true, had little or no place in 
the programme, for arts, law, and religion held the field ; 
yet medicine was taught both before and after the Eefor- 
mation. The Eeformers, who followed the Eoman Catholic 
clergy after 1559, do not appear to have had broader 
views or wider culture in their academic life, and if they, as 

1 "Rev. C. J. Lyon, St. Andrews," vol. L, p. 317. 
2 " Sketches in History and Poetry/' p. 167, 1887. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 201 

citizens, did not burn heretics, they acquiesced in the 
execution of witches from an equally cruel and mis- 
taken zeal. 

Comparatively little is known of the earlier academic 
life at St. Andrews, though many of its Chancellors and 
Professors published learned treatises on various subjects, 
chiefly religious, legal, and classical. Yet natural science, 
medicine, poetry, and travel were also represented. From 
its Halls during the five centuries of its existence, how- 
ever, there has passed a long roll of distinguished States- 
men, soldiers, literary, classical, medical, and scientific 
men, clergymen, and teachers. whom it would be impossible 
to mention here; whilst from its staff other Scottish 
Universities have drawn their Principals and Professors. 
Such a career is alike honourable to the University and 
beneficial to the nation. 

About the time of the Eeformation and after it the un- 
settled state of the country was reflected in the University; 
especially when the Reformers in their fanatical zeal even 
became more arrogant and intolerant than their Papal 
predecessors, and when by inciting the fury of the mob 
such splendid piles as the Cathedral of St. Andrews, not 
to mention the Monasteries of the Black and Grey Friars, 
the Priory, the Provosty of Kirkheugh, and the Church of 
St. Regulus, were destroyed without adequate reason. An 
irreparable injury was thus inflicted on the ancient city 
and on Scotland. Not all the good work done by John 
Knox and Andrew Melville can efface the memory of 
such vandalism. The interference with the University was 
also considerable, yet not long afterwards there entered, 
at the age of 10 years, within the walls of St. Sal va tor's 
College one of the most brilliant students in any age, viz., 
the Admirable Crichton. The attendance, however, at the 
University, then the chief one in Scotland, considerably 
diminished at this eventful period. For a long time, 
indeed, its financial affairs were straitened, but a valu- 
able grant of Charles II. in 1681 enabled it to progress 
more satisfactorily. Taking a broad survey of its career 
in these times, there is truth in the trite saying of 



202 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 

Mr Lyon 1 that the University owed its early endow- 
ments to Papacy and to Prelacy. 

The effects of the losses sustained by the University 
during and after the Eeformation, the loss of the Primacy 
in the city and of the resident Chancellor, a harsh 
" visitation " by the Earl of Crawford resulting in the 
turning out of the Masters of the University, together 
with friction with the civic authorities, seemed to have 
disheartened the professorial staff, so that, in September 
1697, a project to transfer the University to Perth was 
seriously considered, and as the Earl of Tullibardine, then 
Chief Secretary for State, had just been elected Chancellor, 
the time was not unpropitious. Amongst the advantages 
which appeared to be offered by the change were the 
following: Easy access to the University, Perth being 
in the centre of the Kingdom and near the homes of the 
county proprietors, the promotion of the civilisation of the 
Highlands, and a more equable distribution of the 
Universities. The reasons specially affecting St. Andrews 
need not be mentioned since they were less cogent, 
especially in view of the fact that the Pope's Bull in 
1414 made special mention of "the peace and quietness 
which nourish in the said City of St. Andrews and its 
neighbourhood, its abundant supply of victuals, the number 
of its hospilii and other conveniences for students which it 
is known to possess." The foregoing reasons together and 
the citation of the transfer of the University of Praque to 
Leipsig, and the temporary transference of the University 
of Oxford to Stamford, were not sufficient for action. 
Thus the University remains in its original locality, and 
it is a curious effect of time that Perth is now considerably 
nearer Edinburgh (by rail) than St. Andrews. 

In 1721, shortly after the first Monro was appointed to 
the Chair of Anatomy in Edinburgh, the Chair of Medicine 
and Anatomy was founded by the first Duke of Chandos. 
Before this the granting of degrees in Medicine had existed, 
and after the foundation of the Chair the number increased. 



u History of St. Andrews," II., p. 179. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 203 

The troubled times connected with the Eebellions in 
1715 and 1745 caused but slight interference with 
University work, though it is noteworthy that there 
was sympathy with Prince Charlie in the former case 
and a leaning to the opposite side in the latter, for the 
Duke of Cumberland was asked to become the Chancellor 
on his return from Culloden. 

An important event was the union of the Colleges of 
St. Salvator and St. Leonards in 1747, an event due to 
the diminished revenues the former having the most 
suitable buildings for teaching, the latter the larger 
income. A reduction in the staff was thus carried out 
with mutual benefit, academically and financially, and 
duplication was avoided by converting one of the Chairs 
of Humanity into one of Civil History the forerunner of 
the present Chair of Natural History. One Principal and 
eight Professors resulted from this amalgamation, and for 
more than a century no addition was made to the list. 
Accompanying the change, the title of " Regent " was 
disused, and each Professor was assigned a special subject 
instead of carrying his students through the entire 
curriculum. 

The attendance of students at the University in the 
17th and 18th centuries varied, in the earlier period being 
often below 100. In the beginning of the 19th century it 
seldom exceeded 150, except under special circumstances. 
Toward the end of the 19th century, perhaps, it reached 
the maximum for male students, viz., 214. Yet, as 
Pennant observes, these may have come from Bath, 
Bordeaux, or Berne, in addition to native students, such 
was " the extensive reputation of the University." They 
wore red gowns without sleeves, and were forbidden to 
carry swords, daggers, or knives. Up to the beginning of 
the 19th century the students were divided in the earlier 
period, after the manner of the University of Paris, into 
four classes or nations, viz., Fifanae, Lothianae, Augusianse, 
and Albany, and more lately into three groups, primars, 
secundars, and ternars. They then resided within their 
Colleges and dined together, and strict almost Spartan 



204 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

regulations existed for their discipline, exercise, and com- 
fort. Since 1820 the students have lived in lodgings in 
the city. 

The degree of B.A. was formerly obtained after three 
years' attendance at the United College, and that of M.A. 
at the end of the fourth. The degree of M.D. was 
conferred by the Senatus twice every year after strict 
examination by the Medical Professor and certain " distin- 
guished members of the profession who are Fellows of the 
Colleges of Physicians of London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, or Dublin." Qualifying certificates of attend- 
ance at a University or College of repute were necessary 
or a diploma from a College. Latterly only those having 
a diploma were admitted. In the case of the Medical 
degrees history often repeats itself. In the 18th century 
(1773) complaints were made that these degrees were 
conferred without due examination, just as in the latter 
half of the 19th. In the latter case every candidate held 
a legal qualification, was fairly examined and legitimately 
capped, and there is no reason to doubt that in 1773 the 
same honourable method prevailed, though it is not easy 
to satisfy rival bodies on the subject. 

In the early part of the 19th century the University had 
its two Principals, viz., those of the United College and 
St. Mary's College, a staff of 8 Professors acting in the 
former and four in the latter College, and the dignified 
bearing and the earnest methods of the staff at that 
period were conspicuous. The stated lecture took place as 
a rule in the forenoon, with the exception of Political 
Economy and Chemistry (after 1842), the former occupy- 
ing a month or two in spring, whilst the latter was daily 
at 4 p.m. The very janitor of the period had an air of 
" roli me tangere" and indignantly repudiated any attempt 
by a body of students to pay him his annual fee of 2/6 in 
coppers, just as his superiors would the reception of a 
bundle of noisy " Kain hens " on a Saturday night. 
Amongst those who filled the Principalship at this time 
no one was better known or esteemed than Principal John 
Hunter, whose house at the eastern end of the Chapel of 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 205 

St. Salvator was the centre of University life, whilst the 
Principal's interest in the welfare of the city will long be 
remembered. A little later Sir David Brewster added 
great lustre to the University by his brilliant talents and 
researches, and the roll of Principals from early times till 
now includes many able men in Science, Arts, and 
Divinity. 

Practical classes were inaugurated in 1882, and now the 
scientific side of the University has been strengthened by 
the addition of Lectureships in Botany (developed by the 
Natural History Class), Geology, Agriculture, and Eural 
Economy. The Medical School (for two Anni Medici) has 
the two Chairs of Anatomy and Physiology. A Chair of 
Education, another of English from the important Berry 
Bequest of 1889, and Lectureships in almost every depart- 
ment of Arts and in Military History afford the student a 
wide scope for selection. 

Little change has occurred in the constitution of the 
General Council of the University since its institution,, 
except in its greater interest in University affairs and the 
service it has rendered in freely criticising University 
legislation. 

The University Library, as apart from those of the 
Colleges, was founded by King James VI. in 1610, and 
thereafter the libraries of the three Colleges were amalga- 
mated with it, the earliest library buildings being com- 
pleted in 1643. Since that period donors within and 
without the University have greatly augmented its stores,, 
and for a long period it was entitled to every new publica- 
tion from Stationers' Hall. Now it has 630 annually 
from Government, and from 40,000 volumes in 1843 it 
has at present upwards of 150,000, including the medical 
and other works in Dundee belonging to the University. 
Formerly it was rich in old MSS. and rare works in block 
letter, but at the Reformation many of these were lost, 
some being buried in chests and irretrievably injured 
before they were unearthed, and others were borrowed 
and never returned. The library still possesses many 
remarkable manuscripts and interesting and rare old 



206 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

works. At first the books were placed in the old library 
at St. Mary's College, ranged round the walls of the old 
Parliament Hall, Senate Room, and Supper Hall, then after 
1857 they overflowed into transverse rows of shelves in 
the former and were stored in various lumber-rooms. By 
and by (1892) a new library was built and entirely occu- 
pied; and lately the fine Carnegie Library and Reading 
Room (the gift of Dr. Carnegie) have still further aug- 
mented the accommodation for the ever-increasing influx 
of works. 

The collections forming the Museum of the University 
in some cases date from the 17th century, but the great 
bulk of the specimens belong to the 19th and 20th 
centuries. Though Dr. M'Vicar made a commencement, 
it was not till the establishment of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society (1838) that real progress was made, 
under the auspices of Sir David Brewster, then Principal 
of the University, especially after the Government pro- 
vided a suitable building in the United College. Of the 
many generous donors during the last 80 or 90 years it is 
impossible here to speak, but the Museum forms now a very 
valuable collection. Most departments are efficiently 
represented, viz., Zoology (including Anthropology and 
Ethnology), Botany, Geology, Numismatics, and Antiquities. 
Uniqne collections of Marsupials in the pouches, of British 
Marine Fishes and Invertebrates, and of Dura Den Fossils 
are amongst its treasures. Plans had been drawn out for 
the extension on the present site since 1884, but the 
munificent gift of the New Museum at the Bute Medical 
Buildings by Mrs Bell Pettigrew renders the carrying out 
of these unnecessary. 

The University has the distinction of possessing the 
oldest Marine Laboratory in Britain, for work began in 
the wooden building in January 1884 by the enlightened 
aid of the Earl of Dalhousie, and was carried on there in 
connection with the Scotch Fishery Board till 1896, when, 
by the munificence of Dr. C. H. Gatty, of Felbridge 
Place, Sussex, the present substantial one was opened 
on University ground. Were it only for its early grasp 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 207 

of the problems of the Sea Fisheries, this Laboratory is 
interesting, but it has also advanced Marine Zoology and 
Marine Botany. 

In the middle of the " seventies " a connection with 
Dundee was inaugurated, certain of the professorial staff 
giving evening lectures in Dundee. Then, not long after- 
wards, the munificent Baxter Bequest laid the foundation 
of the Dundee College, which was opened in the autumn of 
1883 by Lord Dalhousie and Lord Camperdown in the 
presence of the Senate of St. Andrews and the public. At 
first an independent College, this, as University College, 
has now been affiliated and made part of the University, 
mainly to form a conjoint School of Medicine, for which 
the populous City of Dundee, with its large Infirmary, is 
well adapted. The Universities' Commission of 1889 
carried out the arrangements connected with the incor- 
poration, and also altered the administration of University 
affairs in St. Andrews, all the business arrangements 
formerly in the hands of the Professors of the United 
College being transferred to the University Court; but 
this was not done with the affairs of the Dundee College. 

In glancing at the work of the University as it was 
carried on in 1853-57, it is apparent that then, as formerly, 
the main features were its Classical and Philosophical 
teaching and its training in Divinity, and these were of a 
thorough kind. Science and Medicine had made a be- 
ginning, by the presence of able men in certain of its 
Chairs, but they were overshadowed by the old-established 
curriculum of Arts and the absence of adequate resources. 
Nowhere could the student of Arts have more inspiring or 
congenial surroundings or more distinguished teachers, and 
this notwithstanding the fact that the students had to rely 
on their own resources for physical exercise. They had 
no other University game than football, played usually on 
the links or on the sands, though golf could, of course, be 
had at all times. Karely were other open-air sports 
organised, though a few occasionally joined in them. The 
students as a rule were comparatively poor, and many 
worked with remarkable perseverance and ability in those 



208 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

frugal times. Two students' Societies existed, viz., the 
Literary and the Classical, and by the courtesy of some of 
the Professors, attendance at the meetings of the Literary 
and Philosophical Society (founded in 1838) was permitted ; 
whilst the lectures on Optics by Principal Sir David 
Brewster were a source of deep interest. Many students 
often laboured manfully during the recess to make money 
for their next session, whilst others taught in schools or 
privately throughout the whole year for a like purpose. 
Not a few of these filled high positions in after life, and 
worthily so. The delicate and idle dropped in the race or 
sought other pursuits. The student who had to win his 
way in the world without patronage or money brought 
every energy to bear on his work, and his Spartan life and 
freedom from distractions made the University then a fit 
training for a future career ; but there was no field in the 
University for post-graduate work. 

The vast strides which have since been made in every 
department have revolutionised the University. Its pro- 
fessorial staff' has been more than doubled, assistants to 
every Chair have been provided, numerous Lectureships 
in Science, Medicine, and Arts have been instituted and 
equipped, and everything connected with teaching and 
study placed on the most modern footing. Male and 
female students have each their Union in St. Andrews, 
and also in Dundee; whilst in St. Andrews the unique 
Carnegie Exercise Park, with its fine pavilions for each 
sex, the spacious gymasium and drill-room, still further 
indicate the changes. The Bute Medical Buildings and 
the extensive additions to the Piesearch and Practical 
Chemistry rooms, new class-rooms for Natural Philosophy, 
Education, English, and other departments likewise mark 
the advancement. 

In contrast with the fifties of last century, the student 
of to-day has many and great advantages. His preliminary 
education bears directly on his University work, there is 
more money even in poor families, bursaries have increased 
in number, the Carnegie fees relieve home payments, the 
courses of study are widened and varied to suit every 
capacity, and practical classes afford a training unknown 






DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 209 



in the former period. Moreover, after graduation, scholar- 
ships of several kinds are available for able men in Science 
and Arts, and the opportunities for gaining assistantships 
are more numerous. Further, student-life has been much 
altered by the foundation of the Students' Eepresentative 
Council, the arrangements of the Students' Union, the 
students' dinners, the Gymnasium, the University Battery, 
and now the Officers' Training Corps, the Carnegie 
Exercise Park, the firm hold taken by the Total Abstinence 
Society, various Societies Literary, Scientific, and Social 
and the higher ideals formed of student-life. Looking 
back to the early fifties, there cannot be a doubt that the 
culture and morale of the young student have greatly 
improved, though the almost universal habit of smoking 
contrasts with the simple life of old. 

From a professorial point of view, the half-century has 
revolutionised the status of the members of the staff who 
formerly managed all the business affairs of the Colleges, and 
whose position was much more independent than it now is 
under the University Court with its special Secretary and 
Factor. Besides, the multiplication of Lectureships has 
broken down the barriers with which each Chair was 
formerly surrounded, and which proved so great an attrac- 
tion to many men, even tempting some to leave lucrative 
positions for a University Chair. The comparatively small 
number of students has always rendered the relationships 
of student and Professor in St. Andrews unique, for each 
student is thus known to his teacher, and this feature 
remains to-day as it was in the olden time. 

Nevertheless, putting sentiment aside, there can be no 
doubt that the University of to-day is a teaching force 
having a much wider influence and a much more potent 
effect on the welfare of the nation than it ever had before. 
The oldest Scottish University has engrafted much that is 
new and progressive, and so long as its Professors adhere 
to a high ideal in original work, so long will its name and 
fame continue to extend. It has ever been the goal set 
before Scottish Universities that, besides the knowledge 
already gained, the staff should extend its boundaries by 
their individual efforts. N 



210 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 



University College. 

By J. Yule Mackay, M.D. ; LL.D., Principal and 
Professor of Anatomy. 

UNIVERSITY College, Dundee, was founded in 1880 ; teach- 
ing began in 1883. In 1890 it was united to the University 
of St. Andrews; the union was dissolved in 1895, but 
reconstituted in 1897. As a consequence the College has 
enjoyed for fifteen years full academic privileges; the 
Professors are members of the Senate of the University 
and the classes and examinations qualify for the degrees 
in the Faculties of Arts, Science, and Medicine. 

The College is constituted under a " Deed of Endowment 
and Trust," in which the founders direct the Trustees to 
apply the funds placed in their hands to "founding, 
establishing, endowing, maintaining, and conducting a 
College for promoting the education of both sexes and 
the study of Science, Literature, and the Fine Arts," and 
which contains also as a fundamental condition the pro- 
vision that "no Student, Professor, Teacher, or other 
officer or person connected with the College, or the opera- 
tions thereof, shall be required to make any declaration as 
to his or her religious opinions, or to submit to any test of 
his or her religious opinions, and that nothing shall be 
introduced in the manner or mode of education or instruc- 
tion in reference to any religious or theological subject 
which can reasonably be considered offensive to the con- 
science." The property is held by a body of Trustees; 
the Governors consist of those who have subscribed 50 
or upwards to the funds of the College and of regular 
annual subscribers of 5 ; and there is a Council partly 
formed of official representatives, specified in the Deed of 
Endowment, and partly of persons elected by the Governors. 
The Council is the managing body ; it directs and controls 
the expenditure of the finances, and exercises its authority 
over all the departments of the College save those belong- 
ing to the later years of the School of Medicine; these are 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 211 

supported by funds coming through the University Court 
from a Government Grant, and although they are part of 
the College, they are retained by the Court under its own 
management. The academic work of the College is carried 
on in conformity with the conditions set forth in the 
Ordinances, and is subject to the University, the College 
being suitably represented upon the several bodies charged 
with the supervision of the teaching. 

The subjects of study offered are English, Latin, French, 
German, Logic, Education, Mathematics, Physics, with 
Electric Engineering, Chemistry, Civil and Mechanical 
Engineering, Botany, Zoology, Geology, Anatomy, Physi- 
ology, Pathology, Materia Medica and Therapeutics, Medical 
Jurisprudence and Public Health, Medicine, Surgery, with 
many of the special branches of the two latter, Scots Law, 
and Conveyancing. The work is carried on by fourteen 
Professors, eighteen independent lecturers, and a large 
number of associate lecturers and assistants. 

The grounds occupy an area of some six acres or thereby 
in a central situation. The buildings, originally acquired 
with the site, have been preserved as far as possible, and 
converted to College uses. In addition, special Laboratories 
have been constructed for Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, 
Physics, Electric Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering 
and Hydraulics, within which in several of the departments 
space is set apart for the accommodation of Museums. 
The School of Medicine, erected conjointly by the University 
Court and the Council of the College, affords equipment 
for teaching and practical work and the necessary facilities 
for the display of specimens in the several subjects of 
medical study. There is a Library, a Gymnasium, and a 
Students' Union. The Gardens of the College, facing the 
busy street, make a brave show in summer, and are much 
appreciated by the citizens ; but the original buildings, 
purchased with the grounds, although fulfilling their pur- 
poses at present, constitute a frontage which must sooner 
or later be replaced. Designs for a new building have 
been prepared by Sir R. Rowand Anderson, LL.D. ; when 
the Council has been able to give effect to these, the 



212 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

prospect which the College will present to Dundee will be 
more worthy than that which it now exhibits and more in 
keeping with the dignity of the City which gave it birth 
and has established it. 

The total of the contributions made to the capital funds 
of the College amounts to nearly 350,000, of which about 
150,000 has been expended on lands, buildings, and 
permanent equipment; more than 165,000 has been 
invested for purposes of maintenance, and 25,000 has 
been set aside as a permanent fund for the provision of 
bursaries and scholarships. An annual Grant is received 
by the Council from the Treasury ; arid the University 
Court of St. Andrews yearly devotes a considerable sum 
to the maintenance of a portion of the School of Medicine, 
and makes in addition a contribution to the objects in- 
cluded in the fee-fund of the Council. 

The Dundee Eoyal Infirmary, accommodating 400 
patients and possessed of many special departments and 
numerous dispensaries scattered throughout the City, and 
the District and Eoyal Asylums, offer productive fields of 
clinical study to the students of medicine. 

The public health laboratories of the town are well 
equipped, and, in conjunction with the bacteriological 
department of the College, present ample facilities for 
practical work and research. Opportunities for observa- 
tion are extended to students of Science by a number of 
the departments of municipal and public work and by many 
of the engineering and shipbuilding firms in the district. 

The St. Andrews Provincial Committee, the local organ- 
isation for the training of teachers, is closely associated 
with the College, and provides in the schools of the City, 
which are thrown open for practice, all the elements of 
professional instruction to those among the students who 
seek to qualify themselves for educational work in after life. 

A short account of the history of the College will pro- 
bably prove of interest to readers. University College, 
Dundee, may be described as an adopted daughter of the 
University of St. Andrews, forming one of a family of 
three, the other members of which the United College of 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 213 

St. Salvator and St. Leonard and St. Mary's College have 
their home at St. Andrews. The University, first in 
foundation among all the Scottish Universities, was 
established in 1411; last year, as all the world knows, 
it celebrated its five hundredth anniversary. The College 
of St. Salvator received its earliest charter in 1450, that 
of St. Leonard in 1512; they were joined into one as the 
United College in 1747. The foundation of the College of 
St. Mary was authorised in 1538, but a few years elapsed 
before the actual establishment was effected. Like the 
parent University, the Colleges at St. Andrews owed their 
origin and their early maintenance to the Church, and 
when the older form of worship was dispossessed in 
Scotland, an event which took place in 1560, they suffered 
severely, being shorn both of influence and emoluments. 
Indeed, the University gradually but steadily declined 
during the succeeding three centuries, until, apparently 
crippled with age and misfortune, it seemed to have little 
left to it save the traditions of its past and the pride of its 
pre-eminence in time among its neighbours in Scotland. 
Then there came a rejuvenescence, which may be said to 
have begun in 1880, and has given rise within the short 
period that has followed since then to a remarkable 
development of vigour and activity. In the particular 
case of St. Andrews the change was probably due to the 
co-operation of many factors ; but there, as everywhere 
throughout the country, the most important element was 
without doubt the tide of commercial prosperity which 
earlier in the century had swept through the whole king- 
dom, bearing with it among the people the desire for better 
conditions of life, and rousing the nation to a sense 
of the importance of education. The year 1851 had seen 
the establishment of Owen's College, Manchester, the 
pioneer of the movement ; the Armstrong College at 
Newcastle was founded in 1871, the Welsh College at 
Aberystwyth in 1872, the Yorkshire College at Leeds in 
1874, the Bristol College in 1876, and the College at 
Liverpool in 1882. The ancient University of St. Andrews 
felt the influence and stirred to it, doubtless slowlv at first, 



214 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

but unmistakably. The birth of University College, 
Dundee, and the new birth of the University may be said 
to have taken place simultaneously under the same in- 
fluence, and the two institutions have progressed with 
equal steps. For a few years they kept mutually apart. 
Happily, however, as prosperity grew the common interests 
of both were recognised, and a union was established 
" dissoluble only by Act of Parliament." 

The citizens of Dundee are to be credited with what is 
indeed a notable achievement in the making of their 
College, a work which, though involving an enormous 
expenditure, has been carried on from the first with 
unremitting enthusiasm; but it is not to be forgotten 
that success could not have come so quickly or in the 
same measure had it not been for the co-operation of the 
University of St. Andrews. The gift of University status 
has been all-important. The gratitude of the City is due 
to those academic statesmen at St. Andrews through whose 
wisdom and foresight the idea of union was approved and 
under whose labours the scheme was matured and accom- 
plished. 

The story of the foundation of the College begins in the 
early seventies of last century. For more than a decade 
the town had enjoyed a period of great commercial pros- 
perity, and the activity had spread into the neighbouring 
counties. The whole community had benefited, the con- 
ditions of life had altered, and higher ideals had arisen. 
A prominent feature of the times was the generosity which 
was displayed by all who had reaped of the harvest, and 
many benevolent schemes, rich with blessings to the poor 
amongst the people, took their origin. Art flourished. 
And, with it all, the desire to increase the educational 
advantages of the City sprang into articulate expression. 
There can be no doubt that the visit of the British 
Association to Dundee in 1867 did much to stimulate 
those aspirations and gave an impetus among the many 
to a movement the full appreciation of which must 
naturally at first have been confined to a few. The 
actual proposal for the foundation of a College was first 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 215 

definitely arid formally made by Boyd Baxter, LL.D., the 
Chairman of the Directors of the Albert Institute, the 
Public Museum, Library, and Art Gallery of the town, on 
November 28th, 1874, and the scheme, which bore the 
marks of the most careful consideration on the part of its 
authors, was submitted to a large and representative 
meeting of the citizens convened by the Provost on 
December 16th of the same year. 

The proposal contemplated the formation of an initial 
endowment of 150,000 and a subsequent extension to 
225,000. A clear indication of the spirit which animated 
the promoters will be got from the following paragraph 
quoted from their report : 

" This to many may no doubt appear a very large sum, 
and may cause them at first to cherish distrust of the 
whole plan ; but when our well-disposed citizens shall 
have carefully considered the magnitude to which Dundee 
has attained its rapid increase in size, population, and 
wealth and the vast benefit which would result to her 
people from the establishment of a College within her own 
bounds, it is hoped that the large sum above indicated 
may not be deemed too high a price with which to pur- 
chase the means of placing alongside of our material 
prosperity an enlargement of mind and an elevation of 
character, and of enobling and purifying the spirit of trade 
by the influence of culture and scientific knowledge." 

The Chairs to be established at the outset were English 
Literature and Logic, Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, 
Engineering, Natural History or Greek and Latin, and 
Mathematics. Later on were to follow Natural History 
or Classics, the one not already established, Mental and 
Moral Philosophy, Ancient and Modern History, Geo- 
graphy and Astronomy, Physical Geography, and Naviga- 
tion. It is evident that Dr. Boyd Baxter and his colleagues 
were animated by lofty ideals and that they possessed 
broad views upon education, recognising as the first 
essential the element of culture. They go on to suggest 
that the new College should be affiliated to the University 
of St. Andrews, retaining its own freedom, but adapting 
its teaching to the degree standard. 



216 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

Although it was from the helping hand of the University 
that the College, after its coming, received the gift of 
academic status, without which the value of its great 
endowments could never have been adequately realised, it 
was undoubtedly in the near presence of the University 
that the early promoters found the most serious obstacle 
to their scheme. There were those who feared that the 
birth of the new might entail the death of the old institu- 
tion, and there were some who had contemplated as a 
possible last resort the entire removal of the ancient 
University from its historic seat to the northern bank of 
the Tay, and naturally did not approve of a plan which 
proposed to occupy the ground. These fears found some 
expression at the public meeting of December 1874, but 
nevertheless the following resolutions were adopted un- 
animously : 

(a) " That having respect to the importance of the 

advancement of Literature and Science, along 
with the growth of the population and wealth 
of Dundee, it is desirable to establish a College 
for the promotion of the higher branches of 
education in the town and district." 

(b) " That a Committee be appointed to devise a 

scheme for the establishment of a College in 
Dundee, to confer with the University of St. 
Andrews with a view to the incorporation of the 
proposed College, by affiliation or otherwise, .with 
that University, and with power to take all 
necessary steps to carry out the object con- 
templated." 

The tenor of the resolutions shows that a leading aim 
in the minds of the citizens was to combine together as 
far as possible all the educational potentialities of the 
district in order to develop a harmonious and conservative 
co-operation. Ample time was given for full consideration, 
and most of the leading authorities in matters of education 
throughout the country were called upon to advise. 

Meanwhile the University of St. Andrews instituted as 
an experiment courses of extension lectures in Dundee. 



s i as =sa 



-ria- :Wn=5ij~ ifjif 

1|fc ^j^ 




JlfHHilllllflilllll 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 217 

The subjects chosen were Chemistry, Physical Geography 
and Geology, Physiology, Natural History, and Education. 
The work was carried on in the evenings during portions 
of two winters (1875-6 and 6-7), each course consisting of 
from ten to twenty lectures. The attendance was large, 
and the experiment, so far as it went, may be said to have 
been successful in demonstrating that even educational 
crumbs were eagerly sought for in the City. In the 
following year a more serious request was made to the 
University, to the effect that it should establish in Dundee 
a set of regular qualifying classes in extent and standard 
sufficient to educate students to the level required for 
University graduation. After much consideration the 
appeal from the City was approved at St. Andrews, but 
the good intentions of the Senate were never carried into 
effect. The difficulties in the way were undoubtedly great. 
The staff of the University was inadequate to carry on a 
double system of classes, and the equipment needed for 
scientific teaching was altogether wanting in Dundee. 
Thus time ran on until it became clear to all that the 
University of St. Andrews in carrying on the extension 
classes had done for the City all that it could, unless it were 
to migrate bodily across the Tay, a course often discussed 
in the dark days of St. Andrews, but always set aside 
wisely or not, who shall say ? It became evident that 
if the aspirations of the City were to be realised it must 
have a College of its own. 

It was towards the close of 1880, six years after the 
historic meeting of the citizens in the Town House, that 
Dr. Boyd Baxter intimated on behalf of Miss Baxter of 
Balgavies a donation of 120,000, with an additional sum 
of 10,000 from himself, for the foundation of a College 
in Dundee. It was indeed a noble gift to the City, not 
only from its magnitude, but from its nature, being one 
in which all classes were free to participate. Many others 
have followed the splendid example, and have given of 
their means or have made bequests to the endowment 
fund. Among those, who like Miss Baxter and Dr. Boyd 
Baxter are no longer with us, may be mentioned Miss 



218 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

Margaret Harris, Mr T. H. Cox, Mr David Myles, Miss 
Helen H. Symers, Miss Jessie Strong, and Mrs Isabella 
Blyth Martin. In the list of the benefactors of whose 
interest in its progress the College is still happily assured 
stand forth prominently the names of Sir William Ogilvy 
Dalgleish, Lord Armitstead, Mr Edward Cox, Mr John 
Fleming, the family of the late Mr James F. White, and 
the sisters of the late Lord Dean of Guild Peters. It is 
not possible within the limits of this review to give more 
than a brief list of those among the citizens who have 
borne a share in the endowment of the College the 
actual number is very great ; but no historian could be 
deemed to have adequately performed his task, however 
meagre the space allotted, were he to omit the name of 
Mr Andrew Carnegie, at least, an adopted son of the City, 
whose great services to education are known to all men. 
During his tenure of office as Lord Eector of the University 
of St. Andrews, Mr Carnegie presented to the College the 
Laboratory of Physics, to which, in grateful recognition of 
the gift and in memory of the association with the giver, 
the name of the donor has been attached. 

The work of teaching was commenced in 1883, with a 
staff of five Professors, whose subjects were Latin and 
Greek, English, Mathematics and Physics, Chemistry, and 
Engineering. The many consultations with the leading 
authorities upon education in the country had but con- 
firmed the wisdom of the scheme originally drafted by 
Dr. Boyd Baxter. In the present session, as has been 
already mentioned, the number of Professors and inde- 
pendent Lecturers, including those of the later part of the 
Medical School, dealing with separate subjects of study 
qualifying for University graduation reaches to thirty-two. 

During its first three years the young College had no 
University connection. The earliest privileges came in 
1886 from the University of Edinburgh; under them 
students in Science were permitted to count two years 
spent in Dundee as part of the three years' attendance 
required for the Edinburgh degree. Immediately after- 
wards the University of St. Andrews intimated recognition 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 219 

of the whole curriculum in Science, and thus by the willing 
gift of all that could be conferred at. the time rendered 
practical proof of the friendship under which ripened at 
a later date the proposals for union. A new Act for the 
better regulation of the Universities of Scotland was passed 
through Parliament in 1889, and a special clause provided 
that the College should be affiliated to and made to form 
part of the University, subject to a mutual agreement as 
to terms of union. The preliminary steps were quickly 
taken, and in 1890 the Commissioners under the Act 
issued an Order declaring the accomplishment. Nothing 
in the long history of the University is more creditable to 
its rulers than their action at this time, since by adopting 
the new College which had sprung up so close to their 
own doors they ensured the harmony of all the educational 
energies of the district, and in like manner the Governors 
of the College in its earlier days merit the warmest com- 
mendation for their wisdom in agreeing to submit the 
academic future of their institution to the supreme guid- 
ance of the University. 

Under the terms of agreement the College retains its 
individuality and its financial authority, attributes essen- 
tial in the eyes of the citizens, who look upon it as the 
chief among the educational institutions of Dundee ; but 
in all its academic work it is subject to the control of the 
University. The allocation of the teaching work between 
St Andrews and Dundee has been most happily carried 
out. The study of Divinity is confined to St. Mary's 
College at St. Andrews. In Arts St. Andrews is para- 
mount, but the Dundee College possesses an avenue of its 
own to the degree of M.A. necessary lor general purposes 
of culture study, and in particular for the special prepara- 
tion of students seeking the higher degree in Law and 
demanded by a large and growing number of those who 
are making use of the practical facilities which the City 
affords for the training of teachers. The Arts classes in 
Dundee form a fruitful recruiting field for the Honours 
courses at St. Andrews. In Science both centres are 
strongly developed, although in Engineering Dundee adds 



220 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

a branch of Applied Science which cannot be undertaken 
at St. Andrews. The University as a whole is greatly 
advantaged by the duplication of its teachers and its 
Laboratories in Science. The subjects embraced in the 
curriculum demand to such a degree detailed practical 
instruction that they cannot be satisfactorily taught save 
to comparatively small classes. Proof, if it be needed, 
will be found in the remarkable output of original papers 
which has been contributed of recent years by the 
University as a whole. A list, imperfect since accurate 
records had not been kept in all the departments, compiled 
in 1908, showed that up to that time from the Dundee 
College alone more than three hundred and fifty published 
researches in Science had emanated. The earlier years in 
Medicine are likewise represented in both places, the 
subjects embraced belonging equally to the Faculty of 
Science; the later years are confined to Dundee. The 
Dundee College also possesses the rudiments of a Faculty 
of Law. 

There remains still to be told one episode in the history 
of the inter-relations of the College and the University a 
grave and important one which threatened to destroy the 
union permanently and for a time did actually interrupt it. 
There were opponents at St. Andrews from the first who 
resented the newcomer as an intruder upon their academic 
privileges, and the act of affiliation or incorporation never 
having occurred before in Scotland, the arrangements 
necessary for the definition of the relative positions in the 
future of the contracting parties to the union offered 
abundant material for discussion and difference. With 
the growing prosperity of the University a group of 
objectors were encouraged to carry the whole matter to 
the Law Courts, challenging particularly the terms of the 
agreement and the validity of the declaratory deed or 
order of the Commissioners under which the union was 
actually constituted. The proceedings, which were un- 
duly protracted, lasted throughout five years, during 
which period the College suffered severely, and to some 
extent also the progress of the University was hindered. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 221 

Indeed, at one time it appeared as if the objectors had 
triumphed, for a decision was given in the House of Lords, 
on an appeal from the Court of Session, setting aside on a 
technical ground the order of the Commissioners, and the 
union between the College and the University was dissolved 
five years after its first formation. Foreseeing the possi- 
bility of the result, the Commissioners had prepared a 
new bond, which they were ready to carry into effect 
without delay ; but further litigation was commenced 
attacking the terms of the agreement, and thus putting a 
barrier in the way of the reconstitution of the union, and 
was allowed to drag its way to an unsuccessful issue in 
the House of Lords some two years later. Meanwhile the 
College, bereft of University status, was largely deserted 
by its students, the great majority of whom were working 
towards graduation, and at the same time was subjected 
to a heavy financial drain to meet the expenses of the law. 
In 1897. the agreement having been legally vindicated 
in all its details, the union with St. Andrews was re- 
established. Another attempt to continue the litigation, 
based on highly technical grounds, met with but scant 
courtesy at the hands of the Law Courts, and since 1898 a 
period of peace has prevailed, with the most beneficial 
results on both sides of the Tay. In the session of 
1890, the first year of the union, the College began its 
University career with 21 matriculated students, and 
those at St Andrews numbered 212. Twenty years later, 
in 1910, the College, despite the five years' break in its 
progress, showed a total of 218, and at St. Andrews the 
numbers had risen to 353. The combined advance appears 
all the more gratifying when it is remembered that during 
the period mentioned the figures of the other Universities 
had declined owing to the introduction everywhere through- 
out the country of severe entrance tests. It may be said 
without hesitation that the College in its as yet brief career 
has incontestably proved the wisdom of its promoters and 
has justified the great sacrifices which the City has made 
for it. 



222 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 



St. Andrews Provincial Committee for the 
Training of Teachers. 

By James Malloch, M.A., P.S.A. (Scot.), P.B.I.S., 
Director of Studies. 



THE PROVINCIAL TRAINING COLLEGE. 

THE system of Provincial Training Colleges 
Minute of in Scotland for the Training of Teachers 
Council of 30th became possible when in January 1905 the 
January 1905. Committee of the Privy Council on Educa- 
tion in Scotland issued their Minute pro- 
viding for the establishment of Committees for the Training 
of Teachers. Previous to that date the task of maintaining 
a sufficient supply of adequately trained teachers for the 
public schools was under the charge of various church 
organisations. These bodies throughout a long series of 
years had rendered admirable service, but it was felt that 
the time was ripe for a change in the administration of the 
funds provided by Parliament for the specific purpose of 
securing an efficient and national body of well trained 
teachers. 

The main purpose aimed at by the Minute of Council is 
expressly stated to be " to enlarge and improve existing 
facilities for the training of teachers " and " to ensure that 
that training shall be brought into as close connection 
with the University organisations as the attainments of 
the students upon entering admit of, and to provide 
means whereby School Boards and others directly in- 
terested in the question of the supply of teachers shall be 
in a position to secure due consideration for their views." 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 223 

Within four years of the issue of the Minute 
Existing the several Colleges in Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Colleges and and Aberdeen, under the supervision of the 
the New authorities of the Church of Scotland and 
Committees. t h e United Free Church of Scotland, were 
transferred to the newly constituted Com- 
mittees, and that " under adequate guarantees for the 
continuance of the religious instruction " that had con- 
tinuously been given in them. No church institution 
existed in the St. Andrews Province, but there were 
energetic Local Committees working both at St. Andrews 
and Dundee, the former from 1895-1906 and the latter 
from 1899-1906, under whose care students were pre- 
pared for the teaching profession, along with a concurrent 
course for graduation in Arts or Science at St. Andrews 
University. 

The new Committees were constituted on a 
Constitution very broad and exceedingly representative 
and Powers of basis. That ruling the St. Andrews Pro- 
the New vince now consists of 25 members, along 
Committees, with an Assessor (H.M. Chief Inspector of 
Training Colleges) of the Scotch Education 
Department, These members are elected as follows: 
Four by the University Court of the University of St. 
Andrews, two from Central Institutions within the Pro- 
vince, fifteen by the Secondary Education Committees of 
the Counties of Fife and Kinross, Perth, Forfar, Stirling, 
and Clackmannan. Four members are co-opted to serve 
on the Committee, but these members must be " persons 
actively engaged in the work of Education in Schools or 
Colleges within the Counties and Burghs represented on 
the Committee." 

Since the initiation of the first Committee in 1906 the 
members elected have been mainly those occupying the 
highest educational positions in the district. The Principal 
(Sir James Donaldson, LL.D., D.D.) of the University of 
St. Andrews was the Chairman of the first Committee ; 
the Eight Kev. Principal Stewart, D.D., of St. Mary's 
College, of the second ; and Principal Mackay, M.D., 



224 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

LL.D., of University College, Dundee, of the third; the 
membership being principally composed of eminent Univer- 
sity Professors, Chairmen of School Boards, and Secondary 
Education Committees. 

The powers of the Provincial Committee are both exten- 
sive and varied. They are enjoined to provide courses of 
instruction suitable for all teachers of the various subjects 
taught in Primary, Intermediate, Secondary, and Technical 
Schools, and to frame their courses on the understanding 
that " while professional training 'will be the first and 
chief concern of the Training Centre, students who have 
reached a certain level of general education will, so far as 
is consistent with the requirements of proper professional 
training, be accorded every reasonable facility for pursuing 
their studies." 

Further, the Committee has power to acquire by pur- 
chase or lease suitable premises for its work and for the 
provision of the necessary apparatus. It may also incur 
capital expenditure in the acquisition of sites or buildings 
and the erection or enlargement of existing buildings either 
for training purposes or hostel establishments. It may 
subsidise approved hostels for the residence of students 
and may give, on certain conditions, financial assistance to 
such individual students as in the Committee's opinion 
require help. It may exact fees, appoint officers for 
teaching and discipline, and may make regulations for the 
proper behaviour and conduct of the students. To enable 
the Committee to secure the best and most systematic 
instruction in the art of teaching under skilled supervision, 
all schools in receipt of Parliamentary grant must be made 
available for the practice of teaching necessary for the 
students' training, under arrangement between the Com- 
mittee and the respective School Governors. 

It is to be rioted that the Committee uses its powers 
and exercises its functions under the supervision and 
approval of the Scotch Education Department, and that 
its term of existence is fixed by the Department. New 
Committees are to be appointed and elected once, and not 
oftener than once, in every three years. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 225 

The University connection, begun under the 
St. Andrews Local Committees at both Centres, is still 
and maintained and is being extended under 
Dundee Training the Provincial Committee, but to provide 
Centre. for the enlarging needs of the Province, 
the Committee determined in 1910 to erect 
in Dundee a Provincial Training College in which all 
classes of students could be instructed, and around which 
the special and University tuition given at University 
College and the Technical College and School of Art 
might get that professional outlook and technical skill 
requisite for all teachers. It is well to remember that, 
coincident with the establishment of Provincial Com- 
mittees, great changes in the earlier training of future 
teachei-s were begun. The pupil teacher system was 
superseded, and a thoroughgoing scheme inaugurated for 
the sound general education of all candidates who aimed 
at becoming teachers. Junior students now 
Junior p ass through a Secondary School curriculum, 
students. and only obtain the Junior Student Certifi- 
cate, entitling them to become students in 
full training and to enter a Training Centre, after having 
successfully completed that curriculum and given evidence 
as to their probable fitness for the office of teacher by the 
possession of those personal characteristics without which 
success in teaching is impossible. 

In planning their building the Committee 

students' k e pt) in view the widely diversified character 

Courses. of the courses followed by differing groups 

of students. Provision had to be made for 

the full professional training (1) of students who entered 

on a three or four years' course with a view to graduation 

in the University ; (2) of students attending only a special 

group of University classes along with the professional 

course; (3) of students of two years' training whose 

general education required further expansion in several 

important subjects ; (4) of students of one year's training 

who had already served in schools either as untrained 





226 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

certificated teachers or had obtained the partial recognition 
of an acting teacher; (5) of graduates in Arts or Science 
taking a post-graduate professional course ; (6) of students 
of any of the above classes who wished and might be 
selected by previous attainment to specialise in more ex- 
tended study of the special subjects of the Primary School; 
(7) of students who were fitted to take advantage of the 
organised instruction offered for Supplementary Course 
work (a) Eural School Course, (b) Household Manage- 
ment Course, (c) Industrial Course ; (8) of students 
(Honours Graduates) pursuing a carefully planned cur- 
riculum of professional subjects for the teaching of the 
Higher Subjects in Secondary Schools ; and (9) of students 
in possession of the Diplomas of Central Institutions in 
Art, or Music, or Physical Culture, or Manual Skill, or 
Domestic Science. 



An admirable site for the new Provincial 
Provincial College was obtained in May of last year in 
College. Park Place, Dundee, in close proximity to 
the University College, almost in the centre 
of the City and in its most densely populated school area. 
The site extends to 1 acre 2 roods 28 poles. Plans have 
been prepared and approved by the Education Department 
for the erection of a handsome modern College building 
containing within it all required accommodation for the 
Committee's administrative work, laboratories and class- 
rooms, retiring-rooms, etc., etc., for a fall teaching staff 
and 400 students. 



To the north of the College and immediately 
Demonstration contiguous to it there will be erected a 
School. Demonstration School sufficient in accom- 
modation for 400 pupils and providing a 
school career for the infants' school stage to the end of 
the Secondary School period. It is hoped that the 
memorial stone of both buildings will be laid in Septem- 
ber 1912. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 227 

By the recent purchase of the mansion 
Hostels and house and grounds of Mayfield, overlooking 
Playing Fields, the estuary of the Tay, about 1 miles from 
etc. the High Street, the Committee expect soon 
to be able to offer excellent hostel accom- 
modation to the students. These grounds are magnificently 
situated for students' halls of residence, and being of the 
extent of 24 acres, splendidly wooded, and entirely secluded, 
they give ample opportunity for the thorough organisation 
of all kinds of outdoor sports and healthful recreations. 

It is the Committee s intention to open a hostel for 50 
women students in October next by the careful recon- 
struction and adaptation of the mansion house. Later, 
and as necessity arises, it is proposed to add to the 
women's hostel and also to provide similar accommoda- 
tion for men. 

For the purposes of the Kural School Course and the 
practical side of School Gardening and allied Nature Study, 
the Committee have leased an area of 3J acres on the 
Glebe of Mains Parish, within 15 minutes' walk of the 
Downfield car terminus. The ground has been tastefully 
laid out as a College Garden, with model demonstration 
gardens and plots for students, and already 50 students 
are engaged in the active operation of a full School 
Gardening Course. 

At present students whose homes are at 
Supervision of a considerable distance from either St. 
students' Social Andrews or Dundee, and who in conse- 
and Domestic quence live in lodgings, are guided and 
Life - counselled by a large Supervising Com- 
mittee, consisting of all the members of the 
teaching staff and by a number of ladies of position in the 
cities. Their rooms must be taken from an approved list 
and conform to well-known sanitary and hygienic condi- 
tions. The members of the Committee make frequent 
and friendly visits, and generally strive to make their 
stay in lodgings as homelike and comfortable as possible. 
When the hostel arrangements shall have developed, the 



228 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

necessity for living in isolated rooms will disappear, and 
the acknowledged benefits of a corporate collegiate life 
with its undoubted advantages, both in its social and 
moral aspects, will be within the reach of all students in 
training. 

Religious Instruction is given at both Centres according 
to use and wont, and care is taken that opportunity is 
given for all students to associate themselves with church 
life and organisation. 

Appended are some statistics shewing the 
statistics. development of the Province as a Training 
Centre : 

ST. ANDREWS. DUNDEE. Grand 

Men. Women. Total. Men. Women. Total. Total. 

1898 - 

1899 - 

1900 - 
1901 
1902 
1903 

1904 - 

1905 - 
1906 

1907 - 

1908 - 

1909 - 

1910 - 
1911 
1912 - 

67 137 204 169 576 745 949 



4 

4 


3 
6 
10 


3 
10 
14 











3 

10 
14 


5 


7 


12 











12 


4 


10 


14 


5 


6 


11 


25 


5 


3 


8 


O 


8 


10 


18 


4 


10 


14 


3 


15 


18 


3-2 


3 


8 


11 


5 


32 


37 


48 


1 


8 


9 


2 


19 


21 


30 


2 


10 


12 


2 


34 


36 


48 


4 


11 


15 


10 


103 


113 


128 


8 


13 


21 


20 


105 


125 


146 


8 


9 


17 


25 


106 


131 


148 


9 


16 


25 


34 


76 


110 


135 


6 


13 


19 


61 


72 


133 


152 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 229 

The Dundee Technical College and 
School of Art. 

By John S. Lumsden, D.Sc., Ph.D., Principal. 

ABOUT the time of the last meeting of the British 
Association in Dundee there arose a widespread desire 
for evening classes to provide instruction in the principles 
of science involved in industrial processes. This desire 
was fostered throughout the country by the Authorities 
of the Science and Art Department, South Kensington, 
who prepared courses of instruction, provided examina- 
tions, and offered money grants to encourage the promotion 
of classes in art and science. By this aid it became an 
easy matter for men of public spirit to organise classes, 
which, with a limited amount of local financial support, 
could be carried on under competent educational super- 
vision. Previous to the year 1867 the Directors of the 
Dundee High School had been conducting evening classes 
in art subjects, under Mr John Kennedy ; but instruction 
in science was not available in Dundee until 1871, when 
the Directors of the Young Men's Christian Association 
formed a Science and Art Committee, and approached the 
Authorities at South Kensington for assistance to institute 
evening clashes, which, in the words of the request, were 
intended " for the instruction of our artisans and skilled 
mechanics in the higher branches of education, and to 
provide clasess in chemistry and natural philosophy." 

The first teacher was Mr Stephen Cooke, who in Septem- 
ber 1871 enrolled over seventy students, and who for four 
years conducted very successful classes in mathematics, 
mechanics, steam, and chemistry. Mr Cooke having 
received an appointment as Professor of Chemistry in 
Glasgow, the work was taken up by Mr Robert Chalmers, 
who had been his pupil and assistant ; by Mr Frank W. 
Young, also his pupil and a student at South Kensington ; 
and by Mr George Malcolm, assistant to Mr Kennedy in 



230 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTEE. 

the High School ; and these well known teachers, assisted 
by others as the number of students increased, carried on 
with much enthusiasm the work of technical instruction 
in Dundee. 

The importance of this evening class education for 
artisans had aroused the interest of Sir David Baxter, 
Bart, of Kilmaron, head of the great textile firm of 
Baxter Bros. & Co., who died in 1872. By his will, 
drawn out in 1869, he directed his testamentary trustees 
to appropriate 10,000 out of his estate for the purpose of 
acquiring ground and erecting the necessary buildings for 
a Mechanics' Institution, which it was his wish to establish 
for the education of boys or young men in " those branches 
of learning necessary or useful for working mechanics and 
other craftsmen," and also to set apart the further sum of 
10,000 for the endowment of the Institution. 

At the time of Sir David Baxter's death his trustees 
considered the funds at their disposal inadequate for the 
purposes intended, and they delayed action until 1887, 
when an agreement was entered into with the Council of 
the University College, which had meantime been estab- 
lished in Dundee, by which the co-operation of the College 
was obtained in devising and carrying out a scheme of 
education on the lines specified in the bequest. The 
trustees then acquired a site in Small's Wynd, in the 
College grounds, and erected a building called the 
Technical Institute, in which, in 1888, they were able 
to offer a series of classes which, with evening classes 
promoted by the College Council, formed systematic 
courses of study suitable for skilled workers in various 
trades, and also formed the basis for a good general 
scientific education. 

The principal teachers of the Y.M C.A. classes were 
included in the staff of the new Institute, but the 
Y.M.C.A. Directors obtained other men and proceeded 
with their educational programme ; the High School 
Directors also continued successful science and art classes 
under their energetic teachers Mr Grubb and Mr John Y. 
Gray, and it so came about that for some fourteen years, 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 231 

several schools, competing, yet all having distinctive classes 
of students, were carried on in the city. 

In 1902 the Scotch Education Department assumed 
responsibility for evening class instruction in Scotland, 
and regulations were then made whereby money grants 
were only payable when consecutive courses of study, 
suitable for various trades and involving laboratory 
instruction, were provided. These restrictions made it 
desirable that all the technical classes in the city should 
be conducted by one authority, and by mutual arrange- 
ment the classes in the High School were closed and the 
classes in the Y.M.C.A. rooms were taken over by the 
Technical Institute Managers. The classes were then 
reorganised under the existing staffs, and in June 1903 
the Technical Institute was raised by the Education 
Department to the status of a Central Institution. 

For some years after this work went on successfully, 
until the students had so increased in numbers that they 
occupied all the available accommodation, and in 1906 
it was found expedient to raise the entrance standard. 
The Burgh School Board willingly co-operated in providing 
preparatory technical and art classes, embracing the 
elementary work formerly done in the Institute, and 
by this arrangement more space was left for higher work ; 
but the distribution of the classes in the Institute buildings 
and University College, in the Y.M.C.A. rooms, and in 
workshops at Dudhope Castle, was far from satisfactory. 
In order to concentrate the work and to provide the 
laboratories and workshops required for a modern tech- 
nical education, steps were taken in 1906 to secure a new 
central school. The Scotch Education Department had at 
that time certain surplus funds which could be allocated 
for capital expenditure in providing greater facilities for 
technical education, and an assurance was obtained of a 
grant from this source equal in amount to whatever sum 
was raised locally for building purposes. 

The Managers, under the guidance of Mr William 
Henderson, the Chairman, set about raising money, and 
from generous local donors, and from former students and 



232 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 

others in India, a sufficient sum was obtained, which with 
the equivalent from the Education Department enabled 
building operations to be begun in 1907 on a central site 
which had been secured in Bell Street. Dr. Lumsden, 
Director of Studies, and Mr Kobert Gibson, Architect, 
visited the principal technical schools in Britain and in 
Germany, and the accommodation was planned by them, 
with respect to laboratories and workshops, according to 
the best modern ideas. In September 1909 the Technical 
Institute was vacated, and most of the classes transferred 
to the central school, and a year later all the work was 
concentrated in the new buildings. To emphasise the 
status of the school and better to indicate its aims, the 
name was then changed to the Dundee Technical College 
and School of Art, and the Director of Studies was 
appointed Principal. 

The formal opening of the College took place on 9th 
January 1911, when William Henderson, Esq., of West* 
Park, Chairman of the Managers, presided, and Sir William 
Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., of Errol Park, the Senior Trustee, 
performed the opening ceremony. 

The name of Mr William Henderson will always be 
associated with the erection of this great educational 
centre. By his efforts the money was obtained, and the 
whole work was planned and carried out under his super- 
vision. He was ably supported in the executive work by 
the Vice- Chairman, Bailie Walker S. Melville, and the 
other Managers gave loyal help in overcoming the 
numerous difficulties which the erection of such an 
institution entailed. 

The buildings and equipment have cost 80,000, of 
which 11,000 was contributed by Sir W. 0. Dalgleish, 
35,000 by the Scotch Education Department, and some 
24,000 by other subscribers. 

The aim of the college is to provide instruction in the 
principles of science involved in the various industries 
carried on in the city and district, and to teach applied 
art. The courses of study are therefore arranged to suit 
the requirements of those employed in the different 




DUNDEE TECHNICAL COLLEGE. 




STOBSWELL SCHOOL. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 233 

branches of the engineering, textile, and building trades ; 
of men going to sea as engineers or ship's officers; of 
naval architects, druggists, lithographers, and others 
engaged in the lesser industries and art crafts. 

A good general education is demanded as an entrance 
qualification, since the college is intended for advanced 
work ; but provision is made by the Burgh School Board, 
and the School Boards in the neighbouring towns, whereby 
lads who have left school at an early age may, by attend- 
ance for one or more years at evening classes, reach the 
entrance standard. These preparatory classes are of a 
distinctly technical nature, and form a good introduction 
to the courses of study which are subsequently followed 
in the College. This close co-ordination with the School 
Boards is of great importance, as by means of the pre- 
paratory classes, and by bursaries which are available, it 
is possible for any lad of ability, however poor or however 
neglected his early education, to reach the college and to 
pass on to the highest work taught therein. 

Day classes are held in mechanical and electrical 
engineering, textile manufacture, and art subjects ; and 
the marine engineering and navigation students attend in 
the daytime ; but evening classes form the most important 
part of the work of the College: more than a thousand 
individuals being in attendance in the evening from 
September until May. The courses of study arranged 
for evening work extend over three or four years, and 
a student is present on three or more nights each week. 
If it is kept in mind that an apprentice during this time 
is acquiring much information in the foundry, factory, or 
workshop, and that the class instruction supplements his 
practical experience, it will be realised that the two 
sources of knowledge aid each other, and permit of much 
greater progress and higher attainment than would be 
possible in the time given to class work alone. At the 
end of his training a student obtains a Full Course 
Certificate, which is much valued ; it is evidence of steady 
work, and of a very considerable knowledge of the branch 
of industry with which he is connected. 



234 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

In accordance with modern methods of instruction great 
attention has been given to the provision of laboratories 
and workshops, where the students individually carry out 
tests or prepare specimens of work. Thus : the College 
contains well equipped mechanical and engineering labora- 
tories, with experimental steam and gas engines, material 
testing ' machines, and hydraulic appliances ; electrical 
laboratories, with testing apparatus and many types of 
dynamos and motors; chemical, physical, and botanical 
laboratories ; workshops for plumbers, woodworkers, house- 
painters, and lithographers ; and large rooms containing 
the machinery for the spinning and weaving of jute and 
flax. This practical aspect is also a feature of the School 
of Art, where, after a preliminary training, the work of 
the students is specialised to suit the requirements of 
those employed in many different branches of art and 
design. Although much expense is incurred for equip- 
ment, and for the carrying out of this practical type of 
instruction, it is considered to be well worth the outlay,, 
because it is found that the students show much greater 
interest in the work, and attain to greater thoroughness, 
by the individual efforts they must make to overcome 
experimental difficulties. 

The regular students at the College number over twelve 
hundred, many of them travelling from the surrounding 
towns. Also, in carrying out its functions as a Central 
Institution, over two hundred students from the Dundee 
Training College for Teachers are taught drawing and 
nature study by the College staff, and the teachers of 
navigation go to the towns on the Fife coast during the 
winter months to give instruction to fishermen who are 
then at home from sea. 

The staff of the College numbers over fifty teachers and 
assistants, some of whom devote their whole time to 
teaching, while others attend in the evening to give 
special instruction in work with which they are practically 
engaged during the day. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 235 

The High School of Dundee. 

By John Maclennan, M.A., Rector. 

A. HISTORICAL.* 

THE High School of Dundee, which forms one of the 
finest architectural features of the City, is the direct 
successor of the old Burgh Grammar School, and, as such, 
has a very ancient and notable history. As early as the 
year 1220 we find that the Abbot and Convent of Lindores, 
under whose charge the Church of St. Mary which had 
recently been founded and had taken the place of the old 
Church of St. Clement as the Parish Church of Dundee 
had been put by its founder David, Earl of Huntingdon, 
were empowered by Gregory, Bishop of Brechin, to place 
a Vicar in charge of Dundee, and "to plant schools 
wherever they please in the said town." No record 
remains to prove that this design was then carried out, 
but that a school was founded at a date not much later 
than this time seems to be borne out by the tradition of 
which mention is made by Blind Harry that the patriot 
William Wallace was educated at the School of Dundee 
about the year 1290. 

THE GKAMMAK SCHOOL BEFOKE THE EEFOKMATION. 

For the next century and a half we know almost 
nothing of the School of Dundee beyond the fact that 
such an institution existed. About 1434, however, we 
find mention of a priest, Gilbert Knight, being appointed 
to the charge of the School by the Abbot of Lindores, and 
of his being removed by the Bishop of Brechin because his 
management of the School did not meet with the Bishop's 
approval. Shortly after this date, viz., in 1443, an 

*For the historical part of this article I am greatly indebted to Dr. 
Miller of the Dundee Free Library, who has kindly put at my 
disposal two admirable articles written by him on the subject. 



236 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

important change took place in the relations between 
Lindores and Dundee. Through the agency of Richard 
de Craig, Vicar of Dundee, an agreement was made 
whereby the control of the Church of Dundee was handed 
over by the Abbot of Lindores to the Town Council and 
Burgesses of Dundee, and it is probable that through the 
same agency, and with a view to securing greater educa- 
tional efficiency for Richard de Craig was keenly 
interested in education, and had taken an active part in 
the founding of St. Andrews University in 1404 the 
control of the Grammar School of Dundee passed, in part, 
at least, from the hands of the Abbot of Lindores to the 
Town Council. At all events it is certain that from this 
time the Abbot ceased to exercise paramount authority 
over the School, though a fierce struggle took place on 
this point a century later. 

THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL AND THE REFORMATION. 

The people of Dundee were among the first to declare 
themselves in favour of the Reformation. In 1554 Thomas 
Makgibbon had been appointed head of the Grammar 
School, and, with the connivance of the Town Council, he 
spread the " Lutheran heresy " among his pupils. A 
bitter conflict ensued between the Council and the 
ecclesiastical authorities, which only terminated when the 
Reformation was at length victorious, and the Abbey of 
Lindores was demolished and the monks dispersed. The 
Town Council, now confessed protestants, made proper 
provision for the maintenance of Thomas Makgibbon as 
Schoolmaster, and took the control of the Grammar 
School entirely into their own hands a control which 
they continued to exercise until the present High School 
was built in 1832. 

THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL OF ST. CLEMENT'S LANE. 

Prior to the Reformation, there is no record to show 
where the Grammar School was located, and it was not 
till J 589 that the first school of which we have any real 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 237 

knowledge, viz., the Grammar School of St. Clement's 
Lane, was built. This School, which was a two storey 
building with an outside stair leading to the upper storey, 
was situated at the south-east corner of the block now 
occupied by the Town House, and was removed in 1871 
when the Town House was extended. For close on two 
centuries this small and unpretentious building was the 
principal school in Dundee, and within its walls were 
educated, among others, David Lindsay, Bishop of Edin- 
burgh, and Sir George Mackenzie, the founder of the 
Advocates' Library. 

THE ENGLISH SCHOOL. 

With regard to the curriculum of the Grammar School, 
the subjects taught were Latin, Greek, and Mathematics, 
and the importance attached to " perfytting the scholars in 
Latyne " may be seen from the fact that in 1664 the 
Town Council ordained that "none of the Latin scholars 
in the Grammar School shall speak English within or 
without the School, nub poena ferulae for the first fault, 
and if they transgress again they shall be publicly 
whipped by the Master, who shall appoint public 
clandestine captors for this effect." As for Arithmetic, 
Geography, and such subjects, the curiculum does not 
appear to have made any provision for them, any more 
than it did for English. In 1702, however, the Town 
Council, who had become alive to the necessity of making 
provision for the new needs of a new time, founded 
another school, called the English School, at which the 
subjects taught were English, reading, writing, and, later, 
book-keeping. Each of these schools, the Grammar 
School and the English School, was conducted by a Hector 
and two assistants, called * doctors," a third assistant 
being added in the case of the Grammar School in 1749. 

THE KIRKYARD SCHOOL. 

During the siege of Dundee in 1651 the nave of St. 
Mary's Church was destroyed, and the Tower, or " Steeple 



238 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

of Dundee," was left standing apart from the rest of the 
building. Here in the vacant space between the tower 
and the transepts the new English School was housed in 
a building erected for the purpose, and here also at a later 
period the Grammar School was transferred from St. 
Clement's Lane. The joint school, or, rather, the building 
in which the two schools were housed, was colloquially 
known as the Kirkyard School, and the passage leading to 
it, which has now been absorbed in Lindsay Street, was 
called the School Wynd. In 1789 it was decided to 
rebuild the nave of St. Mary's, and the schools had there- 
fore to move elsewhere. A new school was erected for 
their accommodation at the corner of the Nethergate and 
what is now called Lindsay Street, and here accordingly 
they were transferred. 



THE DUNDEE ACADEMY. 

Meanwhile the Town Council, who felt the necessity for 
a further extension of their educational programme, had 
founded in 1785 a third school, known as the Dundee 
Academy. Provision had already been made, as we have 
seen, in the Grammar School for classical studies, and in 
the English School for English, reading, and writing, but 
nothing had yet been done for such subjects as modern 
languages, drawing, and applied mathematics. It was 
to remedy this defect that the Dundee Academy was 
founded. It was accommodated in a part of the old 
building known as The Hospital, which stood in the 
Nethergate opposite the foot of Tay Street, and the staff 
consisted of a Eector, an assistant, a teacher of French 
and Italian, and a drawing master. The Rector, James 
Weir, and his assistant, James Ivory, were both eminent 
men, who won great distinction in the field of mathematics, 
but financially the school was a failure, and was closed in 
1792. It was reopened, however, in 1801, and Mr 
Duncan, who afterwards became Professor of Mathematics 
at St. Andrews University, was appointed Eector. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 239 

THE PUBLIC SEMINARIES OF DUNDEE. 

There were now three schools in the town under the 
management of the Town Council, but the buildings in 
which they were carried on were very unsatisfactory, and 
the question of suitable accommodation for them soon 
became a pressing one. Mr Duncan, the Rector of the 
Academy, in a pamphlet published in 1815, pleaded ably 
and eloquently for the building of a new and suitable 
Academy, but for the time being there was no response, 
and in 1820 Mr Duncan left Dundee to take up his duties 
at St. Andrews. At length in 1829, partly as result of 
the arguments of Mr Duncan, but still more, no doubt, 
owing to the rapid increase in the population of the town 
and the total inadequacy of the three existing schools, 
either in point of accommodation or in the number of 
teachers (there were, besides, seventeen teachers in various 
private schools) to meet the educational needs of the 
town, a public meeting was called to consider the question 
of building a new Academy. As a result of this meeting 
an application was made to the Town Council, suggesting 
that the three schools of Dundee should be combined in 
one building, and asking that funds should be set apart 
for this purpose. The Town Council was sympathetic, 
but the burgh was then in so impoverished a condition 
that it was felt to be impossible to take money from the 
rates for building a new school. There were 2,500 
available from an old Ale and Beer Tax levied by the 
Town Council for the support of education, but this sum 
was totally inadequate. The only course open, therefore, 
was to organise a public subscription. This was done, 
and within a month nearly 4,000 was subscribed, and a 
Constitution for the " Public Seminaries," as the schools 
were now called, was framed, providing ten Directors from 
the Town Council and ten from the subscribers as the 
administrative body. 

The next step was to find a suitable site, and, after 
prolonged and careful consideration on the part of the 
Directors, a site in the Meadows was chosen, and designs 



240 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE 

were invited from several architects. Two designs were 
regarded with special favour one by Mr George Angus 
and the other by Mr George Smith, both of Edinburgh. 
At length Mr Angus was asked to prepare a design which 
combined the advantages of both plans. The result was 
the present High School building, which was begun in 
1832 and finished in 1834, at a cost, including playground 
and enclosures, of about 10,000, the greater part of 
which was raised by public subscription. 



THE HIGH SCHOOL OF DUNDEE. 

The Public Seminaries were now all three located in 
the same building, but they were kept, as far as possible, 
distinct from one another. This was not an ideal arrange- 
ment, and various difficulties arose. The Academy, which, 
as we have seen, was a much more recent growth than 
the Grammar School, was given the chief place, and this 
was a cause of friction. The headmasters of the two 
schools also had both the title of Eector, arid this was 
another source of trouble. At length in 1833 the title of 
Kector was dropped, and at a later date it was arranged 
that one of the Directors should be appointed as Governor 
and perform the duties of general supervision usually 
assigned to a Eector. For the next half -century the title 
of Eector was in abeyance, till it was revived under the 
Harris Endowment Act of 1882, Dr. Merry being 
appointed first Rector of the High School in 1883. The 
designation, " High School of Dundee," itself dates only 
from 1859, when, in accordance with a clause in the 
Constitution of the Public Seminaries and with a view to 
safeguarding the interests of the subscribers, a petition 
was presented to the Crown for a Charter of Incorporation. 
This was granted, and sealed at Edinburgh in November 
of that year, and under this document the name of " The 
Public Seminaries of Dundee " was changed to that of 
" The High School of Dundee." 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 241 

THE HARRIS ENDOWMENT ACT. 

After the Education (Scotland) Acts of 1872 and 1878 
came into force, the School Board of Dundee claimed 
control of the High School as representing the Parochial 
School of the Burgh. The Directors of the High School 
resisted this claim, and an expensive litigation seemed 
imminent when the late Bailie William Harris came 
forward and offered to contribute 30,000 for the purposes 
of education in Dundee, provided a Minute of Agreement 
between him and the two disputants received Parlia- 
mentary sanction. By this Minute he gave 20,000 to 
the High School, and 10,000 to the School Board, on 
condition that the latter gave up all claim to the High 
School and built an advanced school in the Burgh. The 
Harris Endowment and Dundee Educational Act received 
the Eoyal Assent in June 1882, and a new Directorate 
was appointed, consisting of the Provost of Dundee, the 
Dean of Guild, the Parish Minister, seven members 
elected by the Town Council, seven by the subscribers, 
three by the Chamber of Commerce, and one each by 
the Guildry and the Nine Trades twenty-one in all. 
Following on this, the Harris Academy was erected by 
the School Board, and opened in 1885. 



THE GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL. 

By his will, Bailie Harris, who was keenly interested in 
the higher education of women, bequeathed part of his 
estate for the erection of a girls' department in connection 
with the High School, leaving his sister life-rented in the 
property. Miss Harris, however, eager to see this plan 
carried out in her lifetime, gave up her claim, and handed 
over to the Directors of the High School the money 
necessary for building the school. In 1890 the new 
school was completed, at a cost, including site, of 25,000, 
Miss Harris having survived to see it in full working 
order. 



242 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

THE HIGH SCHOOL IN RECENT YEARS. 

Of the recent history of the High School, and of the 
many distinguished alumni educated within its walls, 
considerations of space forbid our giving any account 
here. Suffice it to say, first, that while, like most of the 
secondary schools of Scotland, the High School has had to 
encounter difficulties of various kinds, it has weathered 
them all successfully, and its success and prosperity have 
never been greater, or its prospects brighter than they are 
at present ; and, secondly, that, as in former days the 
Town Council, so in more recent times the Directors have 
shown themselves wise and enlightened managers, always 
open to new ideas, and always willing and anxious to keep 
the school abreast of every educational advance. In many 
departments, indeed, e.g., in science, drawing, music, 
dressmaking and art needlework, cookery, and manual 
instruction, the High School has played the part of 
pioneer among the secondary schools of Scotland, making 
provision for the introduction of these subjects long before 
most of the other secondary schools had done so, and 
before the Education Department had yet begun to exert 
any pressure for their introduction. 

B. THE HIGH SCHOOL AT PRESENT. 

SUPERVISION. 

The High School, as has been explained above, consists 
of two schools a Boys' School and a Girls' School. Both 
schools are under the supervision of the Rector, but in the 
supervision of the Girls' School the Rector has associated 
with him a highly qualified Lady Superintendent, whose 
duty it is to exercise a general superintendence over the 
girls, to regulate their conduct and manners, and to advise 
and aid them in the preparation of their work. The High 
School is a secondary school, but it has also a preparatory 
department, and thus provides a liberal education for boys 
and girls from the earliest stages to the time of leaving 
for the Universities. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 243 

ACCOMMODATION. 

The Boys' School contains, in addition to the usual 
classroom accommodation, a large and well-equipped 
chemical laboratory, an excellent physical laboratory fitted 
up to meet the most modern requirements, a spacious and 
newly- furnished art-room, a workshop, a gymnasium, a 
school kitchen, and two luncheon-rooms. In the gym- 
nasium, which is of ample size and equipped with the 
most approved apparatus, the girls as well as the boys 
have drill, calisthenics, and gymnastics under qualified 
instructors. The benches and other furnishings of the 
Boys' School, which had got somewhat out of date, have 
been gradually cleared out and replaced by new and modern 
furniture, and the whole school has been repainted and 
done up within the last three years. The stonework of 
the exterior of the building, too, including the surrounding 
wall, has been completely gone over and renovated during 
the same time. A recreation ground, five acres in extent 
and within easy access, has been provided for cricket, 
football, hockey, lawn tennis, and other outdoor games 
and pastimes, which are conducted under careful super- 
vision. The recreation ground is open to girls as well as 
boys. On Wednesday afternoons the school closes an hour 
earlier than usual, and arrangements are made whereby 
every pupil in the school from the age of ten upwards 
takes part in some suitable form of recreation under the 
supervision of the masters and mistresses. 

The Girls' School, in addition to the usual classroom 
accommodation, which is of a very complete and 
thoroughly modern character, contains a large assembly 
hall, a science lecture-room, an art-room, an enamelling- 
room, a suite of eight music-rooms, and a luncheon-room. 
In the furnishing of the school, every provision has been 
made for the health and comfort of the girls. This year 
an entirely new and highly successful system of heating 
and ventilation has been introduced, which has greatly 
added to the comfort of the pupils, and the system will be 
extended to the Boys' School at the end of the present 



244 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

session. Considerable portions of both schools are already 
fitted up with electric light, and it is expected that the 
whole of the two schools will shortly be lighted in this 
way. 

SUBJECTS OF STUDY. 

In the Boys' School the subjects of study include 
English, Latin, Greek, French, German, mathematics, 
science, handwriting, book-keeping, shorthand, com- 
mercial correspondence, drawing, painting, manual work 
in wood and metal, gymnastics, military drill, singing, 
pianoforte, violin, dancing, and swimming. In the Girls' 
School the same subjects are taught, with the exception 
of manual work and military drill, for which are substituted 
needlework, dressmaking, and cookery. 

CURRICULA. 

The School is divided into ten classes. 

Up to and including the fifth class i.e., up to the age 
of about twelve there is a uniform curriculum for each 
class, which every pupil in the class is expected to take. 
From the sixth class upwards there are in each class four 
parallel courses of instruction, viz. : (1) the classical, (2) 
the modern with Latin, (3) the modern, (4) the technical 
(for boys only) ; and in the eighth class two further 
courses are added, viz., (5) the commercial, and (6) the 
domestic (for girls). The first two courses are more 
especially intended for pupils who mean to proceed to the 
Universities, the others for those who have in view a 
business career; but the modern and technical courses 
are also a suitable preparation for pupils who mean to 
enter the Universities as students of science or engineering. 
While it is expected that all regular pupils of the school 
will take one or other of the above courses of study, 
special pupils may, on sufficient reason being shown, take 
any one or .more subjects of the school curriculum as 
special subjects. This provision, however, generally applies 
only to pupils doing advanced work. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 245 

EXAMINATIONS, REPORTS, ETC. 

Examinations are regularly conducted in all classes and 
departments of the school, and lie ports by the Kector and 
Masters on the progress and conduct of each pupil are 
sent to parents and guardians three times a year. The 
Reports by the Examiners of the Education Department, 
and the results of the Leaving Certificate Examinations 
are published annually in the School Prospectus. 

LUNCHEON ARRANGEMENTS. 

During the interval allowed for refreshment in the 
middle' of the day dinner or luncheon is served in the 
school. The arrangements for purveying are in the charge 
of the Rector and the lady Superintendent, who also 
preside at dinner. The dinners and luncheons are prepared 
in the school kitchen under the superintendence of the 
teacher of cookery. 

SCHOOL CLUBS AND SOCIETIES, EXHIBITIONS, ETC. 

The school clubs and societies include a Boys' Literary 
Society, a Girls' Literary Club, and Cricket, Football, 
Tennis, Hockey, Rifle, and Swimming Clubs. Exhibitions 
in singing, music, dancing, gymnastics, athletics, swimming, 
etc., are given in the course of the year, and the school 
closes annually for the summer holidays with an exhibition 
of singing and music, at which the medals and prizes won 
during the session are presented to the successful pupils. 

BURSARIES AND SCHOLARSHIPS. 

Under the schemes of the Dundee Burgh Committee 
for Secondary Education and -the Dundee Educational 
Trust over a hundred pupils receive bursaries which cover 
the cost of education at the High School. About ten 
additional bursaries are offered by various other Trusts 
for the same purpose. For pupils entering the Universities 
there are about sixteen preference bursaries ranging in 
value from 20 to 60 per annum for two to four years, 



246 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

open, and eight of them confined, to the High School. 
There are also eight preference bursaries of the value of 
30 to 40 a year for two years open to former pupils of 
the High School entering their second or third session at 
the Universities of Edinburgh or St. Andrews. 

NUMBER OF PUPILS. 

The number of pupils enrolled at the High School 
during the present session is 564, an increase of forty 
on last year's enrolment. During the last six years 
the enrolment has increased by about 180, the increase 
being almost equally shared by the Boys' School and the 
Girls' School. 

STAFF. 

The staff of the High School consists of forty teachers 
twenty-four male and sixteen female. In each of the 
Departments of English, Classics, Modern Languages, 
Mathematics, Science, and Music there are four specialists, 
and in the case of Drawing, three, whose whole time is 
given up to the teaching of their own particular subjects, 
and in order to secure as complete and thorough a 
supervision as possible each department has at the head 
of it a highly qualified and experienced headmaster, who 
has charge of the whole work of his department, helps 
and advises his junior colleagues, and keeps the Rector 
in touch with all the details of his department. The 
headmasters, of whom there are eight, also act as a con- 
sulting committee to the Rector in every matter of 
importance affecting the School. It is thus evident that 
no effort is spared to make the High School a thoroughly 
efficient educational institution. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 247 



Primary, Secondary, and Evening 
Continuation Schools. 

By John E. Williams, Clerk and Treasurer, Dundee 
School Board. 

THERE are at present within the Burgh of Dundee 27 
Public Schools, consisting of 2 Intermediate or Higher 
Grade and Secondary Schools, 1 Central School for Sup- 
plementary Courses, 22 Primary Schools (9 of which have 
Supplementary Courses attached to their upper depart- 
ments), and Schools for the Deaf and Dumb, and for Cripple, 
Invalid, and Defective Children. Alongside the work of 
the Public Schools, there is a large volume of State-aided 
arid voluntary educational effort. Within the City are 
included 8 Denominational Primary Schools, a Half -Time 
School, 4 Private Schools, 2 Secondary Schools, an Institu- 
tion for the Blind, an Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
and Industrial Schools for Boys and Girls. These im- 
portant and varied Institutions combined provide for the 
educational training of a total population of children of 
school age, to speak in round figures, of 31,000. 

It will be observed that at the base of the system lies 
the important work of the public and State-aided Primary 
Schools, to the administration of which a long line of 
enthusiastic public workers has given unstinted labour 
and liberal encouragement. For many years prior to the 
passing of the Education Act of 1872, Dundee, along with 
other enlightened centres, made voluntary efforts to grapple 
with the educational and social needs of the masses of her 
inhabitants. Nor has she been unsuccessful since that 
period in maintaining a distinguished position among 
those cities which have been conspicuous in their en- 
deavour to secure better educational advantages for those 
who, whether rich or poor, are destined to bear part in the 
work and government of the country in the future. In 
introducing improved methods of teaching the young, in 



248 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

providing systematic instruction in subjects of domestic 
importance for the training of girls in thrifty household 
management, in organising manual instruction upon a 
continuous basis through all the stages of the Primary 
School so that boys and girls may learn to use their hands 
as well as their heads, in instituting schools of a remedial 
and alleviative character, in establishing social and recrea- 
tive institutions with an educational side and other useful 
agencies of high educational importance, and in a vigorous 
and philanthropic struggle against ignorance, squalor, and 
unhealthy social conditions, Dundee has occupied a high 
place among progressive communities. Nor has she again 
been slow to recognise, from time to time, the value to a 
large industrial centre of the development of new resources 
of public service, of intellectual power, and of business 
capacity by having a well- organised system of Secondary 
and Higher education resting upon a sound basis of primary 
instruction, and by providing for all boys and girls of 
marked ability from the Primary Schools adequate educa- 
tional facilities to rise to positions for which they are 
fitted by their talents, and thus making it possible to 
secure a return from all the other branches of her educa- 
tional expenditure. 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

With regard to the curriculum of the Primary Schools, 
the rudimentary instruction is practically the same in all 
cases, special regard being given in the preparation of the 
syllabuses to the circumstances of each particular school. 
According to the Education Code, the scheme of training 
must make provision for the instruction of the scholars in 
every department of the school in the three subjects of 
Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic, according to the degree 
of advancement and suitable to the capacity of each scholar. 
The other subjects which must be included in the Scheme 
of Work of all divisions are Physical Exercises, Needle- 
work for Girls, Singing, and Drawing, and for the Junior 
and Senior Divisions, Nature Study, English, History, and 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 249 

Geography. All the divisions of the schools are also given 
some form of Handwork, such as Clay Modelling, Paper 
Folding, and Cardboard Modelling, and the work under 
these subjects is closely co-ordinated with the instruction 
given in the remainder of the curriculum. At or about 
the age of twelve the pupils of the Primary Schools are 
expected to be sufficiently well advanced in their educa- 
tional training to have completed the Primary Course and 
to pass a Qualifying Examination which is the test laid 
down by the Scotch Education Department for all pupils 
prior to their admission to the Supplementary Courses or 
to the Higher Grade or Intermediate Schools. 

SUPPLEMENTARY COURSES. 

Having passed the Qualifying Examination, the pupil 
has the choice of entering upon the work of the Sup- 
plementary Courses or gaining admission into a Higher 
Grade School. The Supplementary Courses are intended 
for pupils who have completed a Primary Course and do 
not desire, or are unfitted for, a Secondary Course. As 
the Scotch Education Department puts it, such pupils 
will employ the latter stages of their school life " better 
in consolidating the knowledge which they have already 
acquired and in giving it a practical turn towards those 
affairs of life on which they are about to enter than in 
adding to it a smattering of new subjects which they have 
no intention to pursue " 

The Supplementary Courses are in operation at present 
in most of the schools in the west end of the City and 
in Lochee, arid also in Stobswell Central School, and 
generally include instruction in the following subjects, 
with slight deviations to suit particular schools, viz. : 
English, including Grammar and Composition, History, 
and Geography ; Arithmetic ; Duties of Citizenship ; Sing- 
ing ; Drawing and Nature Study ; Laws of Health and 
Physical Exercises ; Elementary Mathematics, Algebra, 
Geometry, and Woodwork for boys; and Needlework 
Cookery, Laundry, (including Housewifery), for girls. The 






250 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 



pupils enrolled in Supplementary Courses range them- 
selves into three divisions : (1) Pupils over 13 at date of 
qualification and leaving school at 14 ; (2) pupils qualified 
at 12 and who also leave at 14 ; and (3) pupils who remain 
at school beyond the age of 14. 

And this brings us to the latest progressive educational 
movement in Dundee the centralisation of the work of 
Supplementary Courses in the east end of the City. 
Stobswell Central School for Supplementary Courses 
the first of its kind in Scotland was erected for the 
purpose of providing a more comprehensive and at once a 
more economical and more efficient organisation of suitable 
supplementary training for all the above three divisions 
than was possible in the several contributory schools from 
which the pupils are transferred on passing the Qualifying 
Examination. The principal aims of Stobswell School 
may be stated in a few sentences. They are : (1) To 
avoid waste of effort and money in the process of re- 
organising the educational resources of the City; (2) to 
combine the elements of a liberal education with direct 
preparation for the practical duties which the pupils are 
likely to be called upon to discharge on leaving school at 
15 or 16 ; (3) to raise the standard of efficiency of the 
Primary Schools ; (4) to provide preliminary technical 
training and thus reduce to a minimum the need for and 
the cost of Evening School Preparatory Classes for special- 
ised instruction; (5) to produce and maintain a steady 
supply of well-trained recruits for the industrial, com- 
mercial, and domestic pursuits of the City; and (6) to 
prepare the pupils for the rational enjoyment of their 
leisure time. 

One of the chief objects of Stobswell School being to ensure 
that pupils may profitably attend school until they have 
attained the age at which they usually become apprenticed 
to trades, or enter upon commercial careers, its curriculum 
provides for pupils between the ages of 14 and 16 special 
courses of instruction adapted to prepare them most fitly 
for their future occupations. The plan of studies is divided 
into three branches according to the needs of the scholars, 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 251 

viz.: (1) An Industrial Course for Boys who are to be 
apprenticed to constructive trades ; (2) a Commercial 
Course for Boys and Girls intending to enter upon business 
and commercial careers ; and (3) a Household Management 
and Domestic Science Course for Girls. The local Burgh 
Committee on Secondary Education, empowered by the 
Education Act of 1908, have established a system of 
bursaries to enable pupils to attend these prolonged courses 
of instruction; and it is anticipated that in due time a 
large number of parents who are unable to keep their 
children at school beyond 14 years of age without some 
financial aid will take advantage of the improved educa- 
tional opportunities thus placed at their disposal for the 
equipment of their children in subjects which have an 
important bearing on the theory and practice of their 
future employment. 

Opened in August 1908 a Pioneer School Stobswell 
School has many problems still to solve, but its initial 
career has been attended by many remarkable results, and 
amply justifies the prescience of its promoters. The 
school produces a very favourable impression upon those 
who study its work. Its great merit consists in its success 
in cultivating the interests and widening the mental out- 
look of the pupils, while at the same time it does not 
neglect their practical needs. Although the equipment of 
the school is not yet complete, its present roll of students 
includes a considerable number of pupils between 14 and 16 
years of age ; the regularity of attendance is very marked ; 
the school is most popular with the pupils and rapidly 
gaining the confidence of parents, employers of labour, and 
the community generally, while it has been instrumental 
in stimulating Education Authorities to institute similar 
centres in widely separate communities. 

SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

The School for Deaf and Dumb Children in Dudhope 
Park has been in existence for many years. The children 
are taught on the combined manual and oral system. The 



252 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

subjects of instruction include English, History and Geo- 
graphy, Arithmetic, Drawing, Manual Work, and Physical 
Exercises. The little girls are instructed also in Sewing and 
Knitting, while the older girls are taught Cookery and 
the use of the Sewing Machine and Dressmaking. Paper 
Folding, Clay Modelling, Needlework, and Basket Weaving 
have recently been added to the list of manual occupations. 
The number of pupils on the school roll is about 35. 

The School for Cripple and Invalid Children, which was 
originally instituted by the Invalid Children's Aid 
Association Branch of the Dundee Social Union, came 
under public control in March 1905. The Association, 
with the assistance of a number of voluntary helpers, 
still takes charge of the arrangements for supplying the 
children with their dinner in school the parents of the 
scholars in the great majority of cases contributing a 
small weekly sum to cover the cost. 

The courses and hours of instruction are so arranged as 
to ensure the best results with the least fatigue to the 
scholars. In the morning, the instruction includes 
ordinary school subjects the three E's, Composition, 
History and Geography, while the afternoon period is 
devoted to different forms of Hand and Eye Work. Boys 
and girls alike share in all the instruction. During the 
warm Summer months as much of the instruction as 
possible is given out of doors. The number of children on 
the school roll is 82, and the school is doing most 
important and much needed educational work of an 
alleviative character in a very effective manner. It has 
now, however, reached the limit of its accommodation, 
and the erection of a larger school upon more modern and 
hygienic lines for the training of physically and mentally 
defective children is at present under consideration. 

SECONDARY SCHOOLS. 

The Higher Grade and Secondary Schools under the 
control of the Education Authority consist of the Harris 
and Morgan Academies. The erection of the Harris 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 253 

Academy was the result of a dispute in 1880 regarding 
the ownership of the High School between the Dundee 
School Board and the then existing Board of Directors. 
The late Bailie Harris, who was a warm friend of the High 
School, offered the School Board the sum of 10,000 on 
condition that they would relinquish their claim to the 
school, and to put an end to all litigation the School 
Board accepted the offer and built the school which now 
bears his name. It was opened for the reception of 
scholars in September 1885. 

The Morgan Academy, originally known as the Morgan 
Hospital, was erected in 1868 for the purpose of boarding 
and educating 100 boys in circumstances requiring 
assistance in fulfilment of the intention and testamentary 
bequest of the late Mr John Morgan, a native of the city. 
The work of the Hospital was carried on under the 
original scheme for a period of twenty years, but in the 
year 1888 the Commissioners appointed under the 
provision of the Educational Endowments (Scotland) Act,. 
1882, recommended that the scheme be departed from, 
and empowered the Trustees to sell the buildings, and 
provided that the funds of the Trust should be 
administered by a representative body of governors, and 
be devoted to the education and maintenance of poor 
children while residing in their own homes, and also to 
the award of bursaries for Evening Classes in higher or 
technical education in Dundee. The buildings were 
acquired by the Dundee School Board at. a cost of 15,500, 
and the school was opened by them under its present title 
in September 1889 as a Secondary School with a Primary 
Department attached to it. 

The work of these two Academies is well known, and,, 
like many other schools of a similar kind, their curriculum 
is so arranged as to facilitate the admission of pupils from 
the Primary .Schools at about twelve years of age, covers, 
a period of at least five years, and embraces a broad 
combination of literary, linguistic, scientific, and artistic 
studies. At the end of the first three years of the .Course,, 
the pupils are as a rule ready to take their Intermediate 



254 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

Certificate, and the remaining two or three years are 
devoted to preparation for the Leaving Certificate, the 
passing of which admits students to the Universities, and 
besides guarantees that its possessor has undergone a full 
Secondary Course and a sound intellectual training which 
will be of supreme utility to him in his future experience. 
These two public Secondary Schools are also recognised as 
centres for the training of junior students, where 
candidates for the teaching profession receive their pre- 
liminary training after passing the Intermediate Certificate 
and before entering the Training Colleges for full training 
as teachers. 

EVENING SCHOOLS. 

No branch of the public provision of education has 
shown greater development during recent years than the 
Evening Continuation Schools, whose work is conducted 
in fourteen centres conveniently distributed throughout 
the city. 

Consequent upon the reform initiated a few years ago 
with a view to the better co-ordination of the instruction 
given in the Elementary Classes with the higher work 
done in the more advanced schools, there has now been 
firmly established a well-defined and thoroughly graded 
scheme of Continuation Schools ; and students are 
required, with few and judicious exceptions, to take groups 
of subjects, and to follow systematic courses, extending 
over a period of years, through which they are enabled to 
enter classes of a higher grade, and to pass to the 
Advanced Commercial Classes in the Academies and to 
the Technical Classes in the Technical College. 

The schools apportioned to the work are divided into 
three sections, the first of which, beginning at the bottom, 
comprises the Elementary Continuation Schools. These 
schools are intended to meet the needs of three types of 
pupils, viz. : (a) Those who leave the Day School before 
reaching the age of 14, (V) those who leave the Day School 
at 14 without completing the Course, and (c) those who 
complete the Day School Course satisfactorily, but neglect 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 255 

thereafter to take immediate advantage of further 
educational facilities and lose their previous knowledge, 
without which they find they cannot make any headway 
in life. Qualified pupils are drafted from these schools to 
the Preparatory Commercial and Technical and Domestic 
Schools as the case may be. The subjects taken up under 
this section are English, Arithmetic, and Drawing, and in 
some cases Woodwork for boys and Needlework for girls. 

The next section embraces the Preparatory Commercial 
and Preparatory Technical Schools for the reception of 
students from the preceding section and others not 
sufficiently prepared to reap full benefit from attendance 
at the central schools for their further instruction in the 
case of the Commercial Course in English, Arithmetic, 
History and Geography, and in the case of the Technical 
Course in English, Workshop Arithmetic, Free Drawing, 
Solid Geometry and Scale Drawing, and Manual Training. 
The purpose of these classes is to lay a solid foundation of 
general education upon which to build the superstructure 
as without it, further attendance at Advanced Classes 
is mere waste of time, money, and energy. 

The second section naturally leads and dovetails into 
the third the Central Commercial and Technical Schools 
which have been instituted for the provision of advanced 
study in subjects of practical utility to students in their 
daily occupations, a knowledge of which it is essential 
they should possess if they aspire to more responsible 
positions. The second, third, and fourth year courses of 
the Commercial work are taken at the Harris and Morgan 
Academies, and the subjects, which are dealt with from 
the industrial and commercial point of view, are English, 
French, German, Spanish, Arithmetic, History, Geography, 
Business Methods and Management, Book-keeping, Short- 
hand, and Typewriting. The Technical Classes, which 
include instruction in Practical Mathematics with experi- 
mental work, Mechanical Drawing, and Technical Free 
Drawing, specially adapted to the several branches of the 
engineering, building, and other constructive trades, form 
a broad preparation for students who propose to enter 



256 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

the Technical College, and are accepted as such by the 
College. 

It will thus be observed that there exists in the Evening 
Schools a varied and highly organised educational pro- 
vision for thorough equipment in subjects bearing upon 
the industries and commerce of the City ; and the most 
pressing duty at the present time is that the youth of 
Dundee, in whose hands will lie much of the economic 
and civic welfare of the burgh, should take the fullest 
advantage of the facilities placed at their disposal. 

The Education Act of 1908 contains among its many 
important provisions the discretionary power on the part 
of School Boards to make attendance at Continuation 
Classes compulsory upon all young persons under 17 years 
of age, and to restrict the hours of their employment so as 
to enable them to attend such classes. The voluntary 
system has been tried, and, though good work has been 
done, and with an improved organised effort between 
Education Authorities and Employers of Labour better 
results may yet be obtained, still it is difficult to avoid the 
conclusion that the voluntary system fails to secure the 
enrolment of the very class who would derive the greatest 
benefit from attendance at the classes. 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTKE. 257 

The Voluntary Schools in Dundee. 

By Rev. Provost Holder. 

Although there exist in the City numerous private 
educational establishments the chief voluntary or denomin- 
ational schools are those belonging to the Roman Catholic 
and the Episcopalian bodies. These are all in receipt of 
the Parliamentary Grant and are under the direct control 
of the Scotch Education Department. 

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC SCHOOLS. 

When the Catholic body in Dundee was but small 
and insignificant as compared with the population of the 
town, the education of the young engaged the serious 
attention of the Clergy. In the plans for the erection of 
St. Andrew's Church in the Nethergate, provision was 
made in the basement for the accommodation of some two 
hundred scholars and a school was at work there as early as 
1886. In the Catholic Directory for 1844 it is recorded, 
" there are three small schools in various parts of the town." 
The writer has never been able to trace their location but 
these " schools " were doubtless typical examples of the 
" adventure " establishments, killed later by the Education 
Act of 1872, and seminaries of a very unpretentious and 
humble order. 

In 1847, St. Clement's Academy was opened at 
Wellburn, Lochee. It was conducted by R.C. Clergymen 
assisted by lay teachers. Of this Institution a recent 
writer says : " As a seminary for the board and education 
of young men who purposed to enter upon learned and 
commercial professions it was much made use of." 

In the early fifties the numbers of the Catholic 
population rose with great rapidity, and much zeal was 
put forth in the direction of providing accommodation for 
the great influx of children of school age. A large property 
in Blackness Road was secured in 1861, and was converted 
into well-arranged classrooms, with places for over 800 
girls and infants. These buildings, which have since been 

Q 



258 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

greatly extended, are known as the St. Joseph's Girls' 
School. The school in Larch Street was built in the light 
of more modern ideals and at very considerable expense ; 
it was opened in 1863. To this were transferred the boys 
from the basement in the Nethergate, and it became later 
the St. Joseph's Boys' School. The same activity was 
shown in the eastern part of the town. The St. Mary's 
Schools for boys and girls in Forebank Road and Powrie 
Place were built in 1861 and 1864, and shortly after had 
attendances of three and four hundred respectively. 
Similarly, in 1866, a hall and adjoining property was 
acquired in Burnside, Lochee, and was used for educational 
purposes. It made way for the commodious Lochee St. 
Mary's Boys' and Girls' Schools opened in 1872. The St. 
Andrew's School for girls and infants in the Overgate, then 
about one-third of its present extent, was built in 1871 and 
opened, as was also the St. Andrew's Boys' and Girls' 
School in Tay Street, in the following year. 

At the passing of the Education (Scotland) Act in 
1872, the Roman Catholic body in Dundee refused to 
transfer their schools to^ the newly constituted School 
Board and, at the cost of very great pecuniary sacrifice, 
have retained them ever since. Indeed, without exception, 
the above-mentioned schools have been largely extended ; 
two of them have been more than doubled in their seating 
capacity since the passing of the Compulsory Clause, while 
St. Patrick's, in Lilybank Road a new school with 544 
places was opened in 1891. This last is the only mixed 
R.C. School in the city ; in all the others the boys and 
girls are in separate buildings, under male and female 
teachers respectively. These have now a joint average 
attendance of 1450 scholars. In addition to these ele- 
mentary schools, there is also a Higher Grade School 
for young ladies under the charge of the Sisters of 
Mercy at their Convent, Lawside Road, where pupils 
are prepared and examined for the Leaving Certificate. 
The attendance at present is about sixty. 

There are now ten Elementary R.C. Schools in the 
city, possessing a recognised accommodation of 5,602 and 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 259 

an attendance of well over 5,000. In the Roman Catholic 
Schools therefore more than one-sixth of the total school 
population of the Burgh is housed and trained. The 
schools are all well equipped both in respect of teaching 
staff and educational furnishings. They are favourably 
reported on by His Majesty's Inspector of Schools, and are 
in receipt of Grants that compare well with those of the 
public elementary schools of the city. They all pro- 
vide the supplementary courses. In St. Andrew's, St. 
Mary's, and St. Joseph's, manual instruction (woodwork) is 
taught to boys by qualified teachers in fully equipped 
workshops attached to the schools ; while cookery, laundry- 
work, and domestic science are imparted to girls, also in 
suitable premises in connection with the school buildings. 

THE EPISCOPALIAN SCHOOLS. 

Until quite recent years the voluntary schools main- 
tained by the Scottish Episcopal Church in Dundee bore 
witness to the strong desire of the Church to provide a 
sound elementary education, religious and secular, for her 
children. So late as five years ago these schools had an 
average attendance of 1,540, and the schools themselves 
were excellently staffed and equipped. The oldest of the 
Episcopal Schools, St. Paul's, like the first of the E.G. 
Schools in the town had a humble origin. Known first as 
the Rood yards Episcopal School, it was placed in the 
eastern part of Dundee, opposite the present Cattle Market, 
It migrated to " more commodious premises " in the Sea- 
gate, Meadowside, and Wellgate, till in 1889 the present 
fine buildings at Castlehill, hard by St. Paul's Cathedral 
Church, were thrown open. Erected at a cost of over 
4,000, St. Paul's is a mixed school, with a department 
for infants ; it provides accommodation for 432 scholars. 
Supporters of the Voluntary principle deeply regretted to 
see the Episcopal St. Salvador's School which, with places 
for 850 pupils, had for fifty-three years been doing excel- 
lent work, handed over to the School Board in November 
1907, and they will learn with deeper concern that the 
St. Paul's School is also to be transferred to the same 



260 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

authority at the end of the present session. There can be no 
doubt that these capitulations have been reluctantly effected 
by the financial strain put upon the managers of these 
schools by the ever-increasing demands of the Department 
with regard to extended accommodation. For not only 
must the managers of a voluntary school deprived as 
they are of all help from the school rate defray out of 
private funds the cost of all structural alterations and 
additions, but even the maintenance of the school from 
year to year involves a large expenditure taken i'rom the 
same source over and above the Department's Grants, 
and corresponding in amounts to the outlays by School 
Boards to supplement their grants and taken out of the 
school rate. 

With the disappearance of St. Paul's, the Episcopalian 
body will be left with two schools only, both small and 
not likely to be extended. St. Martin's, in Derby Street, 
was opened with a single room in 1863. In 1869 was 
built the present school, with a recognised accommodation 
of 271. St. Margaret's in Ancrum Road, Lochee, close to 
the Church of the same name, has a delightful situation 
and is a handsome little building. It possesses places for 
200 scholars but the present attendance is far short of 
that figure. It is impossible to look upon these remnants 
of a once powerful organisation with comfort or hope. 



Private Schools. 

By the Editor. 

IN addition to the foregoing endowed State and Eate aided 
Institutions, providing for all the requirements of modern 
education, there are still in Dundee a number of private 
schools with a not inconsiderable clientele. The more 
important of these are 



DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 261 

SEYMOUR LODGE Ladies' School, originally founded by 
the Misses Walker over sixty years ago, but which is now 
ably conducted in most attractive surroundings both as to 
house and grounds by Misses Camming and Wallis Its 
students, who are now as numerous as at any time during 
its history, are drawn from the best Jocal families, some of 
those in attendance representing a third generation of its 
pupils. While girls constitute the major part of its 
enrolments, small boys under eight years of age are taken 
in its preparatory department. The teaching is carried on 
entirely by trained mistresses of high scholastic attain- 
ments, and pupils are prepared for the Leaving Certifi- 
cate, and also for the musical examinations of the Royal 
Academy and Royal College. It fills a unique place in 
the educational life of the city and district. 

CONSTITUTION ROAD SCHOOL, opened in 1895, is carried 
on most efficiently by Miss Lloyd. It is recognised by 
the Scotch Education Department, and pupils are trained 
successfully for the University, the Leaving and Inter- 
mediate Certificates, and all grades of the examinations of 
the Royal Academy of Music. Music has always been a 
strong point, and the annual school concert is a most 
popular feature. 

BANK STREET INSTITUTION has for the past forty years 
been conducted with marked success by Miss Milne. It 
caters specially for those children who for various reasons, 
health or otherwise, are unable to mix in a crowd com- 
fortably, and who require individual care with the view of 
evolving the best that is in them. Two genera tions of 
young Dundee have come under Miss Milne's care, and 
she looks back upon a very happy life spent in their 
service. 

SPECIALISED WORK. Along with private schools offering 
an individual care in general education, such as those 
above referred to, there are also many institutions of a 
more distinctly specialised character. One of the more 
important developments of recent years in this way has 
been that of schools training for matriculation and pro- 
fessional examinations, for the Civil Service, and for 



262 DUNDEE AS AN EDUCATIONAL CENTRE. 

business life. Of the former SKERRY'S COLLEGE, with 
headquarters at Glasgow, has a Dundee branch under the 
supervision of Mr P. Gumming Collie, which offers special 
preparation for matriculation and professional examina- 
tions as well as for those conducted by the Civil Service 
Commissioners, and a large number of students from the 
city and surrounding district avail themselves of the 
opportunities it offers. The TRAINING ACADEMY, carried 
on in Y.M.C.A. rooms, by Mr J. Abrach Mackay, aims at 
preparing specially for Government service, and also 
appeals to a clientele of its own. Of schools training 
specially for commercial examinations and business life, 
perhaps the most important are PATON'S COLLEGE, carried 
on by the writer in Eeform Street, and BRUCE'S in Albert 
Square. The requirements of modern business life are 
now so complex as to call for special training not only in 
the commoner subjects of handwriting, English corres- 
pondence, and arithmetic, but also in shorthand, type- 
writing, bookkeeping, and the various machinery associated 
with the conduct of modern business, and this is not to be 
had otherwise than under conditions which approximate 
as nearly as possible to those obtaining when actually at 
work. 

Altogether, at the several institutions mentioned, it 
may be estimated that there are constantly undergoing 
preparation several hundreds of students, and the tuition 
being of a most practical kind is of corresponding benefit 
to those availing themselves of it. 

Other specialities called for in acquiring the arts and 
graces of life, associated with the culture of mind or 
physique, are all adequately cared for in a centre which 
only during recent years has become a field of educational 
force and influence. 



263 

INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Introduction. 



DUNDEE is essentially a commercial arid industrial com- 
munity, and it has been thought fitting that some space 
should be devoted to a brief resume^ of its manifold 
activities in this direction. While the larger industries, 
and those which lend themselves with advantage to more 
extended description, are dealt with under their appro- 
priate headings, these do not by any means exhaust the 
interests in which Dundee's men of business are engaged. 

As a CENTRE OF EXPORT the city occupies in some 
respects a unique position, local Consular returns affording 
but a slight indication of the extent of the operations of a 
round dozen of firms, which might be named, and which 
carry on business of enormous magnitude and world-wide 
in its scope. When one realises that 50,000 tons of jute 
bags are annually required for handling the crops of the 
Argentine Republic alone, and that a large proportion of 
this business is secured by local firms even although the 
goods in most cases may be shipped direct from Calcutta 
to Buenos Ayres, one can readily see the possibilities of 
business carried on in such volume. Or when we learn 
that a single order for Hessian may involve a quantity of 
5,000,000 yards, even at a price of only a few coppers one 
can readily calculate the amount of money involved. 
Albeit the local merchant house handles products of all 
kinds textile, metal, produce. It must be understood 
that this is business carried on by Dundee brains, financed 
by Dundee money, secured by Dundee enterprise, and 
resulting no doubt to Dundee's profit. Articles of com- 
merce, which in no way have any association with the 
city, may be shipped on Dundee instructions direct to 



264 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

South America, the United States or Canada, South Africa 
or the Far East, and all this in such a quiet, unostentatious 
way that only those interested in the business themselves 
realise the magnitude of the interests involved. 

SHIPPING. In olden times when wind and tide alone 
were responsible for the regulation of business on the 
great waters, the number of ships registered at the Port 
of Dundee was much greater than now, although a com- 
parison of the tonnage would, of course, make an enormous 
difference in favour of the present day. At the same time 
it is much to be regretted that of late years the tonnage 
of vessels registered at the port has tended to decline. 
The sale of the fleets of the " Loch " and " Gem " lines was 
a misfortune which we could well have been spared, while 
the transfer of the Thomson line control to Newcastle 
was also a distinct loss to the community. There are, 
however, still some not unimportant shipping concerns 
intimately associated with the city and port. The chief 
among these is, of course, the "Den" line, so long and 
ably conducted by Messrs Charles Barrie & Son, whose 
senior Ex-Lord Provost, more familiarly known as 
Captain Barrie occupies a unique place in the affec- 
tions of the community, which one would hope he may 
long be spared to fill. The Dundee, Perth & London 
Shipping Company has for over a hundred years occupied 
an outstanding position among coasting liners, its stability 
as a sound commercial concern never being higher than 
under present management. Among other local registra- 
tions and shipping interests to which reference might also 
be made are those of the Mudies, the Mitchells, the Mcols, 
the Angus Shipping Co , and the four masted sailing 
barque "Westfield," 1020 tons in register, and 1800 in 
D.W. capacity; while an extensive coast trade is carried 
on with Newcastle, Hull, Aberdeen, and ports all round 
the British Isles by means of Langlands and other direct 
traders. With the improvement in freights evidenced 
during recent years, it may be hoped that Dundee's 
register of shipping may show a not inconsiderable advance 
in the near future. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 265 

Coming to manufactured goods, we find that the city 
and district has an astonishing variety of industries, 
ranging from Furniture, in which at least three 
firms are engaged, and employ a large number of men, 
Oils and Paints, in which three firms are also engaged, 
Clothing, for which there is one considerable factory, 
Linoleum, which may form the nucleus of an important 
industry in the future, Manure and Feeding Stuffs, Milling, 
Papermaking, Chemical Woi^ks, while extensive Quarries 
are carried on in the vicinity. The outstanding position 
taken by Forfarshire stone for building purposes naturally 
gives the county a prominence in this industry. To some 
it seems a misfortune that Dundee does not possess a 
hinterland with coal and iron, but as will be seen else- 
where this is to some extent compensated for by the 
importance of agriculture, evidenced by the fact that in 
the spring months of this year no less a quantity than 
100,000 tons of potatoes were shipped from the port ! 

Despite the variety in its industries there is always a 
pressing call for extended opportunity for male labour, 
and to firms on the outlook for favourable positions for 
centering new industries, it is believed by those well 
qualified to judge that from all the points of view 
which require consideration ample provision of land 
on favourable terms, ready access by rail or water, low 
overhead rates, cheap power, and an abundant supply of 
labour Dundee is able to offer inducements which will 
compare more than favourably with centres which advance 
more pretentious claims. 



266 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



Trade and Industry in Dundee. 



Textiles. 

By David Ritchie. 

THE history of the Textile Trade of Dundee has its 
commencement far back in the centuries, and it has been 
so well written about that the townspeople have a full 
knowledge of, and are saturated with, the details, making 
it in a manner superfluous that this further contribution 
be otherwise than a short summary for the benefit of those 
Members of the British Association who may be interested 
in the Staple Trade of Dundee, and who may be present 
at this year's meeting. 

A loyal adherence to the wise limitations imposed on 
this paper necessarily implies a qualified incompleteness, 
by reason, for one thing, of the adoption of a minimum of 
statistics, which will be used only where imperatively 
required, thereby probably affording visitors if only un 
coup d' oeil, so to speak, regarding the main facts ; yet 
sufficient, perhaps, to enable one to grasp them. 

Dundee has throughout the whole of Scottish history 
been noted as a commercial centre, and in this connection 
it may be allowable to diverge a little, to note a few of the 
articles of commerce, which, although for the most part 
not partaking of the character of textile, may safely be 
recognised as the forerunners of what is now the chief 
staple trade. These articles were thread, cordage, canvas, 
bonnets, buckles, gloves, sugar, soap, and candles. From 
one cause or another the most of these trades fell into 
decay, the exceptions being the three first named. 

With reference to this decay, it is more than probable, 
as gleaned from private sources, that the main contributory 
cause was the disastrous drain of " liquid cash," having its 
beginning as far back as the year 1698. There was then 
launched the gigantic swindle known as the Darien Scheme, 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 267 

or in popular phraseology " The South Sea Bubble," which 
spread virtually a financial black plague over this country. 
By this speculative mania all classes in Dundee, from the 
richest to the poorest, who could scrape together, by small 
coteries, the requisite amount to purchase a share, became 
firmly enmeshed. It may accordingly be easily imagined 
that many years passed, during which self-denying and 
acute pinching were universally the tacit order of the day, 
ere financial equilibrium was restored. England's attitude 
in the affair, being most unfriendly, actually and directly 
accentuated Scotland's grave disaster. 

Afterwards, although comparative success attended trade 
in Dundee for a very long period, with the usual "ups 
and downs," it was in reality only at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century that Dundee's great development took 
place, when steam-power revolutionised the old, slow, 
antiquated systems. 

The first important fibre to be noted is Hemp, 
Hemp, the development of which is not without a 
special interest peculiar to itself. This fibre 
was grown on several farms in the vicinity of Dundee and 
in one or two of the neighbouring counties. The quantities 
brought in by the farmers individually were not by any 
means large, but relatively so only in the aggregate. 
Samples were shown in the market, which was then held 
at the lower end of Eotten Row. afterwards named Bonnet- 
hill, and now known as the Hilltown. It was believed 
(according to tradition) that the place was chosen to save 
" plack " dues exacted by the Burgh of Dundee, the Barony 
of Hilltown being beyond the boundary of the former, and 
outwith its jurisdiction. The market stance was after- 
wards changed to Thorter Row, at the north-west end of 
the High Street, then later to the Cowgate, and for the 
past thirty to thirty-two years its location has been, as 
at present, in the vicinity of the Royal Exchange. 

One marked feature, relative to the samples submitted at 
the market stance, was the implicit confidence of the buyers 
that the bulk tendered subsequently was in every respect 



268 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

conformable to samples. En passaid as to samples and the 
bulk in those days being equal, it may be permitted to 
indulge in a comparison, even although " comparisons " are 
(a la Mrs Malaprop) " odoriferous," viz. : the thoroughly 
justified trustfulness then, with the present day's 
experiences which are painful, wasteful, annoying, as well 
as entailing loss, inasmuch as the compensation oftener 
than not is inadequate. 

From the earliest days the business in fishing nets 
attained considerable dimensions. These were made by a 
more or less primitive method. Some years after, however, 
a member of a then well known firm of merchants in 
Dundee hit upon an excellent way of making nets, which 
being more scientific (whereby greater strength was 
imparted and endurance attained), was afterwards pro- 
nounced eminently practical and therefore successful. The 
result was a speedy overflow of orders, with a continuity 
thereof, coming, chiefly, from the coast towns of Scotland, 
England, and many other places. Fishermen themselves 
conducted a large amount of business in such nets, trans- 
ferring them to many small vessels and boats as opportunity 
occurred, receiving in exchange certain articles which 
were of necessity landed in the quietest manner possible, 
oftenest, as may well be imagined, during the silent 
watches of the night, and the murkier the weather the 
better for their purpose. 

Sunn Hemp as an Indian product was imported here in 
1804 and probably at an earlier date. The fibre, although 
possessing several valuable qualities suitable for cordage, 
sailcloth, selvedges, and a few other uses, has never, how- 
ever, reached any but inconsiderable proportions even up 
to the present day. 

Hemp Cordage and Canvas also accounted for a goodly 
proportion of the consumption of the raw material, there 
being about half-a-dozen firms, chiefly leading citizens, 
engaged in the branch as Hemp, Rope, and Twine 
Manufacturers. The ever increasing demand for Hemp 
continuing, necessitated recourse to foreign countries 
which first comprised Holland, Prussia, and Eussia. As 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 269 

regards the imports of Hemp, despite the most diligent 
researches, no trace could be found of the figures between 
the supposed first import date of 1741 and 1791, when the 
Custom House records noted the total of 299 tons, rising 
to 2,733 tons in 1823, and in 1825, 2,307 tons. Thereafter 
decreases were recorded, until in 1850 the amount stood at 
1,104 tons, 1901 shewing an increase to 2,294 tons, and 
1910, 2,657 tons. The causes of the falling away of 
imports were chiefly a succession of bad harvests beginning 
in the year 1826, and with few breaks to relieve the gloom 
continuing right up to the eve of the Crimean War. The 
continued scarcity of ready money for a considerable 
number of years tended in a very marked manner to the 
handicapping of business. 

Flax was cultivated in Scotland much more 
Flax. extensively than Hemp. As may be 

supposed, the counties contiguous to Dundee 
devoted a fair proportion of acreage to growing this crop. 
For a considerable number of years, and up to within a 
comparatively recent period, the fields south of the Tay 
were in the usual rotation sown with Flax seed. Almost 
the whole of the northern slopes, extending from Mary ton 
(the original name of Newport^ right eastwards to near 
Ferry- Port-on -Craig (now named Tayport), made a fine 
display when the Flax was in bloom, shewing its pretty 
blue tint as the wind swayed the stems and the sun shone 
brightly, especially in the afternoons. The stalks when 
reaped were conveyed to a scutching mill, known now as 
Northfield. 

After due treatment and preparation, the Flax was then 
ready for spinning by distaff' and spindle. This process 
was, naturally, a slow one regarding the production of 
Yarn, and this continued to be the case for a very long 
term of years, even up to 1533, in which year appeared to 
the manifest benefit of the trade that most valuable 
invention, the Spinning Wheel, which, many years after, 
was superseded by the Spinning Frame, each improvement 
in machinery bringing in its train great increase in 



270 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

production, with more uniformity and evenness in the 
Yarn, all of which speedily resulted in an ever- extending 
demand, the Yarns and Cloth being more attractive, and 
tending towards a considerable lessening of cost. The 
Linen trade has, indeed, had a cyclical succession of 
vicissitudes all along the path of its most interesting 
chequered history, right down to the present day. Almost 
every time the trade got its head above water there 
quickly followed a reverse. One of the most disastrous of 
these reverses occurred at the time of the siege of Dundee 
by one of Cromwell's cruel generals in 1651, from which 
business took a long series of years to recover. The 
interregnum between the decay of the old trades (already 
mentioned) ended only with the advent of the year 1707, 
when another cheering gleam appeared in the shape of a 
fresh revival of business, accelerated by Parliament 
enacting a statute allowing a bounty on all cloth exported. 
The bounty rate, it is interesting to note, was both liberal 
in terms and differentiating as to its destination to foreign 
countries, e.g., to British possessions it was 5d. to 6d. per 
yard, and to foreign ports as high as Is. 6d. per yard. 
The raison d'etre for this Parliamentary liberality was 
that Dundee had throughout its whole history suffered 
exceptionally, and the bounty appeared to be the only 
solatium ready and simple. The withdrawal of the bounty 
by Parliament occurred in 1832, as signs were not 
awanting that trade seemed to be broadening its various 
bases. At the same time there were not a few of the 
worthiest citizens who started an outcry that the with- 
drawal of the bounty would assuredly militate against the 
interests of the trade; but proof to the contrary from 
various sources became so irrefutable that all opposition 
was withdrawn. Only a short period was required to 
shew that the trade no longer needed such fictitious and 
adventitious props, or, let us say, " spoon-fed " meat. But 
to revert to the sequence as to years ; the period between 
1800 and 1810 was one unbroken decade of leanness, 
sending trade down to unheard-of depths of financial 
despair, the prices of Flax falling from 140 per ton (and 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 271 

in a few instances for very superior quality ranging as 
high as 150) to 80, latterly receding to even 75 per 
ton. This financial crisis was really one of the acutest 
the trade had "ever sustained, disaster following disaster 
in rapid succession, firms of hitherto undoubted stability 
going down like grain before a sickle, individual losses 
ranging up to even six figures down to a few hundreds of 
pounds, thus shewing the wide sweep of the terrible crisis. 
The total amount of these losses was so grievous that 
within half of the decade no fewer than 240 banking 
establishments in Britain had to shut their doors. The 
others who rode out the gale bravely were, nevertheless, 
so heavily involved that years passed ere they made up 
their losses. It is not difficult to imagine that recovery 
from this cataclysm was painfully slow, commencing about 
1815, when a great and much needed impetus was derived 
from a wise and far-seeing extension of the Harbour, 
which, up to that date, being sadly incommodious, 
militated severely against trade and all the other interests 
of the town. Business gradually increased in volume, the 
flood-tide of prosperous days flowing right merrily on 
until the beginning of 1820. The prospects looked bright 
and gay, when with startling suddenness one of those 
commercial panics, which inexplicably occur so frequently, 
burst out in London, Upas-tree-ing the entire Kingdom, 
leaving in its trail a vast tract of devastation and 
incalculable loss and ruin; Dundee business actually 
seeming to have been obliterated. However, rising 
wonderfully to the occasion, Dundee displayed most 
manfully its recuperative powers and resources, plus its 
characteristically dogged energy, aided by liens on ware- 
housed goods amiably granted by a fatherly government, 
which appeared to many as a piece of far-sightedness, if 
to others as at variance with the cardinal doctrines of 
Political Economy. Be that as it may, trade did meet in 
with a measure of success pointing to comparative 
stability, when there, unfortunately, recurred the short 
corn crop of 1826, causing another set-back to the staple 
trade, which, luckily, was of short duration. So rallying 



272 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

years once more ushered in fair prospects which 
continued without a break up to 1847. 

That year 1820 ushered in to a marked degree a revival 
of trade, when extensions of spinning power followed, the 
number of mills being markedly in contrast to only two in 
1811, and increasing to the considerable number of forty- 
three mills by 1832. The home grown flax, as with hemp, 
being unable to meet the enhanced demand, recourse to 
purchasing from Prussia, Eussia, etc., then became an 
absolute neccessity. The qualities imported were found 
to be in almost every respect quite suitable for the 
manufacturers of the town and district, inasmuch as finer, 
that is smaller sizes of yarn, were then not only possible 
but greater regularity of thread was thereby assured, aided 
of course by the repeated improvement in machinery, 
resulting in increased production per spindle. The imports 
of Flax, on an ever increasing scale, neccessitated bringing 
into the field a class of men styled hecklers. These men 
came to be an important adjunct to the trade. They were 
highly intelligent, independent, well read, keen and 
advanced politicians, affiliating themselves to the body 
called Chartists. 

They were au fait with the political questions of the 
day, and so alert were they in their eagerness to obtain 
details of the most recent news that, whilst they worked 
at their benches, one of their number was selected to read 
aloud the newspaper items of particular interest, local as 
well as political, and the more controversial the subject 
the greater was the delight in anticipation of a keen, subtle 
debate, when every paragraph and line were criticised 
with white-heat fervour. These men may be said to have 
been the first to have formed themselves into a Trades' 
Union. What caused the shattering of this hitherto 
compact union was, that, with business disturbing 
frequency they put forward demands for an increase of 
rates for heckling, which it may be stated averaged then 
about 2s. 6d. per cwt., yielding weekly 16s. to 20s. (when 
they chose to work), the skilful steady men making more. 
Again and again these demands were conceded, and not 




Breaker and Finisher Cards, the first machine through which the fibre passes 
after it leaves the softening machine. The latter machine is shown in the 
article under the heading "What Dundee contributes to the Empire." 




Drawing Frames in which the slivers from the finisher card are combined, 
combed, and drawn out. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 273 

infrequently with reluctance, for the valid reason that 
when bad times returned the rates, seldom if ever, suffered 
a reduction. The culminating point was reached when 
what proved the last demand, in 1826, was put forth. 
The very persistency of these demands becoming 
intolerable and of chronic recurrence stimulated mechanical 
minds, which had been quietly busy for some years, into 
accelerated action resulting in the valuable invention of 
the " Heckling Machine." Our townsman, the late Mr 
Peter Carmichael, of the well known firm of Messrs 
Baxter Brothers & Co., was one of the few inventors, who 
early in the field, had many of his machines in operation 
in this town and in other districts. Young lads being 
found efficient in working these machines, necessarily the 
services of the " hecklers " were largely dispensed with, 
a few only being retained (as far as regards flax mills at 
any rate) to correct and supplement by hand heckles the 
slight deficiency of the machines. This was done to modify 
the differences that frequently existed between many 
portions of the material under process, some parts being 
of a strong coarser fibre, and others of a softer finer 
quality, which the machines could not "humour" to 
the best advantage. Besides the few hecklers referred to 
working in the mills, there were others who found fairly 
regular employment in " Heckling Establishments," the 
employers of which purchased the raw material, getting 
same heckled, selling the " dressed " portion as Line, the 
"combings" being sold as Flax Tow. An item not 
without an interest all its own may not be out of place 
here, that is as regards the term "heckling" from the 
word " to heckle " figuratively to " dress down," now a 
common expression used as meaning the putting of 
questions at elections. 

In Belfast also hand heckling is largely in use. There 
the finest qualities of Flax in considerable quantities are 
devoted to the production of cambric and kindred articles. 

Flax grown in the homeland was likewise reserved in 
fairly large quantities for the farmers' households. After 
the various processes were finished outside, the fibre was 

R 



274 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

brought into the houses, spun and woven by the respective 
housewives, their daughters, and the house servants, to 
the latter of whom was alloted ground to a fair extent for 
their own use with the object of growing Flax, to be also 
spun and woven into linen for their own " providin'." 
The yarn was either woven in the smaller farmhouses, or 
given out to the neighbouring villages, in almost every 
house of which was a loom whereat the men worked as 
soon as daylight appeared. Each daughter of the farm 
had an equal share of the " providin' " stored in a trunk 
of goodly proportions, or in a chest of drawers, the 
quantity respectively being in accordance with the means 
of the farmer. That the Flax was well selected, carefully 
spun arid woven and the linen scrupulously kept, is 
evidenced by the writer having recently seen some " laid 
by" over 95 years ago, and found to be in excellent 
condition, although used for very many years. 

As for the townspeople who wove the yarn, they were, 
in the great majority of cases, only able to buy sufficient 
material to suffice for one web. Formerly, their difficulty 
was through lack of cash to purchase even that quantity, 
the consequence was the weavers laboured under the dis- 
advantage of being compelled to apply to various hand 
spinners, thereby causing a variety in both colour and 
quality, the cloth turned out accordingly shewing a series 
of kaleidoscopic tints and unevenness of thread. Then 
arose a race of middlemen, termed dealers, who selected 
in the first place the Flax, assorting same in various 
grades, giving out certain quantities to hand spinners to 
be spun either on hire or for their own account, the most 
experienced and skilful of whom got the best qualities. 
The yarn, when returned, underwent similar assorting 
and distributing to the weavers. All this approach to a 
species of scientific handling made the cloth more sightly 
and attractive to merchants, each year witnessing an 
increasing demand to the manifest advantage of every 
one concerned in the trade, as also to the townspeople as 
a whole. While other towns in Scotland and England 
participated in the linen trade, Dundee retained its lead 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 275 

and still does so the position of the town lending itself 
readily to the importation of Flaxes from foreign Europe. 
The ever-increasing demand for Flax reacted favourably 
as to shipping, there being in the year 1829 the goodly 
number of 225 vessels registered in Dundee, a fair 
proportion of which, no doubt, traded to Baltic ports, 
bringing back Flax. The first recorded statistics of Flax 
Imports was in 1791, when 2,348 tons were entered at 
the Custom House. Previous to 1791, Flax was imported, 
but no accurate figures can be ascertained. The figures 
increased to 5,724 tons in 1821, in which latter year the 
relative or partially corresponding exports of Linen, brown 
and white, stood in 1821 at 2,725,220 yards, and Sailcloth, 
44,946 ells, equal to in yards, 56,182J. 

Flax. Flax Tow and Codilla. 

In 1850 the import was 31,533 tons. 8,962 tons. 
In 1871 the import was 39,391 tons. 11,544 tons. 

The subsequent years show a series of decreases : 

In 1881 the import was 27,989 tons. 9,394 tons. 

In 1891 the import was 18,575 tons. 4,588 tons. 

In 1901 the import was 13,261 tons. 5,907 tons. 

In 1910 the import was 13,390 tons. 4,276 tons. 
The significant and continuous decreases can be mainly 
accounted for by the introduction of Jute, as this cheap 
fibre became more and more to be in world- wide demand, 
but this fibre will form another chapter, it being since, 
say, 1855, the leading staple trade. 

One important cause operating adversely and universally 
as to the decline in the demand for Flax was the rapid 
transition from sailing vessels to steamers. This dis- 
organisation, whilst to a large extent detrimental to the 
trade in Dundee, was most disastrous to the neighbouring 
town of Arbroath, the canvas section being well-nigh 
eliminated. 

Mention may be made here of the considerate and 
laudable efforts put forth, chiefly at the instigation of 
Messrs Baxter Brothers & Company, with a few other 
firms interested in Flax, towards encouraging the 



276 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

cultivation of this fibre in various places in this district 
and abroad as well. The results as to the fibre itself, 
judging from the samples shewn, gave promise of success 
with a sine qua non condition of earnest and constant 
attention by skilled men in all the various stages. A few 
of the conditions may be enumerated, viz., preparation of 
the soil, sowing, weeding, pulling at the precise time (i.e., 
between the falling of the flower and the formation of the 
seed), finally retting and scutching. From the lack of 
close attention to one or more of these imperative 
conditions successful results were not attained, one draw- 
back being the scarcity of workers through the many 
processes. Other efforts were made in 1887, with the 
happy idea of associating the gifts with the " Jubilee " 
year, and through the generosity of two highly -esteemed 
members of the trade, Sir William Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., 
and the late Mr Peter Carmichael (then the senior 
partners of the eminent firm mentioned above), liberal 
supplies of linseed were distributed amongst several 
farmers in this neighbourhood. Here again a repetition 
of non-success has, unfortunately, to be chronicled, the 
contributory causes were not a few, namely, and perhaps 
mainly, the climatic conditions of that year being 
extremely unfavourable, such as abnormal heat and 
drought, whereby the growth was almost fatally affected 
as regards the chief desideratum, viz., Flax. The liberal 
inducements held out to the farmers were such as to more 
than compensate them for their trouble, comprising the 
purchasing from them the flax straw (after the seed had 
been rippled) at 4 per ton, delivered at the nearest 
railway station. The bolls were thus retained on the 
farm and used for cattle feeding purposes. 

Great as was Dundee's rise in commercial 
Jute. importance through its manufacture of 

Hemp and Flax, both these were relatively 
speaking eclipsed by Jute. The attempts at various 
times to introduce this fibre, first on the part of the 
Honourable The East India Company as far back as 




A row of six-cylinder dressing machines, by means of which the warp threads 
are coated with starch or size, dried on the cylinders, and finally wound on 
to the loom beams ready for the weaving department. 




General view of a modern weaving shed, which contains hundreds of looms for 
weaving jute fabrics. A typical three-leaf sacking is in the nearest loom. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 277 

1796-7, were unsuccessful. That Company, at considerable 
cost, twice repeated experiments by taking up farms with 
the purpose of cultivating various fibres, including 
different species of Jute. Practically and commercially 
these praiseworthy efforts meriting success, up to that 
date encountered apparently none. However, the data 
then obtained were to bear fruit not many years sub- 
sequently. At the further instigation of the Home 
Government, however, the H.E.I.C. resumed the 
exportation of small quantities of Jute to both England 
and Dundee in 1824. The samples received here were 
looked at and examined, only to be set aside in ware- 
houses, where the lots were left severely alone for some 
eight years. 

EXTRACT FROM THE " DUNDEE ADVERTISER." 

" The following notes relative to the early Importation 
of Jute to Dundee are of interest at a time when daily 
reference is being made to the progress effected during 
the ' reign ' (Victoria's). 

"About 1822 Mr Thomas Neish received a small 
consignment of Jute from London. He endeavoured to 
induce some spinners to try it over their machinery, but 
could not get them to make the attempt. It lay in the 
warehouse (as stated elsewhere in this paper) for a long 
time without buyers at any price. At length Bell & 
Balfour consented to take it at 11 per ton. They 
experimented upon it to a small extent about 1825 or 
1 826, but were unable to spin it into yarn, and the bulk 
of it was disposed of for the purpose of being made into 
door mats. In 1832 Mr Neish made another trial, and 
again in 1833 he received other parcels, and from that 
period that trade has continued. 

" About the year 1840 the " Selma," belonging to 
Dundee owners, arrived from Calcutta with a cargo of 
Jute (and other products), being the first Jute which was 
ever brought from Calcutta direct. To show the bad 
odour of Jute in Dundee, in January 1835, the "Advertiser" 



278 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

of that date says it is difficult to get good Flax yarns 
bona fide Flax unmixed with Jute. The use of it would 
tend to lower the character of our manufactures very 
much, and it is hoped the necessity for using it will not 
continue long enough to ruin it altogether." 

This article was repeated the following week in the 
" Advertiser," the reason adduced being that it had given 
so much satisfaction to those interested. 

Further trials in more practical fashion, and an effort 
to adapt the machinery to the new fibre, resulted in Jute 
gradually establishing a footing. Prejudices had still, 
however, to be met and overcome. Certainly, not a few 
of the objections were rather formidable, such as radical 
changes in machinery, which had to be reckoned with at 
considerable outlay of capital ; besides, the bulk of the 
flax machines realising probably only a fraction of their 
intrinsic value if sold. Manufacturers and exporters alike 
also entertained evidently a rooted dislike to deal in the 
" new f angled stuff." More than one merchant of 
experience and standing stated to the writer during the 
first years of his apprenticeship that, using their own 
phraseology, " eh, laddie, yir maisters are doing an awfu' 
thing in pittin' a' their eggs in ae basket, turning oot a' 
their gude machinery to spin sic a feckless thing as Jute." 
This was said in 1855. It was in this year that the great 
majority of spinners and manufacturers changed from 
Flax to Jute spinning, and from hand loom to power 
loom. 

The imports stood in 1838 at 1,136 tons; in 1853, 
15,400 tons; in 1863, 46,983 tons; in 1873, 143,150 tons; 
in 1883, 233,883 tons ; in 1893, 173,062 tons ; in 1903, 
166,755 tons ; in 1909-1910, 222,321 tons. 

These figures put thoroughly to rout all fears and 
erroneous ideas regarding Jute, changing the tone adopted 
as to the relative esteem entertained towards Flax and 
Jute. This can be humorously confirmed by recalling 
here the stern injunctions issued to the apprentices in 
some offices in Dundee never to address envelopes to a 
" Jute Spinner " as such, even although the latter may 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 279 

never have spun an ounce of Flax, but the designation to 
be " so-and-so," " Flax Spinner," it being considered infra 
dig to be termed the former. Assuredly, here one can 
apply the phrase, tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in 
illis. The introduction of Jute, therefore, effected changes 
in Dundee, changes as rapid as various. Jute spinning 
mills multiplied, old landmarks removed, new streets 
opened, and kingly activity reigned all round. 

The population rapidly rose from 12,480 in 1755 to 
29,716 in 1811, and in 1910, 166,007. 

What with perseverance and repeated discoveries of the 
great advantages of this fibre with the growing belief in 
its great future, Jute gained at last an established 
reputation. One difficulty after another disappeared, and 
spinning Jute becoming more or less practicable, the way 
became clear for a long period of brilliant successes. 
Mills and factories increased and extensions on every 
hand followed in quick succession, profitable returns 
justifying these in every way. It were, in a manner, 
tedious to specify even the principal improvements 
introduced from time to time, as in every mill, generally 
speaking, there was discovered a new method in practically 
every machine, as well as in the mode of preparing, 
spinning, and weaving. Thus this healthy and stimulat- 
ing rivalry produced from time to time valuable 
improvements, greatly to the benefit of the trade, as each 
new idea, mode, or system became sooner or later 
universally adopted. Then, as year followed year, the 
employees in their turn tacitly coming within the 
influence of the law of heredity, there was intuitively 
created an atmosphere of imitation enveloping all and 
shedding unconsciously an influence more or less of 
practical utility to the manifest benefit of both employers 
and employees, aiding also, undoubtedly, towards keeping 
Dundee in the foremost rank of the textile trade, first 
gradually, then rapidly. The news of Dundee's good 
fortune spread to all lands, and competition soon shewed 
itself in several countries. What helped not a little to 
that development was a quiet inroad of young men to 



280 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

offices, mills, and factories, and engineering establishments. 
The technicalities thus gleaned from these various avenues 
of details, plus the commercial knowledge, speedily bore 
results in the erecting, in the first place, of factories, the 
yarn required being supplied from Dundee. The building 
of spinning mills, as compliments thereto, rapidly 
followed. 

Up to 1863-4 Jute trading in Continental Europe was 
comparatively insignificant. In France, the consumption 
in 1864 amounted to only about 6,176 tons ; the previous 
year the figures were 10,324 tons, the difference arising 
from several causes. The export of yarn to that country 
from Dundee shewed a marked increase that year, thus 
was supplemented the lessened production in France, and 
explains the increase of export to that country. The 
year 1873 marked the beginning of an ever-increasing 
extension, in well-nigh every country of Europe, of 
spinning mills and factories, consequently the exports 
from Dundee shewed a serious shrinkage. The consump- 
tion of Jute for foreign Europe now reaches about 
2,250,000 bales per annum. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that Dundee held 
virtually a monoply of the Jute industry from its practical 
commencement in 1839 up to, say, 1855, when the nucleus 
of what has eventuated in a most formidable competition 
by India having started Jute spinning and weaving in 
that year, the consumption then amounting to 2,600 tons 
per annum, and which now shews the enormous quantity 
of 4,274,200 bales yearly, which equals per annum the 
striking increase to 763,250 tons. The unwisdom of this 
indiscriminate extension and the irony of it is well shown 
by some 80 per cent, of the mills having adopted short 
time for (at time of writing) about 15 months, the 
agreement only reaching that qualified support after long 
and tedious negotiations, receiving an accelerated impulse 
through the iron entering into the heart of the industry 
and the soul of its profits. 

The Indian Factory Act recently passed restricts the 
hours of working from 1st July 1912, and, therefore, 




A JACQUARD LOOM OF A SPECIAL TYPE FOR THE WEAVING 
OF BRUSSELS AND WILTON CARPETS. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 281 

practically takes the place of the above-named short time 
agreement, but there seems to be in this prolonged 
depression experienced by the Indian mills a compensatory 
nemesis rebuking an author who published in 1909 a 
booklet, wherein, with " Maharajic " scorn, reference is 
made to " harmless wails of their competitor on the Tay." 
The following figures will show the enormous growth 
of the Indian competition : 

EXPORTS FROM CALCUTTA Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st. 

JUTE BAGS. JUTE CLOTH. 

1911. 354,586,889 Bags. 858,381,927 Yards. 

1910. 449,826,810 1,008,693,898 

Decrease, 95,257,921 150,311,971 

The result of the lessened production. 

The mills in Dundee alone employ when in full working 
about 36,000 workers. The construction of the mills is a 
great improvement from the works of other days, with 
ill-ventilated flats, and the basement of many badly 
lighted and dingy in the extreme, with not a few under 
the level of the street. The surroundings now are in 
every respect conducive to the health of the workers, arid 
the machines they attend to are quite up-to-date and 
well protected, thereby lessening accidents almost to the 
veriest minimum. 

The principal products here have always been Yarns, 
Hessian Cloth, D.W. Bagging and Tarpauling, Twilled 
Sacking with Sacks, Bags and Covers made therefrom. 
But Jute, about its earlier stages towards the goal of 
practical account, was found to be very easily dyed in the 
most delicate shades, and this led to its utility in carpeting; 
also it can be brought to a considerable degree of white- 
ness by bleaching. The price at which, in this line of 
production, namely, carpets could be sold gave a great 
impetus to the importation of the raw material, and to the 
exportation of Jute Twist and Yarns. One other avenue 
opened was in wick-widths of Hessian Cloth, forming the 
foundation of Linoleum, which kindred branch has 
increased with leaps and bounds, enriching manufacturers 



282 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

in Scotland, England, the Continent, and the United 
States of America. This resulted in giving employment 
to many more workers. Another opening which helped 
the sale of Jute Cloth was its successful application to 
Coffee Bagging, and which from its cheapness at once 
displaced Flax Tow Bags. As time went on various other 
uses were found for Jute, with the happy result that the 
trade in Dundee received such an impulse from ever- 
increasing sources that the progress was not far short of 
being well-nigh marvellous. 

Therefore, the clear-cut lessons deducible from the 
foregoing summarised historiette of the Textile Trade of 
Dundee are : the necessity for ceaseless vigilance, alert- 
ness, adaptions to machinery of ascertained practicality, 
technical knowledge, originality in designing, with a close 
study of the whole field relative to buying and selling ; 
having these, and, above all. patient fortitude enshrined 
in glowing hope, will, in all likelihood, ensure ability to 
meet all competition with success. Given these armoured 
elements, Dundee will not only hold its position, which it 
barely does at present, but being thus fully equipped will 
meet manfully the future when the world's requirements 
greatly increase, as they must do, and, let us hope, once 
again forge ahead with energy, and by judicious extensions 
be able and ready to participate in the increase, and then, 
no doubt, it will always find a profitable demand for its 
Jute manufactures. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 283 



Spinning and Weaving. 

By Thomas Woodhouse, Dundee Technical College 
and School of Art. 

THE development of the jute industry in general has been 
described in the foregoing article ; it now remains to deal 
shortly with the spinning and weaving industries of the 
district. It is, naturally, impossible to give a detailed 
description of the technicalities of spinning and weaving 
these particulars can be obtained from other and more 
suitable sources. 

The evolution of these two extensive branches of the 
textile industry proceeded in and around Dundee on much 
the same lines as in those other centres which have 
developed into important textile districts ; that is to say, 
one or two hand looms, with the necessary adjuncts for 
winding and beaming, were in general use in a large 
number of houses, and in a few cases a number of weavers 
worked together under the same roof, partly for companion- 
ship and partly for convenience. These weavers were 
supplied with the necessary yarns for warp and weft first 
from the simple distaff and spindle, arid afterwards 
from spinning wheels several spinners being required to 
keep one weaver fully employed. These conditions, with 
very little alteration in the method of manufacture, 
prevailed for generations, but the period from 1730 to 
1800 witnessed a great activity throughout the kingdom, 
with regard not only to means of communication, but 
also to improvements affecting the textile industry in 
general. It was about the beginning of this period that 
attempts were made to evolve more or less automatic 
apparatus for preparing and spinning different kinds of 
textile fibres, as well as for facilitating the operation of 
weaving. So far as weaving is concerned, the great 
pioneer was, undoubtedly, John Kay, who first substituted 
wires for canes in weaving reeds, and then introduced the 



284 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

fly shuttle and pickers an invention which has probably 
done more than any other to revolutionize the weaving 
industry. The pre-eminence of these parts, which are 
employed for alternately propelling and checking the 
shuttle, may or may not be seriously threatened by a 
recent novel invention in weaving, but the very fact of 
their being in universal use almost from the time of their 
introduction to the present day, says much for their 
efficiency ; indeed, unless radical changes in weaving 
take place, it is difficult to imagine any other kind of 
apparatus which could supplant them. It is to Kay also 
that we owe the mechanism for the manufacture of card 
clothing a type of furnishing not much used in the jute 
and flax industries, but exceedingly important in the 
carding of woollen and cotton yarns. 

The introduction of the fly shuttle and pickers to the 
hand loom facilitated the process of weaving to such an 
extent that in a short time the production of cloth was 
more than doubled, and as a result the hand spinners for 
a time found it impossible to supply the weavers' demand. 
A great development in any one branch of industry is 
invariably followed in course of time by improvements in 
those branches which are most closely connected with it, 
and this happened with respect to the sister industry- 
spinning. The scarcity of yarn, and therefore the 
threatened lack of employment for weavers, caused 
attention to be drawn to the possibility of obtaining 
yarn by mechanical methods : Lewis Paul was the first 
to take out a patent for such a process, and thus laid the 
foundation of mechanical spinning, but it was left to such 
industrial champions as Hargreaves, Arkwright, and 
Crompton to carry on the work. These inventors 
ultimately solved the problem of mechanical preparing 
and spinning so satisfactorily that an abundance of yarn 
for the weavers was again easily obtained. The conditions, 
indeed, were now reversed, and, until the introduction of 
the power loom, the weavers were unable to keep pace 
with the increased production of yarns brought about by 
the improved methods of preparing and spinning. 




Part of a Finishing Department. The machine in the foreground is a " cropper," 
which cuts the projecting fibres from the face of the cloth by means of a 
rapidly rotating spiral knife. Two Wilton carpets are shown in the machine. 




A group of five-bowl calenders. When the cloth leaves any of these machines 
its appearance may be that of a "flat finish," a "round thread finish," 01 
a "glazed finish." 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 285 

Although Dr. Cartwright's first patent for a power 
loom was lodged in 1785, and his more practicable one in 
1786, several years elapsed before a satisfactory loom was 
on the market. In Dundee, more than three decades- 
passed before any serious experiments were made with 
power looms, and it was not until the year 1836 that the 
way appeared clear for the introduction of a comparatively 
large number of such looms. In this year Messrs Baxter 
Brothers & Co. erected more than 200 looms, and this was 
the beginning in Dundee of a general development of power 
loom weaving. By this time, however, a few flax spinning 
mills had been established, and it is a significant fact that 
the above-mentioned firm, which was amongst the first 
to adopt the improved methods of manufacture, continued 
steadily to increase the number of power driven machines 
in their mills and factories until in 1867 they had more 
power looms employed in the manufacture of linen goods 
than any other firm in the world. 

Flax and hemp, particularly the former, were the 
chief fibres which were spun into yarn and woven into 
cloth ; the jute fibre was little used at this period it was,, 
in fact, at this time passing through the experimental 
stages. A great variety of fabrics, from the plainest 
cloths to elaborately figured damasks, was, however, 
manufactured from the above-mentioned flax and hemp 
yarns, and, in addition, small quantities of other vegetable 
fibres were used. The trade continued on these lines 
until the difficulties of spinning the jute fibre, and the 
objections to the use of the yarn and cloth made from the 
fibre, were overcome; then a great demand arose for 
jute fabrics, and all who were able to take part in the 
boom turned their attention to the manufacture of these 
cloths. The success was phenomenal, and in the course 
of time the manufacture of several kinds of linen fabrics 
was neglected or discarded for the then more remunerative 
jute industry. These conditions prevailed for some years, 
during which time the manufacture of jute fabrics was 
confined almost entirely to the Dundee district. The 
monopoly was destined, however, to be lost, for when it 



286 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

became known that the fibre could be satisfactorily spun 
into yarn, and woven into cloth, and when the antipathy 
to its employment was overcome, its manufacture began 
to spread to other districts. Nevertheless the trade con- 
tinued to grow in Dundee, old mills and factories being 
enlarged, and new ones built, to cope with the ever 
increasing demand for the new type of cloth, and it was 
not until several large mills and factories were erected 
and equipped on the banks of the Hooghly, in the vicinity 
of Calcutta, that Dundee's progress was eventually checked. 
By this time, however, the trade in Dundee had assumed 
huge dimensions, and it is gratifying to be able to state 
that ever since the above-mentioned check, the enterprise 
of the spinners, manufacturers, calenderers, and merchants 
has enabled them to obtain a fair share of the trade, and 
this in spite of unequal conditions of labour, and of the 
fact that jute fabrics are now, and have been for some 
time, manufactured in practically every country where 
weaving is practised to any great extent. A considerable 
number of fresh outlets and uses for the fabrics and for 
the yarns have naturally arisen on account of the com- 
parative cheapness of .the jute fibre, so that when from 
any cause the manufacture of any of the simpler fabrics 
has been extended to other districts or countries it has 
invariably been in some measure counterbalanced by the 
introduction of one or other of the special fabrics which 
are now made in large quantities. A great development 
in the spinning of yarns for use as cords, twine, ropes, 
etc., has also taken place within the last few years, hence 
this branch is now a very important one in many mills. 
In recent years also a considerable number of machines 
have been employed in the spinning of the finer or lighter 
yarns a gratifying feature, and one which may ultimately 
have for its sequel a corresponding development in the 
weaving branch. It is due to these specialities, and to 
the beautiful finish which is now imparted to all types of 
jute goods, coupled with the inherent skill of the textile 
operatives in general, that the prestige of the district as 
an important manufacturing centre is still upheld. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 287 

Several of the above special fabrics are simple in 
structure, that is to say they are made with what are 
technically termed plain weave and simple twill weaves, 
whereas others are much more complicated. Brussels 
and Wilton carpets are perhaps the most elaborate types 
of textiles which are made in the city, although con- 
siderable ingenuity and taste are displayed in connection 
with other types of carpets and rugs. 

Before the introduction of the jute fibre there was, as 
already mentioned, a large quantity of linen fabrics 
manufactured in the hand loom sailcloth, canvas, dowlas, 
apron, pillow, and other household linens. The flax yarns 
which were used in the manufacture of these goods were 
prepared on machinery both of the wet spun and the dry 
spun types. It is to be regretted, however, that wet 
spinning of flax has practically died out in the district, 
and that the flax spinning industry as a whole is de- 
creasing. Unless some Government help be forthcoming 
for the encouragement of flax culture, it appears un- 
likely that the wet spinning process will be resuscitated, 
or that dry spinning will regain its former importance. 
There is still a considerable trade done in canvas, duck, and 
similar fabrics required by the various departments of the 
Government, and by large shipping companies, but since 
1840 the manufacture of many of the other types of linen 
has been left to the neighbouring districts. Dundee, 
however, still retains its supremacy as the great centre 
for jute and linen in Great Britain, and as the chief com- 
mercial textile centre of Scotland. 

Although keen foreign and colonial competition has 
affected Dundee seriously, the city provides a very large 
quantity of the ordinary fabrics such as hessian, bagging, 
tarpauling, hop-pocketing, brattice cloth, sacking, cotton 
bagging, padding, hammocking, hose-piping, etc., while the 
introduction of linoleum as a floor covering has led to a 
great development in wide hessians, some of which are 
eight yards in width, although widths of two and four 
yards are much more common. 

There is an enormous variety of yarns spun in the 



288 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

district and then woven in the natural, bleached, or dyed 
states, but apart from that used at home, there are large 
quantities exported to other countries. The yarn is sent 
out, not only in the form of hanks, but also in the form of 
rolls, chains, and cops, so that when the material reaches 
its destination little more requires to be done before it is 
ready for the loom. 

It is impossible to enumerate all the fabrics from 
narrow goods, such as girthing, hose-pipe, and the like to 
the widest linoleum cloths which are made in the district, 
but, in addition to those mentioned, there is manufactured 
a great variety of plain and figured fabrics, in all colours, 
for wall, stair, and floor covering, as well as millions of 
wrappers and bags of all kinds and sizes used in trans- 
porting and storing various kinds of merchandise. 



Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering 
in Dundee. 

By W. S. Thompson, Lilybank Foundry. 

THE first marine engine made in Dundee was fitted into 
the ferry steamer " Union," built at Perth in the year 
1821, for service between Dundee and Newhaven. As 
the description is interesting, it is given below : 

" This boat, the most unique and perhaps the most 
splendid ferry boat in the country, is a twin boat com- 
posed of two hulls, each 76 feet keel, 11 \ feet beam, and 
11 \ feet asunder. They are handsomely and substantially 
built, and well bound together by beams fortified with 
iron ; and the mould and execution do much credit to the 
taste and skill of Mr Brown (of Perth), the builder. The 
whole length upon deck is 92 feet and the breadth about 
34. Thirty-two feet of the one end is left about two feet 




Sack Printing Department. Names, trade marks, and the like are printed in 
one or more colours on the bags. The names displayed are in black letters. 




A general view of a "sewing flat" where lengths of jute cloth are rapidly sewn 
into bags. Each machine is capable of sewing about 2OOO bags per day. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 289 

lower than the rest of the deck, and railed in for carriages 
and cattle, and the doors at the middle of this space are so 
constructed as to serve for platform in loading and un- 
loading. Twenty-two feet in the centre are occupied by 
the machinery, an engine being in each boat, and the 
paddle wheel acting in the canal between. The engines 
are of fifteen horses power each; and as these are con- 
nected with the same wheel, they act contemporaneously. 
As to the appearance and quality, it is enough to say they 
are constructed by the Messrs Cannichael, castings by Mr 
Straton, of the Dundee Foundry. So smoothly indeed do 
they work that there is hardly any tremor in the boat ; 
and when the doors which enclose the machinery are shut 
there is very little noise. The paddle wheel has wooden 
floats, and is so divided that though each half has only 
eight floats, the whole acts with the same smoothness as if 
it had sixteen, and yet the power is not diminished. Not- 
withstanding the immense size of the boat, she obeys her 
helm very easily. There are two helms, each constructed 
of a rectangular iron plate four feet and a half in the 
horizontal direction and three feet and a half in the 
perpendicular. The tiller of each is almost ten feet long, 
and is worked by a wheel and pinion. The machinery is 
so constructed that either end may go foremost ; and thus 
the boat can arrive and depart without the labour or space 
required for turning round. The reversing of the motion 
is effected by reversing the motion of the valves of the 
engines. These are opened and shut by an alternating 
rod moved by an eccentric block on the shaft of the 
paddle wheel. This rod acts upon a double lever fastened 
to the rocking shaft of the valves ; when it acts on the 
lower end of the lever the paddle wheel moves one way, 
and when it acts on the upper end the wheel moves the 
other. The lever is made broad in the middle, with a 
flange round it which retains the stud on the alternating 
rod during the time that it is changed from the one end to 
the other. The rod is raised and lowered by means of a 
toothed sector into which a pinion works. The two 
pinions are on the opposite ends of a rod which passes 



290 INDUSTKIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

under the index table, below which it has a bevel wheel 
connected with the reversing index. By simply turning 
this index the boat passes in less than one minute from 
motion in one direction to motion in that directly opposite. 
The boat may be steered by either helm, and by working 
with helms at the same time it may be turned round in a 
very small compass. Indeed, though the boat appears 
huge and unwieldy, yet, in consequence of the impelling 
power being in the centre, it can be turned in a much 
smaller compass than a less boat with two wheels. Its 
motion, too, during a breeze or across a swell is much more 
steady, as a good deal of disagreeable rolling of a two- 
wheeled boat arises from the unequal hold which its 
wheels take of the water." 

The above description is interesting in view of the fact 
that nearly sixty years afterwards this type of twin boat 
with centre wheel was tried on the English Channel 
service, a vessel called the " Calais-Douvres " having been 
built in the year 1877 by Mr Leslie of Newcastle for this 
purpose. Her dimensions were : Length, 302 feet ; beam, 
61 feet ; depth of hold, 13 feet 9 inches ; and she was 
fitted with diagonal engines, with four cylinders, each 63 
inch in diameter by 94 inch stroke, working at 28 Ibs. 
pressure per square inch. 

Messrs Carmichael also built the engine for another 
ferry steamer called " George IV.," and a complete de- 
scription and illustration of this engine will be found in the 
memorial volume printed for the Meeting of the British 
Association held in Dundee in 1867. Messrs Carmichael's 
Works, Ward Foundry, founded in 1810 by Mr James 
Carmichael (whose statue stands in the Albert Square), 
were at this time located on their present site in Ward 
Koad, but their forge was situated at Seabraes, and it was 
here that it is claimed the first iron paddle steamship 
built in Scotland was launched in 1838. They also built 
about this time a small iron schooner called the " Tinker." 
Many people at this time did not believe that an iron ship 
would float, and the launch created great interest. Flush 
riveting was not then thought of for the outside or shell 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 291 

plating, and the rivets on the outside of the shell were 
finished with pan or bat heads. 

After building these two vessels Messrs Carmichael, who 
had revolutionised iron manufacture by the invention of 
the fan blast, became absorbed in locomotive and land 

work, and gave up marine work. 

In 1834 Mr Peter Borrie, Engineer (whose works, the 
first Tay Foundry, were situated in Trades Lane), along 
with Mr Thomas Adamson, Shipbuilder, took up the 
building of wooden steamers, and built several, one of 
which, the ill-fated " Forfarshire," was wrecked on the 
Fame Islands, and was the object of Grace Darling's 
heroic venture. 

Mr Borrie in 1840 commenced iron shipbuilding, and 
built several iron paddle steamers, two of which, the 
" Lass o' Gowrie " and the " Princess Eoyal," the latter a 
twin-hulled vessel, were built at Broughty Ferry, there 
being then three shipbuilding yards there one at about 
where No. 1 Douglas Terrace now stands, one at No. 13 
James's Place, and one west of the Castle. These vessels 
were fitted with single cylinder vertical return connecting 
rod engines. Mr Borrie, meeting with misfortune, gave up 
business in 1846. 

From the year 1842 until 1854 no iron ships were built 
in Dundee. Wood shipbuilding, however, flourished, and 
in 1847 five firms were engaged in this industry, viz. : 
Alexander Stephen, David Caiman, Thomas Adamson, 
John Caiman & Son, and John Brown. Mr Stephen came 
from Aberdeen to Arbroath, and ultimately settled in 
Dundee. Two of his sons (Alexander and John) founded 
the business on the Clyde at Linthouse. The eldest son 
(William) carried on the business in Dundee, and, besides 
shipbuilding and shipowning, built and owned several 
whalers. 

The year 1846 saw wood shipbuilding at its zenith in 
Dundee, and in that year Mr Alexander Stephen launched 
the " Eastern Monarch," a vessel of 1,840 tons, builders' 
measurement, one of the largest ships then in existence. 
From this time wooden shipbuilding gradually declined, 



292 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

and composite ships, and then wholly iron vessels, began 
to appear. None of the firms except Alexander Stephen 
and John Brown (latterly Brown & Simpson) changed 
over to the new material and new methods, but in J 853 
they were joined by Messrs Gourlay Brothers. 

In 1846 Messrs Gourlay & Mudie took possession of 
Dundee Foundry, and laid the foundation of an industry 
which has been of great service in the growth of the City. 
It may be interesting to record that this business was 
founded in 1790, and acquired later by two brothers 
named Stirling. They made and patented a hot air engine, 
which was not very successful owing to trouble with the 
retorts ; however, one engine was made to drive the works 
and another was installed at Chapelshade Works, but they 
were riot a success, and had ultimately to be discarded. 

In 1851 the " Correo," a. wooden steamer 395 tons b.m., 
built by Mr John Brown and engined by Messrs Gourlay 
& Mudie, was the first screw vessel built in Dundee. She 
was fitted with diagonal geared engines of 70 h.p., with 
two cylinders live Ibs. working pressure per square inch, 
jet condensing the crank shaft being geared to the pro- 
peller shaft to bring up the latter's speed of revolution. 

The style Gourlay Brothers was adopted in 1853, Mr 
Mudie retiring, and Mr Henry and Mr Alexander Gourlay 
becoming the proprietors of Dundee Foundry and starting 
shipbuilding at Camperdown Shipyard. Their first vessel 
was the screw steamer " Pavo," built for Mr Peacock for 
the Arbroath and Newcastle trade. She was 89 feet long 
(about the length of a modern steam drifter), and had 
engines with cylinders 17| in. diameter by 18 in. stroke, 
working at 10 Ibs. pressure. 

In 1834 the Dundee, Perth and London Shipping Co. 
introduced paddle steamers to take the place of the 
sailing smacks for their trade to London. These steamers, 
built by Mr John Wood of Dumbarton and engined by Mr 
Eobert Napier of Glasgow, were very successful, and greatly 
enhanced the reputation of the Clyde; it was not, however, 
until 1&56 that Messrs Gourlay secured an order for the 
local Company, to which they built the Company's second 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 293 

" London," an iron screw vessel with beam geared engines. 
The first steam whaler, named the " Tay," was sent out 
from Dundee in 1857 ; she was so successful that Peter- 
head, Dundee's rival in whale-tishing, had to follow suit 
and adopt steam. 

The first compound engine made in Dundee was fitted 
into the " Dalhousie " in 1858, and this engine was also 
fitted with the first surface condenser made in Dundee. 
The tubes were of cast iron, H inch bore, fV i ncn thick, 
made tight with india rubber rings fitted in recesses in 
cast iron tube plates. The condenser, however, was far 
from being efficient and the vacuum poor, and compared 
unfavourably with the jet condenser as to reliability. 

A paddle ferry steamer for the Tay Ferries, named the 
" Fort'arshire." was launched in 1861, and this is believed 
to be the first steel vessel built in Scotland. This vessel 
is still in existence, and maintains the daily service between 
North and South Queenferry on the Forth. 

In 1866 Messrs Thompson & Gall started business as 
Engineers and Ironfounders at Tay Foundry, near Stobs- 
well. This partnership was dissolved in the following 
year, and Mr W. B. Thompson acquired and carried on the 
business. 

Steam pressure had risen in 1869 to 48 Ibs. per square 
inch, and superheating began to be tried. The " Libra," 
built in this year by Messrs Gourlay, used steam super- 
heated to 400 degrees. Owing to trouble with the super- 
heater this was abandoned later as being troublesome and 
dangerous. Vessels now began to increase in size, and in 
1873 Messrs Gourlay built the " Kenil worth " and 
" Abbotsford," each 345 feet long by 37 feet beam; and 
following them the P. and O. liners " Teheran " and 
" Tibet," 360 feet long by 36 feet beam, having engines 
with cylinders 48 in. and 84 in. in diameter by 48 in, stroke, 
67 Ibs. pressure. These vessels were fitted with six boilers, 
and as there was no crane capable of handling such weights, 
all the machinery had to be put into the vessels on the 
stocks, the ship's side being left open for the purpose. 
Mr Thompson started shipbuilding in 1874 at Caledon 



294 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Shipyard, the first vessel built being a composite steam 
yacht for the Earl of Caledon. 

Mild steel was introduced by Mr Thompson in 1881, 
two vessels being built to Lloyds' first scantlings in steel, 
these scantlings were found to be too light, and were 
afterwards amended. 

Messrs Pearce Brothers, Lily bank Foundry, who up to 
1880 had been employed on land engines and textile 
machinery, began the manufacture of marine engines, and 
in 1882 opened Craigie Shipyard. They were unfortunate, 
however, and became so heavily involved that both ship- 
yard and foundry were sold in 1889 to Messrs W. B. 
Thompson & Co., Ltd., who had acquired Mr Thompson's 
business in 1886. Messrs W. B. Thompson & Co., Ltd., 
went into liquidation in 1896, and the business was 
acquired and reconstructed under the name of the Caledon 
Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd. 

Messrs J. & H. Whyte & Cooper began business as 
marine and general engineers at Britannia Engine Works 
in East Dock Street in 1882 ; this partnership was dis- 
solved in 1897 Messrs Whyte & Mair taking over Tay 
Foundry from the Caledon Company and Messrs Cooper & 
Greig retaining the original premises. Besides having 
done a large amount of land and marine work, the latter 
firm have done considerable experimental work, and it is 
largely due to Mr Cooper's initiative that the atmospheric 
condenser has been adopted and found so suitable for many 
of the mills in the City. 

Messrs Whyte & Mair carried on business for a few 
years, but were not successful. Messrs M'Farlane & 
Machan, who started business in 1892 at Dock Street 
Engine Works, carried on business successfully for nine 
years, but were forced to liquidate through the failure of 
a Liverpool shipping firm. 

In 1900 there were therefore left engaged in these 
industries Messrs Gourlay Brothers & Co., Ltd., Ship- 
builders and Engineers ; Messrs the Caledon Shipbuilding 
and Engineering Co., Ltd., Shipbuilders and Engineers ; 
the Dundee Shipbuilders' Co., Ltd., successors to Alex. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 295 

Stephen & Sons, Shipbuilders, in 1895, succeeded by the 
Dundee Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Shipbuilders, in 1906; and 
Messrs Cooper & Greig, Engineers. 

The output of these firms for the last ten years is given 
below, and reached a maximum in 1908 with 22,100 i.h.p. 
and 27,100 tons gross tonnage, valued roughly at 677,500. 
Unfortunately, Messrs Gourlay Brothers & Co., Ltd., in 
1908 sustained serious business losses; they werelorced to 
suspend payment, and the works were closed. This was a 
serious blow not only to the industry, but to the City, 
where the outlets for male labour are not too plentiful. 

TOTAL OUTPUT FROM ALL DUNDEE YARDS. 

Year. I.H.P. Gross Tonnage. 

1900 17,430 21,212 

1901 20,762 18,396 

1902 29,084 22,266 

1903 19,730 15,247 

1904 11,456 7,582 

1905 22,599 21,328 

1906 31,313 25,546 

1907 26,295 16,972 
*1908 27,100 22,100 

1909 8,549 7,912 

1910 7,585 5,952 
* Gourlay Brothers shut down. 

Some of the largest and most notable examples of 
vessels built at the port in recent years are as under : 

Gross Nett 

Ship's Name. Length. Breadth. Depth. Tnge. Tnge. 

Ft. Ins. Feet. Ins. Feet. Ins. 

"Queensmore" 360 45 9 30 7 3791 2488 

"Marwarri" 445 50 33 5658 3622 

"Bengali" 445 50 33 5664 3619 

"Londres" 292 45 12 2670 1650 

"Caledonian" 426 4J 50 31 6 4990 

" California!! " 447 6 53 6 34 8 6223 4038 

"Lanfranc" 418 52 30 6274 3654 



296 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

The capital invested in these two industries is estimated 
at 70,000, and gives employment to about 2,100 men. 

The movement during the last fifteen years has been 
towards specialisation, and the engineering firms who used 
to manufacture pumps, cranes, winches, windlasses, steering 
gear, and other auxiliaries find that they cannot now make 
these at a profit, and are therefore abandoning these 
branches. 

The tendency in engine design is towards higher revolu- 
tion and reduction of weight, the prejudice against fast 
running having been dispelled by high speed forced lubri- 
cation steam engines and the internal combustion engine, 
also by better lubrication, and the adoption of white metal 
for all bearings. Steel boiler plates can now be obtained 
25 feet long, 11 feet 6 inches wide, and 2 inches thick. 
Steel has also almost entirely displaced wrought iron for 
shafting and reciprocating parts, good clean forged wrought 
iron being extremely difficult to get. 

The cast iron box condenser is being rapidly displaced 
by circular or pear-shaped types, with wrought steel shells, 
thus relieving the engine frame of expansion stresses and 
eliminating what was generally a weakness in design. 
There has been a tendency to return to superheating, but 
although the defects in the superheater have been largely 
overcome, the internal lubrication of the engine still seems 
to present difficulties. 

Working pressures generally remain about 180 Ibs. per 
square inch, and there does not appear to be any great 
desire, except in large units, to increase the pressure or to 
adopt quadruple engines owing to extra first cost, multi- 
plicity of parts, and extra length necessary in the vessel 
for this type. The inclination rather appears to be in the 
direction of the internal combustion engine of the Diesel 
type, if this can be made reliable for continuous running 
and handling. 

In shipbuilding steel has entirely displaced iron, and 
plates of almost any size and thickness are obtainable. 
Cast steel, now being much more uniform in quality and 
reliability, is much used. Improved and more powerful 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 297 

tools are noticeable, such as hydraulic joggling, bending, 
punching, shearing, and rivetting, pneumatic caulking and 
drilling and electric drilling, and wood working machinery. 
Methods are considerably improved and more latitude in 
design is apparent, largely due to revision and extension of 
Lloyds' and other Classification Societies' rules to new 
designs and methods of construction. 

By the provision of improved facilities and equipment 
it is believed that the shipbuilding industry of Dundee 
can be greatly extended. The superior situation of the 
port, with its magnificent waterway, specially lends itself 
to development along such lines. 



Mechanical Engineering. 

By Angus R. Fulton, B.Sc., A.M. Inst. C.B. 

THAT Dundee does not rank higher in engineering circles 
is somewhat a matter of surprise, though there are reasons 
which may account for it. During its earlier industrial 
progress the sites available for public works were some- 
what restricted. Only a narrow strip of ground lay 
between the river front and the steeply sloping surface 
to the north. Works were certainly built on the rising 
ground, but the cost of haulage to and from the docks and 
railway termini! has proved a serious item in the balance 
sheet of those firms, unless engaged as in the heyday of the 
jute trade, in a business where the profits were ample and 
the competition limited. 

Unfortunately these are not the normal conditions pre- 
vailing in the engineering trade, and certainly not in 
Dundee, where, unassisted by the proximity of either 
coal or iron ore, the local makers have an arduous struggle 
to hold their own with more favoured centres. Hence 
progress has been relatively slow. 



298 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

But while this was true with regard to the works 
long established, and which are, with few exceptions, cut 
off from direct railway connection or sea communication, 
the same cannot he said of the present state of affairs. 
Owing to developments at the harbour, ground is now 
available for sites especially suited for engineering works. 
Open to the river, by which supplies of raw material can 
be readily obtained from home and foreign ports, and 
communicating directly by sidings with the two principal 
railways of Scotland, an ideal situation has been created. 
When we add to this that an abundant demand exists for 
female labour, owing to the peculiar nature of what still 
ranks as Dundee's staple industry, it seems that the con- 
ditions are such as to tempt families of good working class 
to settle in the city, and so provide that plentiful supply 
of labour which is so necessary for the commercial success 
of engineering or other enterprises. That Dundee will 
sooner or later enjoy the prosperity resulting from such 
a development is not difficult to foresee ; that it may be 
sooner depends considerably on the energy and determina- 
tion of its leaders. 

Though Dundee is not entitled either by the number or 
magnitude of its establishments to rank as one of the chief 
centres of engineering in this country, nevertheless the 
local engineer can say with equal pride and truth that 
professionally he is an inhabitant of " no mean city." Its 
contributions to engineering progress have been both 
varied and valuable ; the products of the skill and industry 
of its artisans are world spread, and bear the hall mark of 
excellence ; its workshops are extensive and efficient, well 
organised and modern. 

To the city must be attributed that important advance 
in the perfecting of the steam engine for marine work 
effected by the reversing gear, and the great saving in 
time and money involved in the substitution of the fan 
blast or blowing machine for heating or melting iron for 
the bellows previously in vogue. The invention and con- 
struction of the Stirling Air Engine, too, must always be 
associated with the period which James Stirling spent in 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 299 

Dundee, and the locality at least must be credited with 
the invention of the reaping machine by the Kev. Patrick 
Bell. 

But the Handbook issued forty-five years ago in con- 
nection with the previous and only other meeting of the 
British Association which Dundee has had the honour 
of housing, contained this and much more interesting 
historical matter. It is, therefore, more proper to touch 
on the changes which have taken place since then, and 
the present position of the trade. 

Of the twelve principal firms mentioned then, six still 
maintain their position, and five of them their name. 
Amongst those which have ceased to exist the principal 
was Gourlay Bros. & Co., originally the Dundee Foundry 
Co., established as far back as 1790, when engineering, as 
we know it, was only in its earliest beginning, and Scot- 
land was only wakening up to the possibilities that lay 
before it. 

This firm will be remembered for its connection with 
Stirling, and for its long record of good work extending 
over a century. That it should have been allowed to go 
under in the stress of present day competition is a matter 
of widespread regret. 

Along with it will be missed the name of Thomson 
Bros. & Co., Douglas Foundry, whose identity has been 
swallowed up in that of Urquhart, Lindsay & Co., Black- 
ness Foundry. 

GENERAL ENGINEERING. 

Of the firms which still exist precedence 

James must be given to that of James Carmichael 

Carmichaei & Co., Ward Foundry. It is one of the 

& Co., oldest engineering establishments on the 

Ward Foundry, east coast of Scotland, having descended 

from father to son for over one hundred 

years. It was started in a small way in 1810 by two 

brothers; the inventive powers of the one and the 

engineering skill of the other soon making success 

assured. Their improved plan of reversing gear for 



300 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

marine engines was applied to practice in 1821, and in 
1829 their fan blast for the melting and heating of metals 
formed at once a substantial contribution to science and 
an immense boon to the trade. 

At that time, too, the enterprise of the firm was directed 
to railway work, and two of the first four locomotives 
which supplanted the original rope haulage of the Dundee 
-and Newtyle Eailway, and which were the first of their 
kind in Scotland, were made by them. 

As if to give further proof of their versatility a venture 
was made in the earliest days of iron vessels to build this 
class of ship, and the " Queen," " Caledonian," and " Tinker " 
were constructed at Seabraes, then on the river front, but 
now separated from it by the Caledonian and North 
British Railway yards. Partly owing to prejudice, which 
had not then been overcome, the venture proved unprofit- 
able and was abandoned. At his birth centenary in 1876, 
a statue erected in Albert Square to the memory of the 
founder, James Carmichael, was unveiled. Carried on by 
their sons, and latterly by their grandsons, the business 
has extended most successfully. Boiler work of all 
descriptions is undertaken, a specialty being those of the 
Lancashire type. Forgings of the heaviest class are made, 
and mill and factory engines up to 4000 5000 horse- 
power, designed and constructed in Ward Foundry, bear 
witness not only in Dundee and Scotland but throughout 
the jute mills of India by the excellency of workmanship 
and efficiency of working to the high class nature of their 
productions. 

This firm being of comparatively recent 
Cooper & Greig. origin has shown all the enterprise and 

energy of youth. They are makers of 
reciprocating engines of various types and of the largest 
size. In addition to ordinary surface and jet condensers 
they make a feature of evaporating condensers, the senior 
partner, Mr Cooper, being the first to introduce their use 
into land practice. The list of inventions by this gentle- 
man, and worked by this firm, is very extensive, including 






INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 301 

a steam turbine for use with high pressures, and another 
to utilise the exhaust steam discharge from reciprocating 
engines, a superheater, arid a thermo-circulator for equalis- 
ing the temperature of marine boilers. 

All classes of boilers are constructed with such acces- 
sories as hydraulic stokers and exhaust steam feed water 
heaters. 

The triple hydraulic engine and the great gearing and 
chains used for moving the three large caisson dock gates 
for the new Admiralty Docks at Malta were, also designed 
and constructed by this firm. 

Messrs Pearce Brothers, Lilybank Foundry, 

Caledon Ship- 11 i ^ <. i_ 

a we U'k nown fi rm forty-five years ago, has 
. given place to the Caledon Shipbuilding 
and Engineering Co., bub this company is 
dealt with under the heading of Marine Engineering. 

TEXTILE MACHINERY. 

As befitting its position as centre of the jute industry, 
Dundee ranks as one of the principal centres for the 
supplying of all machinery necessary for this and kindred 
industries. In this branch four firms have existed over 
half-a-century. 

This firm, although only floated into a 

James F. LOW Private Limited Company early in 1902 r 

& Co., Ltd., dates back to about the year 1811. They 

Monifieth are machine makers, iron and brass founders, 

Foundry. and are well known all over the world for 

the reputation which they have gained for 

making textile machinery, and also for their iron castings. 

They manufacture all kinds of preparing and spinning 

machinery for flax, hemp, jute, and tow, and when working 

under normal conditions employ about 500 workmen. 

During recent years their whole works have been 
rebuilt, and equipped with the most up-to-date tools for 
the special purposes of their trade. 



302 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

This company was started in 1863, at a 
Urquhart, time when the jute trade was developing 
Lindsay & Co., with extraordinary rapidity, and soon took 
Blackness a leading place in supplying the demand 
Foundry. for textile machinery required in the wind- 
ing, weaving, and finishing departments of 
this and the linen industries. That position has been well 
maintained, and the firm still remains a principal maker 
of that class of machinery, dealing largely not only with 
Calcutta but with all European countries. Converted into 
a Limited Liability Company in 1897, the success of the 
company has continued. Some of the finest and most 
efficient triple expansion engines now running in Calcutta 
have been constructed at Blackness Foundry. Shafting 
and heavy rope and belt pulleys up to a weight of 70 tons 
have also been a specialty of these works. 

During the last twelve years the distinguishing feature 
of this business has been the department which was then 
inaugurated of wheel cutting for the trade. So successful 
has this department been that some years ago new shops 
were specially built to accommodate it, and filled with the 
very finest machinery for the cutting of gears, most of the 
machines being designed and constructed in the workshops 
of the company. A visit to these shops will certainly 
repay the visitor, who will be made welcome. We believe 
we are correct in saying that contracts in machine cut 
gears are here undertaken which cannot be equalled by 
any other firm in the trade. In normal times 700 to 800 
are employed at these works. 

This foundry was established in 1856 by 

Robertson & the late Provost Robertson and the late 

Orchar, Ltd., Provost Orchar. Originally their energies 

Wallace were principally confined to the designing, 

Foundry. building, and fitting with machinery the 

jute works which began to be established 

in Dundee about that time. Later on, after the local 

demand had become somewhat exhausted, they extended 

their business to continental countries, and when jute mills 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 303 

began to be erected in Calcutta, they were responsible for 
the design and equipment of a large number of these. 

Of late years they have made a speciality of sewing 
machines for all classes of jute and canvas goods. They 
also became connected on business lines with the principal 
firm in the linoleum trade, designing and manufacturing 
the most of the machinery required by that firm, not only 
for their works in Britain, but also for their other estab- 
lishments in France, Germany, and the United States. A 
new shop, 120 feet long and 50 feet wide, fitted with an 
electric overhead travelling crane has this year been 
erected to meet the demands of this branch. Gas engines 
and electric motors supply the motive power in these 
works. 

The founder of this firm in 1842 was the 

Charles Parker, late Mr Charles Parker of Darlington, who, 

Sons & Co., as Chief Magistrate of the city, was taking 

Victoria a keen interest in the prospective visit of 

Foundry. the British Association to Dundee in 1867, 

when he died some little time before it took 
place. Originally located at Ladybank Works, near the 
centre of the town, the firm is now situated in the north 
end at Victoria Foundry, where direct railway connection 
is obtainable. During its early existence the bulk of its 
productions was machinery for flax and hemp yarns, 
receiving medals at the Exhibitions at London in 1851 
and 1862, and at Paris in 1855 and 1867. When jute 
was introduced into this country the production of 
machinery for its manufacture was added to the other 
branches, and now the firm are large makers of jute, fiax, 
and hemp preparing, weaving, and finishing machinery, 
having an extensive connection wherever the manufacture 
of these fibres is carried on. The "Victoria" loom, in- 
vented by the founder, for the weaving of heavy Navy 
canvas, is said to be the only loom in the market capable 
of making "mathematically correct" cloth, and, as con- 
structed now, presents very few modifications on the 
original design. 



304 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

This firm came into existence twenty years 

D. J. Macdonald, ago, principally for the manufacture of the 

South St. Laing's Patent Sewing Machine an inven- 

Boque's Works, tion by a Dundee working mechanic, Mr 

James Laing, which revolutionised the sack- 
sewing industry of the world. It remains in 1912, with 
some minor inventions added, as the only machine used to 
produce the millions of overhead hand stitch sewn bags 
required to supply the world's wants. In addition to 
these machines, the output of the works includes all 
classes of bag making machines, yarn testers ; water- 
proofing and other machinery for the treatment of cloth, 
rubber machinery, and special machinery for the manufac- 
ture of confectionery. Some five years ago a department 
was added to carry out electrical power and light installa- 
tions, and recently an automobile branch was instituted, 
both of which are proving highly successful. 

CONFECTIONERY MACHINERY. 

As far back as 1830 witnessed the beginning 
Low & Duff, of this business, then under the firm name 
Ltd., of Sutherland & Murdoch. It was not, 
Albert Works, however, till the late eighties, when it was 
Monifieth. formed into a Limited Liability Company, 
that it secured that prominence which it 
now commands. Ten years ago the works were removed 
from Dundee to Monifieth a change which has been 
markedly beneficial to the fortunes of the company. Its 
leading feature is the manufacture of all classes of 
machines used in the confectionery and preserve trades. 
These include a new caramel compound cutting machine, 
lozenge cutters, creaming pans, and vacuum pans for sugar 
boiling, hydraulic presses for fruit preserving, and sugar 
cane mills, with all necessary engines and boilers com- 
plete. Besides this, the firm manufactures gun -metal 
steam fittings of all descriptions, and also metal fittings 
to meet all the requirements of the sanitary engineering 
trade. In normal times their employees number J40. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 305 

STONE- WORKING MACHINERY. 

Mr George Anderson, already a crane maker 
George of some repute, started the stone-working 
Anderson & Co. machinery industry of this company at 
(1905), Ltd., Arbroath early in the eighties, and in 1897 
Carnoustie. it had so increased that he moved to 
Carnoustie and formed a company. In 
1905, owing to the rapid expansion of business, the com- 
pany was refloated with increased capital. Two years 
later this company acquired the business of Grice's Gas 
Engine Co., Ltd., of Birmingham, and now the two firms 
working as one, employ from 350 to 400 men. The firm 
ranks as the premier and largest makers of stone and 
marble working machinery in Great Britain, and possibly 
throughout the world. They are the patentees of those 
successful circular saws which cut stone by means of 
diamonds inset round the periphery of the blade, and 
which they have supplied to the trade all over the world, 
but principally in the United States and Canada. They 
have recently put down for the contractors a huge plant 
for working the stone and marble and for erecting the 
Victoria Memorial in Calcutta. 

As crane makers, without having the largest output, 
they rank high, supplying harbour and dock cranes of 
various types and capacities, and also equipping many 
quarries. 

GAS ENGINES. 

This gas engine business was transferred 

Grice's Gas from Birmingham in 1907 the class of 

Engine Co., Ltd,, engine manufactured being the horizontal 

Carnoustie. type, of horse powers varying from 3 to 150, 

with and without suction producer plant. 

Large piston areas per unit of power is the policy adhered 

to, on the grounds of general efficiency and of addition 

to the life of the engine. The joint works are situated 

alongside the Dundee and Arbroath Joint Railway, and 

occupy fifteen acres. The foundry is fed directly from the 

railway by means of a 20-ton electric overhead travelling 

T 



306 INDUSTKIAL AND COMMEKCIAL LIFE. 

crane, about 30 tons of metal being passed through daily. 
Adjacent is a small steel foundry where special castings 
are made. The main turning, fitting, and erecting shops, 
occupying seven parallel bays, are served by electric 
travelling cranes. Three gas engines, worked by suction 
plants on the double generator system, enabling one plant 
to be cleaned while the other is in operation, ensure con- 
tinuous night and day running when necessary. From 
them also is derived the power for electric lighting and 
for the current supplied to the welding plant, by which 
the diamonds are electrically sealed into steel sockets for 
the saws. 

BRASS FOUNDERS. 

Started originally in 1865 as mill furnishers 

Hunter, Doig by Hunter & Graham, this firm has been 

& Palmer, continued by the assumption of young, 

Eattray Street active men as partners, and has now become 

Works. wholly a manufacturing business, dealing 

principally in gun metal steam fittings, and 

also doing a large export trade in machine brasses. In 

average times eighty men are employed here. 

Established over thirty years ago under the 

David Boswell, name of M'Naughton & Boswell, it was con- 

Ltd., lay tinued as David Boswell, Ltd., and still 

Brass Works, trades as such though the sole proprietors 

now are A. Alexander & Son. Establishing 

a connection with marine engineers, this firm makes a 

specialty of engineers' and shipbuilders' fittings of all 

descriptions, and are included on the Admiralty list. A 

large business is also done in casting from customers' 

patterns in various alloys. The requisite machine tools 

are of the most up-to-date order, and the works are 

electrically lighted and driven. Over forty men are 

usually employed. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 307 



Electrical Engineering in Dundee. 

By Wm. C. Keay. 

THE high place which Dundee takes in Electrical 
Engineering is not sufficiently well known to the citizens 
outside of the immediate circles concerned. Those who 
come directly within the sphere of this scientific industry 
are indeed well aware of its relative importance, but a 
feeling of modesty on the part of our leading engineers 
has, I think, been largely responsible for the lack of 
general knowledge as to its extensive range and character. 
From the historical point of view, in the development of 
this applied science, Dundee takes a high, and in some 
respects a unique place. Many distinguished men, whose 
names are now known over the world, are so closely 
associated with Dundee in this respect as to be inseparable, 
while the researches of several, though perhaps chiefly 
pursued in other centres of activity, should not be 
altogether detached from the city of their birth and 
education. One could say much here, but in the pre- 
scribed limits of this short article much of general and 
historical interest must remain unsaid. To-day our 
electrical industry is an example of progressive develop- 
ment, and credit must be given to the pioneers who have 
initiated and established such a potent factor in the 
industrial life of our historic city. 

As early as 1834 James Bowman Lindsay wrote as 
follows : 

" Houses and towns will in a short time be lighted by 
electricity instead of gas, and heated by it instead of 
coals, and machinery will be wrought by it instead of 
steam." 

In 1835 Bowman Lindsay lit his study with electric 
light, and between the years 1853 and 1859 his now famous 
experiments in wireless telegraphy \vere conducted. An 
account of James Bowman Lindsay's life and work is 



308 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

given on another page of this volume. These dates may be 
said to mark the beginning of the electrical epoch in 
Dundee, and with him, in his later experiments, must be 
associated the name of Mr George Lowdon, who assisted 
him, and who was for many years practically the only 
maker of electrical apparatus in the city. A long period 
followed of patient and fruitful scientific research and 
investigation of which little, however, but passing notice 
was taken, except by a few interested citizens. The 
industry proper may be said to begin in the year 1876. 
In this year the first dynamos in Scotland were brought 
by Mr Lowdon to light the works in building the first Tay 
Bridge. From 1876 to 1879 small installations were fitted 
up for Gourlay Brothers ; Carmichael's, Ward Foundry ; 
Don Bros., Buist & Co., Ward Mills; and Bullionfield 
Paper Works. From Dundee there were many dynamos 
with lamps fitted in other cities, Stobcross Docks, 
Glasgow; Blaikie's Works, Edinburgh, and numerous 
other examples could be cited. In these early years 
Dundee may be said to have been the centre for electric 
lighting in Scotland. The first mansion house in Scot- 
land in which electric light was used was Balruddery 
House in 1879. Since this date Dundee has kept abreast 
of modern science in the development of electric lighting, 
power, transmission, etc. To-day there are from 300 to 
350 men employed in this growing industry. 

In the year 1894 the opening of the Central Electric 
Station at Dudhope Crescent Eoad was celebrated. The 
demand for current rose rapidly as the use of electricity 
became known. Though extensions were periodically 
made, it was soon seen that the requirements for tramway 
and industrial purposes would exceed the possible 
economical supply at this station. In the year 1907 
the original scheme for the new Electric Station at 
Stannergate was propounded, and in February 1910 the 
scheme was realised. The new station was auspiciously 
opened by one of Dundee's famous sons, Dr. Ewing, C.B , 
F.R.S., M.I.C.E., etc. Full particulars of the modern equip- 
ment of this station are given on page 175 of this Handbook. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 309 

The facilities for electric driving in the mills and 
factories have been greatly increased by this progressive 
policy. Developments in this direction have also been 
furthered by the excellent examples of textile driving 
shown in the new Technical College of Dundee. The 
equipment for this College has been specially considered 
and installed according to the recommendations of ex- 
perienced textile engineers. This plant fulfils as nearly as 
possible all educational requirements, and also illustrates 
how, in many cases, the electric driving of textile 
machinery may be of industrial and commercial advantage. 
There are over a dozen motors of varying powers, and the 
current used is both D.C. and A.C. The direct current is 
at 400 volts, and the alternating current 3 phase, 50 
cycles. The spinning department is driven by two large 
D.C. motors. These are fixed overhead, and are of the 
" variable speed " type, in order to illustrate the effects of 
varying speeds on the spinning fibre. In the weaving 
department a motor drive for each machine has been 
adopted. Alternating current motors have been selected 
for the looms owing to the absolute immunity from sparking 
and fire risks of the A.C. machine. This type of machine 
also overcomes easily the " speeding up " difficulties of the 
D.C. motor, as the shuttle demands for its effective throw 
a very quick start. The equipment at the Technical 
College altogether affords an interesting object lesson in 
textile driving. 

Special mention should also be made of the University 
College Peter's Electrical Laboratory. Professor Wm. 
Peddle, D.Sc., etc., deserves special credit for the care he 
and his colleagues have taken with the equipment, on 
modern lines, of this Laboratory. The plant has been 
recently amplified, and a brief summary of the more 
recent machines will be of interest here : 

(a) Direct Current Motor 

12-2 h.p., 400 volts (shunt wound), direct 
coupled to 



310 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

(5) Direct Current Generator 

7-5 k.w., 18 amps, 400 volts, 1,520 r.p.m. 
(compound wound). 

(c) Induction Motor 

5 h.p., 12 amps, 250 volts, 50 cycles, 1,420 
r.p.m.. 3 phase ; squirrel caga 

(d) Induction Motor 

5 h.p., 10-25 amps., 250 volts, 50 cycles, 1,450 
r.p.m., 2 phase. 

(e) Alternator 

250 volts, 1000/1500 r.p.m., 3 phase, 50/75 
periods per sec., 34'6 amps, per phase, 
rotary field. Connected by flexible 
coupling to 

(/) Shunt Wound Motor 

400 volts, 22/25 b.h.p., 480/1500 r.p.m. 
(g) Rotary Converter 

400 volts, 15 amps., 1,500 r.p.m., motor side. 
250 volts, 13 '8/1 6 '3 amps, per phase, 3 phase, 
50 cycles per sec., 1,500 r.p.m. alternator 
side. 

The switchboards and connections are arranged as 
follows : 

The D.C. motor (a) is controlled by double-pole switch 
and fuses, starter and shunt-regulator, and the D.C. 
generator (b} by D.P. switch and fuses and shunt regulator, 
the above being mounted on one switchboard. 

The second switchboard is designed for the control of 
the motor-alternator set (/), and the induction motors 
(c) and (d). The motor of the alternator set is equipped 
with an interlocking shunt regulator and starter, and D.P. 
switch and fuses. The rotary field of the alternator (e) 
is connected to a shunt breaker through same D.P. switch. 
The three-phase induction motor (c) is connected to three- 
pole switch and fuses, and slip rings to a three-phase 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 311 

starter. The two-phase induction motor (d) is connected 
direct to a starting compensator, and D.R switch and 
fuses. Both machines are controlled by a four-pole 
switch with connections from alternator (e). Three poles 
of the four-pole switch are connected to the three-pole 
switch for three-phase induction motor (c), and the 
remaining pole to one pole of the D.P. switch for the two- 
phase motor, the other pole of this switch being connected 
to the middle pole of the three-pole switch. 

The third switchboard is equipped with switches, etc., 
for the rotary converter, viz., one D.P. switch and fuses, 
starter, and shunt regulator. The mains are taken direct 
from the Corporation meters to the various switchboards. 

Perhaps the most complete example of mill and factory 
electric-driving in Dundee is to be seen at Hillbank Linen 
Works. Details of this plant will be of interest to manu- 
facturers and engineers alike, and I also append a few 
figures from the official test, as the question of steam 
consumption relative to output is of more than academic 
interest to an industrial community. The turbo-generator 
is of 1000 kilowatt capacity, and was erected to drive the 
spinning mill and weaving shed, and also a proposed 
extension of the former. Both spinning and weaving 
departments were previously driven by steam engines. 
The mill absorbed about 1000 horse power (indicated) by 
a pair of horizontal compound tandem engines. The shed 
absorbed about 250 i.h.p. from a M'Naughted beam 
engine. The plant consists of : 

(1) A Zoelly turbine running at 3,000 r.p.m. connected 
by a flexible coupling to a three-phase, 1,250 k.w. 
alternator of 50 periodicity, with rotating field magnets 
and star-connected stator winding, the exciter being 
carried on a prolongation of the alternator shaft. 

( _ ) A condensing plant, consisting of a surface condenser 
having 2,500 square feet of surface, placed immediately 
below the turbine; a pair of Edward's air pumps 13 
inches diameter by 8 inches stroke actuated by a two- 
throw overhead crank shaft running at 155 r.p.m., and a 
Rees Roturbo circulating pump running at 725 r.p.m. 



312 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

The air and circulating pumps are driven by a 35 h.p. 
three-phase motor, the first through cut steel gearing, 
the second by a prolongation of the motor shaft. 

(3) A switchboard with eleven panels and the necessary 
instruments. 

(4) The following motors with controllers : Four 
210 b.h.p., with wound rotors and slip rings to run at 
485 revs, per minute, with current at 440 volts, each 
having two bearings and a flexible coupling to. couple 
direct to line shafts in the mill ; four similar motors with 
three bearings and rope drums ; three motors of 40 b.h.p. 
to run at 355 revs, per minute and drive shaft by belts ; 
one 75 k.w. transformer to reduce the voltage from 440 
to 105 for lighting. 

(5) All the necessary cabling. 

Two tests were made while the turbine was driving the 
machinery in the mill and shed. Steam was supplied 
from three Lancashire boilers with safety valves loaded to 
160 Ibs. per square inch, supplemented by downtake 
superheaters which raised the temperature of the steam 
to between 500 and 600 Fah. The steam consump- 
tion, taking the mean of the two trials, was 15 '9 Ibs. 
per k.w. hour, or 11-85 Ibs. per e.h.p. delivered to the 
mill circuits. This e.h.p. is equivalent to the b.h.p. 
delivered from the spur wheel or rope fly wheel of a 
steam engine, and not to the i.hp. developed in the 
cylinders. To compare the steam consumpt of the turbo- 
generator and a steam engine it is necessary to know the 
relation between the i.h.p. and the b.h.p. of the latter. 
As regards steam consumption per b.h.p. hour the turbine 
is more economical than any but exceptionally economical 
mill engines, and probably as economical as the best. 
Before the b.h.p. can be utilised, however, it has to be 
transmitted from the switchboard or the driving wheel 
to the line shafts in the mill by cables and motors in the 
one case, and by ropes or gearing, usually ropes, in the 
other, and the losses in these two modes of transmission 
must be considered before an accurate comparison can be 
reached. The tests taken lead to the conclusion that as 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 313 

regards steam, and therefore coal consumption, there is 
little to choose between a turbine with a motor drive 
and an engine with a rope drive for loads of about 1,500 
horse-power. Upkeep, space, and first cost all affect the 
economy of a power plant. With a turbine drive the 
space occupied is much less, and the cost of oil and stores 
is very small, whereas for a 1,500 h.p. engine this item 
may amount to about 150 a year. 

Dundee's activity in electrical work has by no means 
been confined to the city boundaries, and large contracts 
have been secured by local firms all over the country 
in the face of much competition. It may come as a 
surprise to many to know that Blackpool, Ayr, Lancaster, 
Southend, and many other towns owe their electric 
tramway systems to Dundee's enterprise. The largest 
contract of its kind in Scotland was only just recently 
completed by a Dundee firm, viz., at Shieldhall Outfall 
Works, Glasgow. This contract comprised the mechanical 
power, the electrical installation, the oxidizer plant, and 
the workshops' equipment for the whole of the works. 
The mechanical power contract alone included the manu- 
facture, delivery, labour in erection, setting to work, and 
maintenance for a certain period, of the steam boilers, 
mechanical stokers, superheaters, economisers, steam and 
water piping, feed pumps, feed tanks, high-speed triple- 
expansion surface-condensing forced-lubrication engines, 
and direct driven dynamos ; similar engines connected 
direct to centrifugal water pumps, with all necessary 
accessories, platforms, and iron work. The pumping 
plant had to deal with the low - level sewage of 
Glasgow main drainage and raise it through a height of 
26 feet; the other plant being used in connection with 
the supplying of power for the several processes involved 
in the treatment and purification of the sewage, lighting 
purposes, etc. An idea of the capacity of this plant may 
be realised by the fact that it is capable of dealing with 
32,000,000 gallons of sewage per day, and that the length 
of the cabling alone used on the electrical contract 
amounted to 25,000 yards, or about 14 miles. 



314 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Dundee has also secured a large number of water 
turbine installations throughout Scotland, and indeed in 
this respect it may claim to be the headquarters for the 
development of water power in the north. Since the 
advent of the metal-filament lamp, a large number of oil 
engines and dynamos have been installed in mansion 
houses throughout the country. This method of illumina- 
tion has proved its efficiency and convenience as un- 
equalled where supplies from a power station are 
unavailable. 

There is no reason why Dundee should not have a still 
greater future before it in electrical science and industry. 
It will be for the good of its citizens if this interesting 
department of human activity is encouraged and fostered, 
and our young men educated to take their place in the 
electrical field. 



Printing and Publishing in Dundee. 

By David T. Sandeman, P.J.I, (formerly 
of " Glasgow Herald "). 

WITH the long and notable history of the Printing and 
Publishing Trade in Dundee some incidents of great 
interest are associated. When, in the early part of the 
sixteenth century, the printing press was made use of by 
the Provost and other citizens to diffuse the doctrines of 
the Eeformation, measures for the apprehension of the 
printer John Scott by name were taken on the part of 
the Church dignitaries. Scott managed to escape, but his 
prosecution and the troubles that soon after ensued in 
connection with the English invasion led to the temporary 
decline of the art. During the succeeding hundred years 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 315 

very few publications, except religious essays and maps, 
were issued from the press of Dundee. Attempts at 
revival were made in 1703, when the Presbytery offered to 
Mr David James the modest sum of 24s. to enable him to 
" sett up the art," and again in 1750 when Messrs Henry 
Galbraith & Coy. established an office entirely unaided. 
The latter effort was to some extent successful, while the 
former proved a comparative failure an early commentary 
on the more modern endeavours to subsidise industries. 

FIRST FRUITS OF THE ART. 

The earliest books of any distinction were printed and 
published by the Galbraith firm towards the end of the 
eighteenth century. They included, it is significant to 
notice, Ostervald's Bible in folio, and another volume of 
similar size containing the theological works of Isaac 
Ambrose. The Bible embraced " numerous engravings and 
notes taken from the most eminent commentators." Both 
works, now extremely rare, are characterised by accuracy, 
clearness, and equality in depth of colour, testifying to the 
fact that the head of the staff' was a man of culture, high pro- 
fessional skill, and imbued with considerable artistic taste. 
Then followed " A New Edition of the Heroick Actions of 
the Eenown'd Sir William Wallace, General and Governor 
of Scotland," by William Hamilton of Gilbertlield, to 
which is annexed "The Life of Robert Bruce, King of 
Scots," by John Harvey, M.A. All this book is in verse, 
and reveals a high degree of poetical talent. Hamilton, 
who was a descendant of Hamilton of Gilberth'eld, Ayr- 
shire, formed a close intimacy with Allan Ramsay, who 
informs him in one of the " Seven Familiar Epistles " that 
he is indebted to certain of his lyrics for poetic inspiration 
and stimulus. Burns, in his " Epistle to William Simpson," 
names Ramsay, Gilbertfield (Hamilton), and Ferguson as 
those in whose company he would desire " to speel the 
braes of fame." The Galbraiths seem, like many of their 
later successors in the publishing line in Dundee and 
elsewhere, to have migrated to Edinburgh, as subsequent 
volumes with their imprint appear to have been published 



316 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

in the Capital. The list of other early books published in 
Dundee by the Messrs Chalmers and Messrs Colville is too 
extensive for quotation here, but it may. be mentioned that 
full particulars are contained in a Manuscript which has 
been compiled with commendable care by Mr T. Y. Miller, 
one of the Registrars of the City and who for many years 
was connected with the " Dundee Courier." That document 
is now in the safe custody of Dr. Millar, the City Librarian, 
and must be highly useful for reference purposes. 

EARLIEST DUNDEE DIRECTORIES. 

To the enterprise of the firms of Colville and Chalmers 
is due the earliest efforts to supply the City with Directories. 
In 1783 the Messrs Colville issued the "Dundee Register 
of Merchants and Trades," a little volume of some 70 pages. 
This was the first Directory. The intention was to issue 
it annually, but the scheme fell through from lack of 
support, and not till 1809 did the Colvilles venture on a 
publication of the same kind. Another severe hiatus 
occurred, and it was 1818 before the third Directory 
appeared from the same firm. Another publication, 
" Dundee Delineated," appeared from the Colville press 
in 1822. But no further attempt in a similar direction 
was made until 1829, when the publication of a Directory 
fell into the hands of Mr James Chalmers, the Dundee 
bookseller, to whom the country is indebted for the first 
suggestion of the adhesive postage stamp, now so familiar 
and generally useful. Mr Chalmers continued to publish 
other Directories on his own account until 1845, the year 
when the issue of a Directory was taken over by the 
staff of the Post Office. It was printed for several years 
by various firms. In 1864 the printing was undertaken 
by Messrs J. P. Mathew & Co.; with them it has con- 
tinued up to the present time. 

BIRTH AND PROGRESS OF NEWSPAPERS. 
To the firm of Messrs Henry G-albraith & Coy. the City 
owes its first newspaper. This was brought out in 1755 
under the title of "The Dundee Weekly Intelligencer," but 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 317 

notwithstanding the laudable efforts thus made to " con- 
trihute to the enlightenment of the people," the paper had 
a small circulation, and as the sinews of journalistic war- 
fare in the shape of advertisements were only of a meagre 
nature, the paper did not live long. A more successful 
attempt at newspaper literature took place in the first 
year of the nineteenth century, the " Dundee Advertiser " 
being first issued on the 16th January 1801. This was 
followed by the " Dundee Courier" in September 1816, by 
the "Dundee Warder" in February 1841, by the "Weekly 
News " in May 1855, by the "Dundee Times" (one of the 
first of penny papers) in 1855, by the "People's Journal" in 
1858, by the " Evening News " in 1876, by the " Evening 
Telegraph" in 1877, by the "Evening Post" in 1900, and 
by several other kindred publications, which will be re- 
ferred to in due course. 

THE " DUNDEE ADVERTISER " AND JOHN LENG 
& Co., LTD. 

As already stated, the natal day of this newspaper was 
January 16th, 1801. It bore the title of " Dundee Weekly 
Advertiser and Angus-shire Intelligencer." The sheet was 
a puny one of four pages, with four short columns in 
each page, while the price ran to sixpence. Its owner was 
Dr. James Stewart, an ardent Eadical reformer, his object 
being to " establish a newspaper in which the Liberal 
sentiments of the people could be freely expressed." At 
first the " Advertiser " was printed by the Messrs Colville 
and other private firms ; but, in 1805, when Dr. Stewart 
sold the paper to Messrs Saunders, Writers, the latter 
fitted up an office of their own in Peter's Court, Seagate, 
where the printing was carried on for a few years. In 
1808 a removal was made to New Inn Entry, the site of 
the premises being now occupied by the warehouses of 
Messrs James Keiller & Sons. Another change took place 
in 1838 to an old tenement in Argyle Close, Overgate, and 
there, amidst many disadvantages, the work of producing 
the gradually increasing newspaper was conducted for 



318 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

upwards of twenty years. By 1859, however, new pre- 
mises became a necessity, and a site being obtained in 
Bank Street, there was erected on it a comparatively 
small office, which formed the nucleus of the present 
palatial buildings. 

The changes in the titles, size, and price of the paper 
have been as numerous as those connected with the offices. 
Beginning with the somewhat imposing title already 
mentioned, this was altered within a year to the " Dundee 
and Perth Weekly Advertiser." Then " Cupar," the county 
town of Fife, was introduced ; then " Angus-shire " again 
took a place; and so the changes were rung until 1861, 
when, as a penny daily, the "Dundee Advertiser " took the 
name by which it has ever since been called. The price 
was raised in 1812 from the original one of sixpence to 
sixpence- half penny. By 1815, owing to an increase of the 
Stamp Duty, the price went up to sevenpence. With the 
fall of the Stamp Duty in 1836, the cost of the paper went 
down to fourpence-halfpenny, only to be raised again in 
1843 by one halfpenny. But the abolition of the Stamp 
and of the Paper Duty enabled the proprietors in 1861 to 
follow the example set all over the country by bringing 
out the " Dundee Advertiser " as a daily at the price of 
one penny. In the course of these various alterations of 
price the size of the paper has sprung up from four to ten 
or twelve pages, with seven or eight long columns in each. 
It is claimed by the proprietors that the "Advertiser " has 
consistently advocated an advanced and robust Liberalism. 

Many distinguished journalists have since 1801 filled 
the editorial chair. The first was the Eev. James Eoger, 
to whom " those in peril on the sea " are mainly indebted 
for the erection of the great beacon on the Forfarshire 
coast known as the Bell Kock Lighthouse. Next came 
Mr James Saunders, who took a prominent part in dis- 
putes between Dundee Town Council and Guildry, being 
instrumental in obtaining the adoption of a new " sett " of 
the municipal Constitution. He was succeeded by Mr 
Eobert Stephen Kintoul, afterwards so conspicuously 
associated with " The Spectator." As an enthusiastic 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 319 

advocate of the Reform Bill, Mr Rintoul invented the well- 
known phrase, " The Bill, the whole Bill, and nothing but 
the Bill." Mr James Galletley, who followed, is chiefly 
remembered by his action on the Reform Bill defeat of 
bringing out the " Advertiser " with broad black mourning 
borders. The succeeding editors were Mr Peter Brown, 
Mr Francis W. Baxter, and Mr Lake Gloag. Next came 
the chief under whom the paper attained its greatest 
prosperity Sir John Leng. Under his editorship, which 
lasted fully half-a-century, the " Advertiser " developed in 
a very remarkable manner. The change to a daily took 
place, the new premises were erected, other publications, in- 
cluding the " People's Journal," with separate editions for 
Forfarshire and neighbouring counties, and the ' People's 
Friend " were added, and lithographic and other depart- 
ments started by the firm. In the later years of his life, 
when Parliamentary duties absorbed so much of his time, 
Sir John devolved many of his journalistic tasks on 
younger men. Sir Carlaw Martin became editor, and on 
his appointment as Director of the Art Museum in Edin- 
burgh, the chair was taken by the present editor Mr 
Alexander Urquhart. 

Reference has been made to the "People's Journal" and 
to the " People's Friend," but these, along with the 
" Advertiser," by no means exhaust the publications which 
issue from the office of John Leng & Co. They have a 
joint interest in the publication of the "Evening Tele- 
graph," bring out "My Weekly," and handbooks which 
form a People's Library of upwards of a hundred works. 
Their machinery and printing appliances of all kinds are 
thoroughly up-to-date, and have enabled them to publish 
many books of note, including " Dundee : its Ancient and 
Historic Buildings," by the late Mr A. C. Lamb ; and 
" Roll of Eminent Burgesses of Dundee 1513-1886," by 
Dr. Millar. 

THE "DUNDEE COURIER" AND D. C. THOMSON & Co., LTD. 

The career of the " Dundee Courier " is quite as varied 

and interesting as that of the " Dundee Advertiser." 



320 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Friday, September 20th, 1816, was the date of its first 
publication. Started as the organ of the Conservative 
party, and with the long title of "Dundee Weekly Courier 
and Forfarshire Agricultural and Commercial Advertiser," 
it was only a small sheet, though its price ran up to no 
less than sevenpence a copy. The title was, after a year, 
curtailed to that of " Dundee Courier," but before long 
other alterations took place until amalgamation first with 
the "Argus " and secondly with the ''Warder." Ultimately 
the title of "Dundee Courier and Argus" was permanently 
adopted. Side by side with these changes the price of the 
paper ranged from sevenpence to fourpence-half penny, 
and to a penny the publication being then three times a 
week. This price was maintained when the paper became 
a daily in 1861, but in 1866 its present price of one half- 
penny was decided upon, the " Dundee Courier " thus 
being the first and oldest halfpenny morning paper in 
Great Britain. 

The " Courier " has also had many proprietors, many 
editors, and many printing offices. First of all it was 
issued from premises of an old and undesirable kind in a 
narrow entry called Key's Close, leading from the Nether- 
gate to Fish Street, a locality which has been entirely 
remodelled by the construction of Whitehall Street. 
Eemovals took place to Eeform Street, to New Inn 
Entry, to Lindsay Street, and afterwards to the present 
sumptuous buildings in Albert Square. Messrs Colville & 
Son appear to have been the earliest proprietors and 
printers of the " Courier," but its prosperity and useful- 
ness as a public organ may be said to date from 1823, 
when the proprietorship was acquired by Mr David Hill, 
formerly connected with the " Montrose Chronicle." Mr 
Hill proved to be a journalist of great ability and enter- 
prise. He at once assumed the editorship which had 
before been in the capable hands of Dr. George Buist and 
Mr Samuel Horsley, continuing to carry it on till joined 
in 1849 by Mr Charles Alexander, whose long and honour- 
able connection with the " Courier " as editor and pro- 
prietor is still remembered with much admiration. It was 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 321 

during his time that the amalgamations already referred 
to occurred, one of the most important of them being the 
absorption of the "Warder," a paper which originated during 
the time of religious agitation preceding the Disruption of 
1843, and which was carried on with so much vigour by- 
Mr Kobert Park under the motto, "Righteousness exalteth 
a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people." Mr Park 
also brought out in 1855 the " Dundee Weekly News," 
but on the amalgamation with Mr Alexander's firm, who 
owned the " Dundee Weekly Telegraph,'' the title was 
changed to the " Weekly News and Telegraph." 

Mr William Thomson, who had for a quarter-of-a- 
century been giving financial support, first to Messrs Park, 
Sinclair & Co., publishers and proprietors of the " Daily 
Argus " and " Weekly News," and after the absorption 
of that firm by Messrs Charles Alexander & Co. to 
the latter firm, became in 1886 sole proprietor of the 
" Courier " business, and along with members of his 
, family carried it to a height of great prosperity, add- 
ing to the papers already referred to the "Weekly 
Welcome" in 1896, the "Red "Letter" in 1899, the 
" Saturday Post " in 1904, and the " Red Rose Magazine " 
in 1908. Another paper, the ' Evening Post," was also 
produced, and this was amalgamated in 1905 with the 
" Evening Telegraph," under the title of the " Evening 
Telegraph and Post," now the only evening paper issued 
in Dundee. To supply all these publications with pictures 
and the other up-to-date requirements of modern news- 
papers, the firm now known as D. C. Thomson & Co., 
Ltd. made large additions to their plant of all descrip- 
tions. They have also established a printing office in 
Glasgow, where some of their various papers and other 
publications are printed and published. Also they are 
now erecting a large printing office in Manchester to 
produce the English circulation of their publications. 
Some idea of the development of the firm may be gained 
from the fact that, whilst their total weekly output a 
quarter-of-a-century ago was under one hundred thousand 
copies, it is now over two millions. Amongst the books 

u 



322 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

printed by them is a catalogue of over 800 pages of the 
Central Lending Library of Dundee. 

Eegarding the editors of the " Dundee Courier," allusion 
has already been made to Dr. Buist, Mr Horsley, Mr Hill, 
and Mr Alexander, but several other prominent local men 
of literary ability including Dr. Barty of Bendochy, Mr 
William Thorns, and Mr William Hay contributed at 
one time or another to its leading columns. The present 
editor is Mr John Mitchell, J.P., a journalist of such 
distinguished position that he was last year elected as 
President of the Institute, and in that capacity conducted 
most successfully in Dundee the annual Conference of the 
Institute, which was attended by from four to five hundred 
delegates belonging not only to all parts of the United 
Kingdom, but also to our colonies. 

DUNDEE PERIODICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Besides the newspapers and other periodicals already 
enumerated, many more have come and gone. A list of 
nearly two hundred of these was compiled by the late Mr 
A. C. Lamb, the earliest being the " Dundee Magazine : or 
a History of the Present Times of 1775." A writer in 
"Scottish Notes and Queries" professed to have discovered 
that another magazine was published in Dundee as far 
back as 1757, but the name of the printer was not dis- 
closed, and as the publication contained no local news, the 
inference seems to be that the magazine might have been 
produced in London or elsewhere, and that the name of 
the town was filled in for as many copies as some local 
bookseller thought he could dispose of. Several of the 
periodicals were of a religious nature, such as " Civic 
Sermons to the People," issued in 1792; "The Christian 
Eeporter," 1829; "The John Knox," 1840; "The Mes- 
senger of the Churches," 1860 ; " The Dundee Pulpit and 
Eeligious Record," 1872; "The Soul Winner," 1884; and 
" Pray and Trust," 1891. Journals of wit and humour 
also find a place in the list. The earliest was " The Piper 
o' Dundee," which came into existence in 1875, and only 
survived after four monthly copies had been published. 
It was revived in 1886, under the editorship of Mr George 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 323 

Scrymgeour, who still writes every day in the " Evening 
Telegraph " under the nom de plume of " Here and There." 
This paper, taking its title from an old Dundee official 
whose duty was to warn the inhabitants to keep within 
doors at night and to rouse them in the morning, lived for 
a good number of years, its portrait gallery proving a 
popular feature. The oldest journal of this kind still to 
the fore is " The Wizard of the North," the originator, 
proprietor, and editor being Mr James Kussell, familiarly 
known as "The Doctor." Besides cartoons, comical sketches, 
and art and dramatic notices, the paper contains an attrac- 
tive column on "What the folks are saying in Dundee." 

GENERAL PRINTERS IN DUNDEE. 

Besides John Leng & Co. and D. C. Thomson & Co. in 
connection with the " Advertiser " and " Courier " offices, 
there are about twenty firms of printers in Dundee. Gone 
now are the Galbraiths, Colvilles, and Chalmers's of early 
days. Gone, too, is Mr James Duff, who was for long the 
oldest printer not only in Dundee, but in Scotland, and 
whose name and fame must always be honourably associated 
with the industry. But the places of these worthies are 
well occupied by such firms as J. P. Mathew & Co., 
William Kidd & Sons, Burns & Harris, Valentine & Sons, 
David Winter & Son, Paul & Matthew, John Durham & 
Co., John M'Corquodale, and A. B. Duncan & Co. The 
introduction of the linotype machine has much reduced the 
''inployment of compositors in Dundee as elsewhere, more 
especially in newspaper offices. Still there are about 250 
men and boys employed in the printing trade. The work 
they carry on is of a journalistic and miscellaneous kind, 
but does not include many books of note. All the same, 
Messrs Kidd have to their credit various volumes associated 
with the history of Dundee, whilst Messrs Mathew have 
recently published "Lochee, Past and Present," and Mr 
M'Corquodale is responsible for a memorial volume of 
good merit " George Dutch Davidson " ; while Messrs 
Winter are responsible for the present Handbook. The 
publications of the Thomsons and Lengs have already 
been alluded to. 



324 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



Preserves, Confectionery, and Biscuit 
Manufacture. 

By Bailie William Forwell, J.P. 

WHILE Spinning and Weaving constitute the staple trade 
of our City, there are other industries of very great im- 
portance, not the least of which are those forming the 
subject of the present short paper. 

PRESERVES. Over a hundred years ago, when the 
standard of living was very much plainer than now, 
preserve manufacturing was started in a very small way 
in Dundee. Since then the trade has advanced with great 
rapidity. Marmalade, which forms the backbone of this 
business locally, was first introduced in 1797 as an article 
of diet. It proved a most welcome addition to table 
dainties, and to such magnitude has the trade grown that 
the very name is as intimately linked with the City as 
that of jute. Dundee marmalades are extensively dis- 
tributed, and along with other preserves which have 
constantly been added to the choice offered the public, 
they occupy a leading place in the esteem of those calling 
for such dainties. To give some idea of the immense 
business done in Marmalade it might be mentioned that 
the annual output of one firm alone would fill a sufficient 
number of one pound pots packed closely together to reach 
from Dundee to London, or if the pots were put one upon 
the other they would make a column a yard in thickness 
and over 25,000 feet high. The leading firm engaged in 
the industry is that of Messrs James Keiller & Sons, 
Ltd., which not only has large works in the City, but the 
necessities of whose business call for a large London 
factory at Silvertown, as well as another in Germany 
the latter brought into existence to get over tariff 
walls. Other firms doing a large business of this kind 
are Lindsay & Low Ltd., Ogilvie & Co.. and Dundee & 
Arbroath Preserve Manufacturing Co. Large preserve 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 325 

manufacturies dealing with local fruit strawberries, rasp- 
berries, etc. also exist in the i^ear neighbourhood, at 
Coupar Angus, Newtyle, and Blairgowrie where the berries 
are grown. 

CONFECTIONERY has during recent years also formed a 
not unimportant branch of Dundee's trade since it was 
first introduced some 20 years ago. Dundee chocolates 
and sweetmeats are nearly as popular throughout the 
United Kingdom as marmalade, as evidence of which it 
might be mentioned that one of the local firms was 
entrusted with a special order for the King and Queen 
while on their recent trip to India on s.s. " Medina." The 
principal firms engaged in this industry are Messrs 
Keiller, Lindsay & Low, and James Couttie & Sons. 

The local trade in confectionery, chocolate, and preserves 
is put at not less than 600,000 annually, and employ- 
ment is found in the several branches for over a thousand 
workers. 

BISCUIT Manufacture was not a Dundee industry prior 
to 1870, up to which time the City was almost entirely 
dependent upon Glasgow, Edinburgh, and other centres 
for its supply of machine-made fancy biscuits. At this 
time, however, the first biscuit factory north of the Forth 
was founded here, and, curiously enough, by a Free Church 
minister (Rev. Wm. Forwell) who had been engaged in the 
industry in his early pre-college days in Glasgow. His 
venture was most successful. A fairly extensive business is 
now carried on by three firms Messrs A. G. Kidd & Sons, 
Ltd., Lindsay & Low Ltd., and James Couttie & Sons. 
These firms turn out goods which in variety, quality, and 
finish equal any in the country, their volume of business 
approximating over 60,000 annually, and their works 
employing a large number of men and women. 

Locally the baking trade assumes very considerable 
dimensions, but apart from firms which specialise in 
seasonable delicacies such as Scotch shortbread, cakes, 
and gingerbread this is not so different from that 
obtaining in other Scotch cities as to justify detailed 
reference. 



326 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Fishing, Trawling, and Whaling. 

By Ex-Bailie William High, J.P. 

THE Port of Dundee is pleasantly situated on the north 
bank of the Tay, about 8 miles from its mouth ; it is the 
third seaport in Scotland, and one of the safest and most 
convenient harbours in the country. 

From mediaeval times it has been a fishing centre, and 
in modern days, because of its convenience for shipment 
by rail and water, it is surprising that it has not taken a 
larger place as a centre of distribution. 

Prior to 1902, eupplies were landed at Craig Harbour, 
near to the Tay Ferries, but at this date, after considerable 
controversy, the whole of the trade was transferred to the 
new Market and Dock built by the Harbour Trust at 
Carolina Port. Since then the development has not been 
so satisfactory as had been hoped. The trade at first did 
not take kindly to the change, and it is only recently that 
a better feeling has prevailed. 

The Dock itself is yet incomplete. When finished, it 
will have 2,700 lineal feet of quay space, 6,700 yards of 
depot, and 8 acres of water area. There is also a large 
extent of vacant ground in the neighbourhood available for 
occupation, on moderate terms, as stores, curing yards, etc. 
Eailway sidings connect the Dock with both Caledonian 
and North British systems. A hydraulic coaling hoist, at 
which vessels of all sizes and draughts can be expeditiously 
dealt with, adjoins the Dock on the east, while in close 
proximity to the west are the premises of the Ice and Cold 
Storage Co., where 25 tons of ice are manufactured daily. 
There is also ample dry dock accommodation available for 
repairs. 

During the past year trawlers and liners landed a total 
of 84,947 boxes of fish and 2,780 score of cod, equal in all 
to 3,800 tons. This was supplemented by an additional 
200 tons of fresh and 320 tons of cured fish by rail, 
making a total supply for the year of 4,320 tons. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 327 

It is a matter of regret that Dundee does not at present 
get a share of the East Coast herring fishing in June, July, 
and August. The old method of herring fishing by sailing 
boats has passed away, and the steam and motor drifter 
are steadily taking their place. The natural result will 
be that herring fishing must, to a large extent, be confined 
to those ports having a sufficient depth of water to admit 
drifters at all states of the tide. 

On the east coast, harbours of this description are not 
numerous; indeed, between Aberdeen and Shields, Dundee 
Harbour is the only one with this qualification, and there 
therefore seems no good reason why this should not 
become an important centre for the summer fishing. 
The facilities available are second to none in Great 
Britain. At the period mentioned, the Eastern Wharf is 
practically idle. It is nearly a mile long, and adjoining it 
are sheds having a total floor space of about 8 acres. 
These are all concreted, and in every respect well adapted 
for the handling of herring in an economical and expeditious 
manner, and in all sorts of weather. Salt, boxes, and 
barrels could all be landed at the point required, and the 
herrings could be shipped from the wharf, or placed on 
rail at the sheds, without any cost in cartage. A fleet of 
drifters would be required to start, but, if these were 
introduced, Dundee might become, both for buyer and 
seller, one of the most important centres of the summer 
fishing industry. 

Drifters from Aberdeen do not usually fish further 
south than the Bell Rock, and those from Lowestoft and 
Yarmouth seldom further north than Cromer Knoll, the 
result being that between these two points the ground has 
never been properly covered. 

Trawling has never become a large industry at the Port, 
although the conveniences are such as could enable it to 
be successfully prosecuted. To secure the attendance of 
the larger buyers, upon whom the financial success of the 
fishing principally depends, it would be necessary to have 
dependable supplies in large quantity, and this would only 
be possible were a large fleet introduced from 40 to 50 



328 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

trawlers for a start. So far, Dundee capital has not seen 
fit to embark upon this trade on a large scale in which 
way only could the trade be developed. 

In Seal and Whale fishing, Dundee has long occupied a 
pre-eminent position, but of late years, owing to the 
uncertain nature of the results from the point of view of 
profits, the industry has been much restricted. 

The oils obtained in this Arctic fishing were at one time 
much in demand for lighting purposes, but with the 
introduction and extended use of new and improved 
illuminants first coal-gas and later electricity and the 
enormous development in the use of mineral oils for this 
and related purposes, the demand was much lessened. 
To prepare the jute fibre for manufacturing purposes, 
however, it has to be subjected to the action of fish oils, 
and this provides one of the main markets for the products 
of the whale fishings. 

While in 1867 there were engaged in the prosecution of 
the seal and whale fishery 12 auxiliary screw steamers, all 
full rigged, and, with their equipment absorbing a capital 
estimated at about 200,000, these have been reduced to 
a total of 8 in all, three of which are small. The ships 
are all wooden, strongly built and fortified, both inside 
and out, to withstand the ice pressure to which they are 
likely to be subjected. 

The success of the whale fishing during recent years, 
owing to the scarcity of whales in the region hitherto 
visited Davis Straits caused, it is believed, by their 
resorting for safety to more inaccessible waters, has been 
so limited as greatly to discourage the venture, and 
during the current season only two ships have gone forth 
to try their fortune. The present fleet consists of the 
Active, Balaena, Diana, Arthur William (ketch), Morning, 
Queen Bess, Scotia, and St. Hilda. 

Dundee has not, so far, entered into competition with 
Norwegian capital in the prosecution of whale fishing in 
the Shetlands or South Africa, this industry being of an 
entirely different type from that carried on from the port, 
and with a smaller arid less valuable species of fish. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 329 

It is doubtful whether the industry, indeed, will ever 
recover its former prosperous condition. The grip which 
it took on the mind of the nation, because of its associa- 
tion with adventure and romance, was always greater than 
its relative commercial importance ; the world's confines 
are so steadily shrinking, because of modern scientific 
advance, that it cannot now secure the same hold on the 
mind of youth as was formerly the case. 






Banking in Relation to Local Conditions. 

By W. G. Leggat, Agent, Bank of Scotland. 

ALL the Scottish banks are represented in Dundee. With 
the principal offices in the centre, and numerous branch 
offices conveniently situated throughout the city , liberal pro- 
vision exists for the banking requirements of the community. 

As the title indicates, it does not come within the scope 
and purpose of this short article to treat of the history 
and system of Scottish banking. Enough to say that the 
conspicuous success which has attended the business of 
Scottish banking in the past is the best tribute to the 
soundness of the principles which have guided its opera- 
tions. Combined with the character, perseverance, business 
qualities, and enterprise of its people it may be justly 
claimed that to its banking system Scotland is indebted 
for the great development of its natural resources and the 
expansion of its trade and industry. Dundee has shared 
in that expansion largely on account of its connection with 
the jute trade. Between sixty and seventy years ago this 
industry was little beyond the experimental stage. While, 
!"! -Imps, the expectations created by its rapid development 
in the early years have not been realised, still, it has 
become a large and important industry, and forms the 
staple trade of the city. The mills and factories in the 
United Kingdom outside Dundee and district are com- 
paratively few in number. 

It is difficult to form an estimate of the aggregate 
amount of capital invested in the local trade as repre- 



330 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

sented by buildings, plant, machinery, general equipment, 
stocks raw and manufactured, but it is believed that the 
capital so invested will amount to fully 10,000,000. In 
the course of a season as many as sixty steamers will 
arrive in the port with jute cargoes from Calcutta and 
Chittagong. There are between fifty and sixty works 
engaged in spinning and weaving, employing, it is esti- 
mated, 33,000 to 35,000 hands. The money value of raw 
material imported annually for consumption by the local 
mills, calculated on the market prices which have ruled 
within recent years, will not be far short of 4,000,000. 

A trade of such volume cannot be successfully conducted 
without extensive financial operations. This leads us to 
speak of the useful part which the banking institutions of 
the city play in the matter of finance. Let us employ an 
illustrative example. The capital account of a spinner or 
manufacturer may run into substantial figures. A large 
proportion of it will necessarily be represented by build- 
ings, machinery, and plant, and the balance will probably 
consist of stocks of raw material, manufactured goods, and 
trading debts due to the firm. The assets, other than the 
block or property account, we speak of for the purposes 
of accounting as liquid assets, but for trading purposes a 
certain proportion of these, probably the major proportion, 
will necessarily be more or less of the nature of fixed 
capital, which remains circulating in the business. In 
such a manufactory there may exist machinery capacity 
for dealing in the course of a single season with raw 
material costing on the aggregate twice the amount or 
more of capital employed in the business. In ordinary 
circumstances the manufacturer will not buy all his jute 
at once, but if he is to trade successfully he must be 
placed in a position so to act if the market conditions are 
favourable. The value of the free assets employed in his 
business, plus, it may be, accumulated means invested 
outside, in conjunction with character and business 
capacity, will justify his banker in providing the neces- 
sary credit, or temporary additional working capital 
required to undertake these commitments, and thus 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 331 

enable him to finance his trading operations with ease. 
A successful year's trading to the spinner or manufacturer 
depends largely upon the way in which he buys his jute 
that is to say, the average level of prices at which he is 
able to secure his supplies. Within recent years specu- 
lation has entered in a greater degree than ever before, 
both at home and abroad, into the markets for raw 
material. Much foiesight, experience, and often not a 
little good fortune are therefore required to carry through 
these operations successfully. Current prices, along with 
individual circumstances relative to stocks on hand and 
contracts for delivery of the manufactured article, will be 
the guiding factors in determining how and when to buy. 
Under certain conditions the manufacturer may find it 
more advantageous to buy a proportion of his jute on spot, 
but the bulk of it is bought through local brokers for 
shipment on draft or "cash on arrival" terms. With the 
exception of the primary transaction in which the baler 
settles with the Bengal native growers in rupee money, 
the jute is paid for by-Bills of Exchange, usually drawn 
at three months' sight by the shippers. In quite a number 
of cases these bills are drawn direct upon the buyers for 
payment against delivery of the accompanying bills of 
lading, invoices, and marine insurance policies. But as 
a general rule, the bills, with relative shipping documents, 
are drawn upon the London office of the Scottish bank 
with which the manufacturer or merchant keeps his local 
account, the documents being deliverable on acceptance 
of the draft. These bills are converted into cash on the 
other side by being sold, at the ruling rate of exchange, to 
one or other of the Indian banks, who forward them with 
the shipping documents to their offices or correspondents 
in London. On arrival of each mail the drafts are pre- 
sented for acceptance to the London offices of the Scottish 
banks. The local banks are advised without delay of the 
arrival of the drafts, and immediately take instructions 
from their respective customers as to acceptance or pay- 
ment under rebate. If the customer has unemployed 
funds he may secure a fair return on his money by electing 



332 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

to pay a number of the drafts under rebate. Except in 
the case of drafts for account of merchants doing a " cash 
on arrival " business, the London offices are instructed to 
accept the bulk of the drafts, or in other words, engage 
to pay them at maturity. The holders of the draft, on 
obtaining the bank's acceptance or payment under rebate, 
surrender the shipping documents, which are then for- 
warded to the local offices of the banks, where they are 
held pending the arrival of the steamers. By arrangement 
with his banker the customer may get up the documents 
so that he may operate delivery and store the jute, or pass 
on the documents to his buyer for cash. In many cases 
the jute is stored in independent warehouses in name 
of the banks, as security to them for present or future 
advances. Transactions of the nature described run into 
huge figures in the course of a season. 

It will thus be seen what an important and indispens- 
able function the local banks fulfil, not only in the smooth 
conduct of the multifarious transactions themselves, but 
also by interposing their name or credit for account of 
their numerous customers, and providing them with the 
temporary liquid capital required until the raw material 
has been manufactured and sold. Not only do the local 
banks play an important part in the financial operations 
by which the jute supply is bought and paid for, but they 
are also a valuable medium by which payment is effected 
of manufactured goods sold locally through merchants or 
brokers. The settlement, which is practically on a cash 
basis, takes place weekly on Tuesdays. The principal 
settlement is on the first Tuesday of each month. An 
approximate computation of the money value of cheques 
passed through the banks for the purpose of settlement 

(1) on the ordinary weekly adjustment of accounts, and 

(2) on the principal settlement on the first Tuesday of 
each month, may be put at 100,000 and 170,000 
respectively. Aggregating these figures for the year at, 
say, 6,000,000, we get an idea of the extent and im- 
portance of the staple industry of the city, and of the 
vital necessity of its healthy maintenance and prudent 
expansion in order that the numerous other local trades 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 333 

depending upon it may be vigorously and profitably 
conducted. 

The flax trade of Dundee and district is also an impor- 
tant, although not an expanding industry. In the city it 
is in few but strong hands. The drafts against shipments 
from Kussia are drawn, as a rule, upon the buyers direct, 
the connection of the banks being confined more or less to- 
the retiral of the drafts when due. 

In regard to other trades or professions in the city, 
there is nothing in the dealings of the banks with them 
distinguishable from the practices and customs in vogue 
in other parts of the country. 

In concluding this paper we would revert to what was. 
said in the opening sentences as to the part the Scottish 
banks have played in fostering and developing the trade 
of the country generally. The secret of their success in 
that direction has been the deposit system, which is in 
effect the foundation of their business. By means of their 
network of brandies throughout the country, they gather 
up the savings of the people and the temporary un- 
employed balances of those engaged in business, and by 
prudent lending make these available for trade. Within 
the past two or three decades many fresh fields for 
investment have opened up, and in consequence the 
Scottish banks, who in earlier times might be said to- 
have been almost the sole custodiers of the people's 
savings, have had to face considerable competition for 
deposit money. In this respect Dundee has been na 
exception to other large centres. On the contrary, its- 
progressive Municipality, its ably managed Trust Com- 
panies, and vigorous Saving Bank have attracted much 
of the money which formerly found its way into the 
hands of the banks. Still, these institutions continue to 
get a liberal share of the increasing wealth of the city and 
district, and it may be confidently expected that in the 
future as in the past, the Scottish banks will continue to 
use with prudence the funds entrusted to them in build- 
ing up and extending that great system of credit upon 
which the success of commercial and industrial enterprise 
depends. 



334 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Marine Insurance. 

By R. Kinnison and D. S. Nicoll. 

THE origin of this branch of insurance is lost in obscurity, 
but it is believed to have existed some 700 years B.C., during 
the period of Rhodian prosperity, as at that time there were 
extensive commercial dealings between Italy and Mediter- 
ranean ports, and the Ehodian laws, which were generally 
respected by Levant merchants, are supposed to have 
applied in a great measure to marine matters. 

So far as the United Kingdom is concerned, the first 
record we have of a Court of Control was the Act of 
Parliament of 1601. We have no documentary evidence 
before us to prove when the first transaction in marine 
insurance took place in Dundee, but we know that in the 
development of commercial interests during the last seventy 
years, the city has been afforded every facility in trade 
requirements so far as marine insurance is concerned. 

At one time the contract of marine insurance was a 
subsidiary consideration in trade contracts, but nowadays 
it is very often the item which decides whether some 
venture will be entered into or not. 

Dundee merchants have now every facility for carrying 
through sale contracts with their buyers abroad, from the 
fact that stamped policies for attaching to shipping docu- 
ments can be obtained within half-an-hour of receipt of 
instructions, and if the terms of sale contracts provide for 
cash in exchange for documents, payment can be made by 
bankers on date of issue. It can easily be understood, 
therefore, that Dundee enjoys full benefits, as the majority 
of leading marine insurance companies are represented by 
agents, who riot only hold power of attorney to issue 
policies, but are also authorised to examine and settle 
claims. On the other hand, if consignees abroad prefer 
claims to be paid at destination, this can also be. arranged 
at the foreign agencies, thus enabling merchants to get 
clear of any further responsibilities or worry relating to 
" c.i.f." contracts after the goods have been shipped. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 335 



Life, Fire, and Accident Insurance. 

By Councillor R. M. Noble. 

DUNDEE is also well served in life, tire, and accident 
insurance, every British company of importance having 
established branches in the city. With the exception of 
the year 1906, when the great " whisky fire " took place, 
involving a loss of 450,000, Dundee has been remarkably 
immune from disastrous fires. This is in a great measure 
due to the efficient Fire Brigade, with its modern and 
up-to-date equipment, and the splendid water supply, both 
undertakings being owned by the City Corporation. This 
has in a great measure tended to the lowering of rates, 
and many of the more hazardous risks are fitted with very 
efficient sprinkler installations. 

SICKNESS, INVALIDITY, AND UNEMPLOYMENT. 

The new conditions arising from the great legislative 
measure just at the lime of writing coming into operation 
is of special interest in the case of Dundee. Owing to the 
enormous preponderance of female labour (not hitherto, in 
the case of two-thirds of its number, associated with any 
union or friendly society), special preparation is necessary 
with a view to the evolution of machinery for carrying 
through the work, as well as in educating those whom it 
is intended to benefit to the requirements of the measure. 
It is now believed, that while the Insurance Act throws 
a not inconsiderable tax on such a low paid textile industry 
as that of jute, the greater efficiency of the workers, 
arising from the benefits conferred, will assist in increasing 
production, and thus reducing the burden. Whether this 
will be so or not, time will tell. Meantime a door of 
hope is undoubtedly opened to many overburdened by the 
pressure of harsh economic conditions. 



336 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



Distilling and Brewing. 

By John Henderson Stewart. 

"THERE is nothing half so sweet in life as a great big 
thirst ! " So wrote a genial and thirst} 7 soul on an historic 
occasion. From time to time poets in wavering melodies 
have charged the air with praises of Scotland's " Whisky," 
and it has been said that the Scotsman's capacity in the 
consumption of the " wine " of his native country shows 
his strength to its best advantage. Time was when the 
flowing bowl was wooed with a profuseness and regularity 
unknown in our more temperate age. Yet it is calculated 
that at the present time the number of labels issued 
annually on bottles of Scotch whisky, if put end to end, 
would stretch all the way round the world ! 

The seaport of Dundee, by reason of its geographical 
position at the gateway of the Highlands, is particularly 
well suited as a centre for the distribution of the produce 
of the Scottish Highlands to the various markets of the 
world, and an extensive and yearly increasing business is 
being done in the blending and casing of Scotch whisky. 

The art of DISTILLING dates back many centuries before 
the Christian era, probably as far as 2000 B.C., when it 
was practised in China, India, and Egypt, the grain used 
being chiefly rice. Aristotle in his " Meteorology " (lib. II., 
ch. ii.) specially comments upon it. Distilleries in this 
country date from the reign of Henry VIII., Scotch 
whisky being held in great repute by the English in the 
time of the Tudors. Whisky as now known is not of the 
same character as the "usquebaugh" of the 17th and 18th 
centuries, which was a mixture of plain spirit flavoured 
with nutmeg and other spices. 

The three types of whisky namely, Scotch, Irish, and 
American are sharply differentiated from each other. 
The first- named possesses a typical dry, clean flavour. 
Irish whisky is round and sweet. American whisky is 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 337 

mainly made from rye ; it is much higher in flavour and 
heavier than either Scotch or Irish, and because of this, 
and also on account of the method of distillation common 
in the States it requires a longer time to mature. 

Broadly speaking distilling consists in transforming the 
starch in the barley or other grain employed into sugar, 
the saccharine or starchy matter being then converted 
into alcohol. On the class of wood employed in which to 
store whisky in bond until maturity a great deal depends, 
the best results being got from sherry casks which have 
been freshly emptied. 

To what is the world-wide popularity of Scotch whisky 
attributable ? Unquestionably it is due in a great measure 
to the character of the soil in the land of its origin, the 
water used in the process of manufacture absorbing a 
peculiarly soft and peaty aroma as it runs through the 
heather-clad moors in the Highlands. 

Because of Excise restrictions statistics are not available 
as to the quantity or values of the whiskies dealt with in 
Dundee, but the number and magnitude of the firms 
engaged in the industry distilling at various large 
centres in the Highlands, blending, bottling, and casing 
at their free and bonded stores in the city, and shipping 
in enormous quantities to all the large centres of popula- 
tion at home as well as to the colonies and abroad places 
Dundee in the front rank as a distributing centre of the 
trade giving it an equal association with this liquid item 
of modern commerce as that which it possesses with jute 
and marmalade. 

BREWING, although carried on in Dundee, is not an 
industry typical to Scotland, the hops and other cereals 
employed being grown to the best advantage in the fertile 
plains of the South. Beer can boast a remarkable antiquity. 
The ancient Egyptians had a liquor made from grain which 
they called hek ; while 4,000 years ago a temperance cult 
seems to have sprung up in the land of the Pharaohs, and 
an agitation for the suppression of beershops was set on 
foot. Heroditus mentions the " wine made from barley " 
which the Egyptians used. 



338 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Before the introduction of hops into England from 
Flanders in the 16th century, "ale" was the name 
exclusively applied in this country to the fermented 
liquor obtained chiefly from malt, the term " beer " being 
gradually introduced to describe liquor brewed with an 
infusion of hops. This distinction does not apply at the 
present time, except in so far as the term " ale " is not 
applied to black beers such as stout, nor to " lager " beer. 
The term " lager " originated in Germany on account of 
the liquor made there being laid up in a lager or store- 
house. 

The preparation of beer on anything approaching to a 
manufacturing scale appears, until about the 12th or 13th 
century, to have been, in Britain, carried on chiefly in the 
monasteries with very primitive apparatus. The brewers 
of London, it is interesting to recall, combined to form an 
association in the reign of Henry IV., and were granted a 
Charter in 1445, so it is evident that brewing as a special 
industry must have developed with some rapidity. After 
the Reformation the ranks of the trade brewers were 
swelled by numbers of monks from the expropriated 
monasteries. Up to the 18th century the professional 
brewers brewed for the masses the wealthier classes 
preparing their own beer. At this tune, however, it 
became gradually apparent to the latter that they could 
have as good a beer from a brewery, owing to the improved 
methods in operation there. Hence the speedy disappear- 
ance of private brewing. In Dundee there is a considerable 
quantity of beer brewed, but it is almost entirely consumed 
locally, and very little is shipped. Still, a considerable 
number of people are given employment in the industry. 

But, as I have said, it is whisky that may proudly lay 
claim to be Scotland's national beverage, and in the 
meeting of demands for it Dundee takes an outstanding 
place as a centre of. distribution. 



INDUSTKIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFB. 339 

Dundee as a Shopping Centre. 

By Annie S. Maxwell. 

IT is only perhaps after a prolonged sojourn in some 
remote, unpopulated spot, situated " at the back o' 
beyont," that one appreciates shops at their true value. 
We, in Dundee, I am afraid, accept our shopping privileges 
as we accept much else, as a matter of course, rarely 
stopping to consider the amenities which put us, in this 
respect, in line with London and other large centres of 
the world's commerce. 

Thanks to our geographical position, we can receive 
supplies by sea, as well as by rail, so that even a railway 
strike need not leave us in the hungry isolation which 
is the unhappy portion of certain cities. As regards 
merchandise of all kinds, Dundee can hold its own with 
any place in the kingdom. Its prices are not higher than 
those current elsewhere, and, in many instances, they are 
less, while, in proportion to its size, it has as great a 
variety and choice of goods as is to be found outside of 
the Metropolis. 

There is little fear that Dundee housewives will follow 
the example set recently in France, and go on strike 
against the shops. Provisions of all kinds are plentiful 
and good, and they are sold, moreover, at a fair market 
price, nor is there in Dundee one rate for one class and a 
second for another class a detestable custom prevalent, 
not only on the Continent, but in some parts of England 
and Scotland as well. 

We have not yet reached the point of having stores 
which, like the great Whiteley's, or the " Wertheim" in 
Berlin, undertake to provide everything, from the pro- 
verbial needle to an anchor. Dundee is, meanwhile, quite 
content with its excellent butchers, bakers, grocers, 
fishmongers, etc., and when we leave the realm of 
provisions and come to that known technically, I believe, 
as " soft goods," we find a condition of things which makes 
us more than ever satisfied with ourselves and our city. 



340 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Every woman loves shopping most of all shopping of 
what may be called a personal kind. The calm delights 
of purchasing a juicy steak, or a pound of freshly ground 
coffee, pale before the more alluring joys associated with 
the acquisition of a summer gown or a new drawing-room 
carpet. And the big drapery and furnishing establishments 
of Dundee fairly charm the money from the pockets of its 
women-folk. Up-to-date ? Of course they are. How 
could they be other than marked by good style and 
modernity, while the heads of departments, by constant 
visits to London and the Continent, keep themselves and 
their customers in touch with all that is best and newest. 
Whatever may once have been, the reproach of being 
" old-fashioned " can no longer be used against Dundee. 
I don't say that we just fling ourselves at the head of a 
new fashion. One might not, for instance, the day after 
Bond Street has decreed in favour of crinolines, see half-a- 
dozen of these garments in the Nethergate; but let 
Dundee approve a mode, and it will not hesitate to adopt 
it. ' Canny " we may be, but we do not lag behind. 

To return, however, to the drapery stores. Little 
wonder that shopping is such a pleasure to us in Dundee. 
For one thing there is the note of personal interest 
necessarily absent in cities of a larger growth. The shop- 
keepers and assistants know their customers, or most of 
them, know their tastes and wishes and study to con- 
sider and suit them. No high-handed, indifferent methods 
here, but pleasant ready service, indicative of a real desire 
to help and accommodate the purchaser. 

Such is the key-note all through such stores. Enter- 
prising and progressive they are to a degree, and, following 
on the lines of American stores, they provide for the 
convenience of their customers, luncheon and tea-rooms, 
rest and dressing-rooms, reading and writing-rooms, tele- 
phone service, post-box, safety elevators, accommodation 
counter everything, in fact, that can make shopping 
pleasant, easy, and attractive. 

That bi-annual London attraction, " The Sales," has. of 
course, its counterpart in Dundee, as it must have 
wherever womenkind abound. You remember the story 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 341 

of the ship-wrecked company cast on a desert island, and 
how one day, after months of danger and privation, the 
cry arose : " A sail ! a sail ! " As one woman the feminine 
passengers rushed to the spot whence the cry came. 
Great and deep was their disappointment when they 
found that it was only a ship approaching to their rescue, 
and not a sale of the kind so dear to the heart of woman. 

An explanation given lately of the mania for sales was 
that a " bargain " is, perhaps, the nearest approach which 
men and woman can feel, in this harsh business-world, to 
the delightful sensation of getting something for nothing. 
It is human nature to revel in that sensation, and as 
David Harum says " There's as much human natur' in 
some folk as there is in others if not more." So Dundee 
has its sales and enjoys them, and the sales, in their turn, 
are a success when conducted on the fair honest lines 
which alone ensure this. 

Shopping hours are much the same in Dundee as they 
are in other large cities. The Wednesday half-holiday 
has become very general, although certain firms still prefer 
to close early on Saturday. The afternoon hours are, as a 
rule, the busiest, and the wise woman will, in preference, 
do her shopping in the early morning when she gets such 
time and attention as is impossible for assistants to bestow 
in the rush and bustle that comes later. 

An easy and luxurious method of conducting one's 
shopping now-a-days is by telephone. All the leading 
shops in the city are on the telephone, and some of the 
larger establishments have an arrangement whereby a 
customer can be switched on to any special department 
with which she wishes to deal. 

Shopping by post is another institution of modern 
times, and one which contains great possibilities for 
development in Dundee and elsewhere. By this means 
hundreds and hundreds of people living beyond the reach 
of shops can have the same advantages which city-dwellers 
enjoy. From the daily advertisements in the newspapers, 
or by means of the catalogues issued now-a-days in such 
profusion, they learn of the goods which the shops have 
to offer. In regard to drapery goods, most of the Dundee 



342 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

stores follow the lead of London, and send parcels " on 
approbation" a system which is much appreciated by 
customers, and only sometimes, for their credit be it said, 
taken undue advantage of. One regrets to have to admit 
even a " sometimes," but, unfortunately, it exists, and it is 
impossible to condemn too highly the un scrupulousness 
and dishonesty of women who will wear for a special 
occasion a hat or a garment sent on approval, and then 
return it on the plea that it " doesn't suit." 

One feature of the mail-order trade suggests itself as 
worthy of development and that is the specialising of a 
certain article, so that it comes in time to be identified 
with the name either of the maker or of the place of its 
manufacture. For instance, one inevitably associates 
Nottingham with lace and Sheffield with cutlery, and, to 
quote an illustration specially apposite to this subject, it 
is significant that in France marmalade is known almost 
everywhere as "le Dundee." So much for the way in 
which the reputation of our city is " preserved " abroad ; 
better still, from the point of view of individual profit, 
when the name of the seller is identified with the product 
he wishes to put upon the market. " You English have a 
queer language," said a Frenchman once to a friend of 
mine. " I cannot understand it at all. Here you have a 
word that you spell ' m-u-s-t-a-r-d.' And how do you 
pronounce it ? Colman ! " 

Such is the name a big firm has been able to build up 
for itself ; but what it has done, another, in a smaller way, 
can do also. It is not necessary for this to run a large 
and expensive establishment. There are men, and women 
too, who are doing a splendid business by selling some 
special article, and who do it all from one small shop, or, 
in some cases, without a shop at all. 

Specialise, specialise, specialise that is the first thing, 
and the next is to make your specialty known to the 
public. Which brings us to a far-reaching and very 
wide aspect of business life, wider far than can be dealt with 
here. Commercial interests and how to advance them 
that is a big subject, and, as the ready Rudyard puts it, 
another story from mine. 



INDUSTKIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 343 

Trades Organisations. 

By Robert Stirton, J.P., Ex-President Dundee 
Trades Council. 

TKADES organisations have been an important factor in the 
development of Dundee from a remote period. As early 
as the beginning of the 16th century we find the crafts- 
men associated in corporations for mutual benefit. Then, 
generally speaking, a man was both master and workman ; 
he could not become the former unless he was a competent 
workman who had served a regular apprenticeship and 
was of good character. 

In virtue of the burghal rights which they held as free- 
men, they were associated in the government of the town 
and became identified with its interests. The number of 
trades so associated would not then exceed twenty. To-da-y 
they number about fifty, composed exclusively of workmen 
and workwomen. The masters need no longer to be per- 
sonally proficient at the trade in which they are engaged. 
The modern trades union is a product of last century, and 
many of the older ones commenced as local unions, each 
seeking to improve its own position without much regard 
to the welfare, or even the rights, of kindred associations. 
This style of fighting by companies has now largely been 
departed from; with one or two exceptions, unions are 
national or international in their character and scope, 
keeping in close touch with their fellow-workers in other 
centres. Many of them are in a high state of efficiency, 
and besides close attention given to their own immediate 
trade interests, most of them are affiliated with, and send 
delegates to, the Dundee and District Trades and Labour 
Council, which was formed over twenty-five years ago, 
its avowed objects being that it stands for the advance- 
ment and protection of the rights of labour and the 
wellbeing of the working classes generally. It closely 
follows all proceedings in our Local Boards and Law 
Courts, and endeavours to secure labour representation 
in Parliament and on Local Boards, and co-operates with 
similar associations throughout the country. 



344 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

This organisation has been singularly successful in 
serving the ends for which it was instituted, it has formed 
an ever-ready vehicle for conveying and expressing the 
essence of working-class opinion on matters of public 
importance affecting the general interests of the com- 
munity, and is ever ready to bear a hand in all forward 
movements industrial, social, civic, and political. 

First in alphabetical order of the unions forming the 
battalions of the labour army come the Bakers, organised 
to a man, numbering about 500, as a branch of the National 
Federal Union of Bakers and Confectioners. This trade, 
the proper conduct of which is of vital importance to the 
community, has been so systematised both as to conditions 
and wages, that perfect smoothness in working, satisfactory 
to the men, the masters, and the public is the result. The 
Blacksmiths, one of the most fundamental trades of any 
civilised community, are also a national society fully 
organised, having a membership of nearly two hundred. 
There are two branches of Boilermakers, capably and 
efficiently organised. 

The Amalgamated Society of Engineers has five branches 
in the city, with a membership on the roll of over 900. 
As a society it has had an existence in the town for over 
sixty years, and has several members who have been on 
the roll for over fifty years. The mottoes under which it 
advances are Maintenance of Eights, Performance of 
Duties, and Eealisation of Aspirations. Nobly and 
successfully does it endeavour to carry out all three. 
The scale of benefits is generous and well arranged, com- 
prising almost every contingency in a workman's life, and 
though the contributions are a somewhat heavy item of 
expenditure every fortnight, the necessity tends to the 
formation of methodical habits, which are of immense 
importance and of great value to the individual member, 
and he performs his part, confident from his experience in 
the past that every obligation which his society has taken 
on will be fulfilled. 

The Carpenters and Joiners form a strong and effective 
working union. A lately effected amalgamation of the 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 345 

two societies known as the Carpenters and Joiners 
(Associated) and the Joiners (Amalgamated) now form 
one society, with three branches and an aggregate 
membership of 500. 

Ironmoulders are one of the oldest trades unions in the 
country, having been in existence for over a hundred 
years, and are as successfully organised as their lengthened 
experience would lead one to expect. 

The Painters are a live body of men who have to fight 
against very adverse circumstances, but by dint of hard 
and effective work succeed in maintaining a good position 
in the labour world. 

The United Patternmakers Association Dundee Branch 
was opened thirty-eight years ago, and has a present 
membership of 110, and its benefits are trade, sick and 
funeral, superannuation, tool insurance, and accident 
benefit. 

Operative Plasterers have a membership of about 75, 
and are very zealous and enthusiastic members of their 
union. 

The Plumbers are the pioneers of the eight hour 
movement in the city. They have a membership of 
about 220, comprising every competent plumber in the 
city. Their standing and position in the labour com- 
munity is an object lesson in the value of thorough 
organisation on the part of both workmen and employers. 

In addition to all those societies already mentioned 
there are many others, such as the Postmen's Federation, 
the Typographical Society, which embraces every working 
member of the craft, Shipwrights, Shop Assistants, Rail- 
waymen, Tramwaymen, etc. ; all of which societies, in 
addition to the trade benefits catered for, carry on success- 
ful friendly society work, much the same in scope and 
efficiency as do the Engineers. 

In addition to those specialised trades which are national 
or international in their scope, there are the Bleachfield 
Workers, Calender Workers, Jute and Flax Workers, and 
Mill and Factory Operatives' Union, mainly local. The 
Calender Workers have now close on a thousand members. 



346 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

Their working conditions hitherto have left not a little to 
be desired, but by diligent organisation and persistent 
effort they have quietly set themselves to the task of the 
improvement of their position as workers. 

The Mill and Factory Operatives' Union and the Jute 
and Flax Workers' Union look after the interests of the 
general factory worker, but unfortunately have hitherto 
been unable to reach more than half of those employed. 
The work of organising is exceedingly difficult, owing to 
the diversity of conditions of employment and rates of pay 
obtaining amongst the different grades of workers, the lack 
of discipline, and the tendency to hasty and irresponsible 
action by the unorganised section of them, and the grudg- 
ing and ill-disguised aversion of the employers to recognise 
the representatives of the unions. 

This condition of things is likely soon to change for the 
better forced by the logic of circumstances and recent 
events. The necessity for organisation representing the 
interests of the workers as against the influences which 
tend to keep them down to the economic level of a bare 
subsistence is being more and more generally recognised. 
There is a Time Spirit abroad, working in and through 
most trade organisations, which seeks not merely to secure 
advantages for their own particular branch of industry, 
but which takes cognisance of the claims of others, and 
realises that the condition of the lowest and meanest paid 
worker is the concern of all, and the real standard and 
measure of our civilisation. 

This feeling of solidarity is likely to become more 
intense as time goes on, and, if wisely guided, is more 
likely to lead to the use of political means of securing and 
retaining desired conditions than the more costly weapon 
of the strike. The objects which the workers have set 
their hearts on are increased leisure, giving greater oppor- 
tunity for culture, and the leading of a freer, fuller life. 
And in their trade organisations they think they possess 
the best and speediest means of attaining their desires. 
In trusting them they are trusting themselves, for the 
unions are just what the members choose to make them. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 347 

May their work be so successful that when next the 
British Association visits Dundee there will be no need for 
special lectures to working men, as the working man in 
that hoped for day of fuller opportunities will be able 
to attend and to appreciate the ordinary work of the 
Association. 



Dundee as a Centre of Investment. 

By C. H. Marshall, S.S.C. 

MODERN investment of capital is principally of two kinds : 
one, the use which a man makes of capital in carrying on 
and developing of industries, by himself or under his 
supervision, and from which he himself derives the whole 
net return ; the other, the investment made by individuals 
in shares or debentures of, or by way of loan to, limited 
companies, which are either trading or investment associa- 
tions, in the actual administration of which the great 
majority of the investors have no active part. In many 
cities of the United Kingdom the largest of manufactories 
have been transformed into joint stock companies, the 
stock of which is held by investors in many cases scattered 
all over the kingdom and abroad. Dundee is an exception ; 
almost the whole of the capital engaged in its chief in- 
dustries of flax and jute spinning and weaving being held 
privately. Few outside investors are interested in these 
trades. Possibly, the speculative nature of the industries 
arising from the violent fluctuation in the price of raw 
material, with consequent varying financial results, does 
not offer a sufficently steady income-producing investment 
to invite outside capital. Whatever the reason, Dundee 
mills and factories are practically all privately owned. 



348 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

As a rule, the industries of a locality are affected to a 
large extent by the economic conditions existing around 
it. The proximity of raw material and the natural advan- 
tages of situation often account for the class of industries 
which develop to the greatest extent in a locality, and 
which offer investment for capital. From its geographical 
position, it is surprising that capital in Dundee has not 
been largely invested in shipbuilding and engineering. 
For the employment of capital in these industries the city 
has advantages; the principal being a broad river, and 
proximity to vast coalfields in the neighbouring county of 
Fife. The city is removed, no doubt, from the iron and 
steel centre, but these natural advantages, with the lower 
rates of wages ruling, compensate largely for this draw- 
back. The investment of capital in this direction in 
Dundee, notwithstanding these natural advantages, does 
not exist to the extent one would anticipate, though the 
Tay has a long and honourable history in shipbuilding, 
and many fine vessels are built on its shores. Still, this 
industry is limited, the city not having hitherto taken 
advantage of its natural resources as a shipbuilding centre. 
Investors have apparently looked more to the disadvan- 
tages than the natural advantages. Dundee investors 
have in this respect differed from those of Glasgow, the 
centre of shipbuilding in Scotland, which, with only the 
natural advantage of proximity to the coal and iron area, 
has the great disadvantage of being situated on a narrow 
and comparatively shallow river. Yet the genius and 
enterprise of the west have overcome these obstacles and 
permitted of the largest ships in the world being built 
and navigated upon the Clyde. 

Capital in Dundee is principally invested in textile 
manufactures. The city can be associated authoritatively 
with the textile trade for centuries. Hector Boece or 
Boethius, the historian (born about 1465), a native of the 
town, in his " History and Cronikles of Scotland," says, 
" Dundee, the town quhair we wer born ; quhair mony 
virtewus and lauborius pepill ar in, making of claith." 
The industry of spinning, commenced no doubt by thrifty 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 349 

housewives on spinning wheels, was gradually taken up by 
the male population. The hand-loom, in process of time, 
gave place to steam driven machinery, which greatly 
widened the field for textile manufacture. The marketing 
of textile fabrics being already largely centred in Dundee, 
it was natural, when machinery opened a wide field for 
manufacturers, that they should extend their investments 
with the expansion of trade in the industry which the 
inhabitants of the city were acquainted with, and which 
for long had provided employment in the city. The 
manufacture of flax was, until the decline of sailing 
ships, the staple industry, although for a time the 
manufacture of cotton goods and sewing threads was intro- 
duced. These latter flourished for a little and then decayed. 
About 1830 it was ascertained that Indian jute fibre 
could be cheaply treated and made into yarn and cloth on 
machinery adapted from that already in use in the flax 
industry. A growing demand for jute v manufactures 
naturally brought with it continued increase of invest- 
ment of capital in the textile trade. Many uses were 
found for the products of the fibre and the jute manu- 
factures of Dundee found markets in every country in the 
world. Investment in jute industries in Dundee has for 
some years been seriously checked by mills having been 
erected in Calcutta. There, on account of the raw material 
being at hand, and a plentiful supply of cheap labour being 
available, large quantities of jute goods are manufactured 
on favourable terms, consequently Calcutta has become 
the great centre of manufacture. India has, however, 
provided a profitable outlet for British surplus capital. 
In Calcutta there are about forty companies which run 
altogether about 35,000 looms. Only three of these 
companies (but these 'amongst the largest) have been 
financed from Dundee. The nominal amount of the 
shares, debentures, and temporary loans of these three 
companies in February 1912 was, as will be seen from the 
appended statement, 1,394,844, and the market price of 
their ordinary shares showed at that date an appreciation 
of, approximately, an average over the three of 27 per cent^ 



350 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

In addition to the employment of capital in the staple 
industry, and in financial enterprise, there are very con- 
siderable sums invested in other industries in Dundee; 
for example, in the manufacture of marmalade, jams, and 
-confections, brewing, whisky blending, whaling, shipping, 
and trawling. A linoleum work, built a few years ago, is 
likely now to add to the successful enterprises of the 
community. 

The Post Office Savings Department, as also the Dundee 
Savings Bank, with its deposits of 2,335,878. 13s. lOd., 
fall, of necessity, to be mentioned as they help in the 
daily financial life of the community and nation by 
means of their purchase of Government stocks and other 
investments. 

The total Land Valuation of the city for 1911-1912 
(including 55,602 of railways) was 978,323 10s. Od. 

The direction of the investment of capital in local in- 
dustries has been dealt with generally. So far as regards 
the staple industry, it is impossible to particularise by means 
of figures, although it is believed that the total amount 
invested approximates to something like 10,000,000. 
Many of the largest and what are believed to be the most 
successful concerns engaged in the staple trade are, as has 
been stated, either private partnerships or private limited 
companies which do not issue balance sheets, access to 
which would be essential in order to discuss the financial 
result of employment of capital in local industries. This 
impediment, however, does not exist in the case of those 
investment companies which have their headquarters in 
the city, and figures regarding them, and the reasons 
which have led to their inception, it is believed, will be 
of interest. The success of these companies is worth 
attention, and the people of Dundee have reason to be 
proud of the investment companies which were conceived 
by the foresight and the business capacity of some of their 
leading citizens. 

It is somewhat difficult to give, apart from funds 
handled by local investment companies, reliable statistics 
as to the amount of Dundee money invested abroad. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 351 

Competent authorities estimate this amount in the neigh- 
bourhood of seventeen millions sterling, but this is believed 
to be conservative, some placing it as high as thirty 
millions ; and when it is remembered that the total 
British loans invested abroad are estimated to amount to 
over three thousand eight hundred millions, the estimate 
of local foreign investments seems well founded. The 
following information as to locally managed companies 
may be not uninteresting to the general reader. 

The investment companies which have their head- 
quarters at Dundee are : 

The First, Second, and Third Scottish American Trust 

Companies, incorporated in 1879 ; 
The Western & Hawaiian Investment Co., incorporated 

in 1883 ; 

The Alliance Trust Co., Ltd., incorporated in 1888 ; 
The Northern American Trust Co., incorporated in 

1896 ; and 

The British Canadian Trust Co., incorporated in 1910. 
The total capital, consisting of shares, stocks, deben- 
tures, and loans, invested in these companies, at par, 
amounts to 7,161,437. The market value of the invest- 
ments in these companies in February 1912 amounted to 
9,521,592, an appreciation on the par value of no less 
than 2,360,155. From the appended statement it will 
be observed that the appreciation has, in almost every 
case, taken place in ordinary stock. This is no cause for 
surprise, considering the dividends which have been paid 
upon the ordinary shares of the companies. During the 
past five years the average dividend on the ordinary shares 
of the Alliance Trust Co., Ltd., has been 13 per cent ; the 
Northern American Trust Co., 11 per cent. ; and the First, 
Second, and Third Scottish American Trust Companies 
fully 8| per cent., 8 J per cent., and 7| per cent, respectively. 
In comparatively recent years cautious investors as- 
sociated a high rate of interest with a corresponding 
risk of capital. A study of modern economic conditions 
has removed this suspicion; and in forming these com- 
panies as a means of investment of surplus British capital, 



352 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

their founders anticipated the change of opinion in the 
investing public, and kept themselves in line with the 
times, thereby demonstrating their foresight. 

A brief survey of the alteration in economic conditions, 
so far as regards the investment of capital in foreign 
enterprises, may not be out of place in an article of this 
kind. The development of railways, of iron and steel 
manufactures, of electricity, and the innumerable in- 
dustries to which iron, steel, and electricity have given 
birth, are all of comparatively recent date. Means of 
transport also, and particularly means of communication, 
have been improved to such a degree that New York is 
now as near to London, through the laying of the Atlantic 
cable, as London was formerly to Dundee. To cross the 
Atlantic is now a matter of days. To pass to the place of 
investment, and to secure by ocular demonstration that 
the land, railway, tramway, or electric work, for which 
British capital is asked, is in existence, can be accom- 
plished in the period which was formerly devoted to a 
holiday at home, but which now provides in the same 
period more interesting recreation combined with business. 
The electric cable provides, by the assistance of accredited 
agents, the means of ascertaining the development of work 
abroad and the probable prospect of gain. Then, a sense 
of security has been established by the meeting of the 
obligations of the borrower to the creditor. The oppor- 
tunity of investing surplus capital at a high rate of 
interest, combined with security of the investment, has 
naturally attracted capital to the American Continent, 
and in North America it is believed the principal invest- 
ments of the Dundee companies have been made. Surplus 
capital will always be attracted in the direction of the 
highest rate of interest, combined with security, for no 
one will employ capital at a low rate of interest, if, with 
equal security, a high rate can be obtained. The highest 
interest will always be obtained in a young country which 
is engaged in the development of commercial enterprises. 
The North American Continent (the United States in the 
lesser, and Canada in the greater degree) are both young 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 353 

countries. A country like our own which has for long 
year's been developed and enjoyed commercial prosperity 
does not offer the same opportunities for the profitable 
investment of capital which a naturally rich country in 
the course of development will give. In a country like 
ours, increase of capital makes its employment at a high 
rate of interest difficult. Competition in the various 
industries the country is engaged in naturally limits the 
profits of capital in home industries. Again, abundance 
of capital restricts borrowing. Extension of the number 
of borrowers is productive of increase of interest. Con- 
firmation of this is seen in its simplest form by a perusal 
of the Bank of England weekly statement. If there is an 
excessive purchase of gold i.e., excessive borrowing by 
foreign states the bank rate is increased. A new 
country in the course of development may be rich in 
natural resources, but weak in the supply of the precious 
metal. It must materialise its natural wealth into gold. 
But the gold must be borrowed, and borrowed upon the 
interest which the country can afford to pay, and at which 
lenders will lend. If a high rate of profits is being made 
from the product of its natural resources, the country can 
afford to and will pay a high rate of interest for the 
money it must borrow for the exploitation of these 
resources. 

The North American Continent has been for years past, 
and will no doubt, for many years to come, be engaged in 
the development of its natural resources, for which it will 
require to borrow at a high rate of interest. 

Although the companies dealing in American invest- 
ments which have been mentioned in this article have all 
had unqualified success, this has not always been the 
experience of Dundee investors in America. An unfor- 
tunate Oregoniau Kailway is called to memory with 
regret, while Land and Cattle Companies have met with 
varying degrees of success. Those cattle companies still 
in existence are gradually bringing their operations to a close. 

In conclusion, the hope is expressed that the investment 
of capital in the staple industry of Dundee will for long 

w 



354 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



be continued on a profitable basis ; that the city will not 
continue to depend so much as it has done upon one 
industry; that the enterprise of its citizens which has 
been demonstrated in the employment of capital abroad 
in enterprises embarked on there, will be more centred in 
the future in endeavours to exploit new and important 
industries in the city, which will add to the employment, 
the welfare, and the happiness of the people of Dundee, 
and raise it to a higher level as an industrial centre. 

Statement showing Nominal and Market V allies. 

February 1912. 

(a) DUNDEE INVESTMENT COMPANIES. 



1. FIRST SCOTTISH AMERICAN 

TRUST Co., LTD. 
Ordinary Stock 
4% Debenture Stock ... 
Temporary Loans 

2. SECOND SCOTTISH AMERI- 

CAN TRUST Co., LTD. 
Ordinary Stock 
4% Debenture Stock ... 
Temporary Loans 

3. THIRD SCOTTISH AMERICAN 

TRUST Co., LTD. 
Ordinary Stock 
4% Debenture Stock ... 
Temporary Loans 

4. WESTERN & HAWAIIAN IN- 

VESTMENT Co., LTD. 
20,000 4J% Pref. Shares, 

4 each 

20,000 Ord. Shares, 1 

each ... 

Debentures and Tem- 
porary Loans 
Note. The Capital of 
this Company is in process 
of being increased and re- 
arranged. 



Nominal 
Value. 



300,000 

250,000 

48,000 



400,000 
350,000 

47,655 



400,000 

350,000 

33,700 



80,000 

20,000 

124,157 



Market 
Value. 



625,500 

250,125 

48,000 



836,000 

348,250 

47,655 



714,500 

347,700 

33,700 



80,700 

59,830 

124,157 



Decrease. Increase. 



325,500 
125 



1,750 



2,300 



436,000 



314,500 



700 
39,830 



Carried forward 



... 2,403,512 3,516,117 4,050 1,116,655 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



355 







oiumai 
Value. 


iTJ.ctIK.UU 

Value, 


Decrease. 


Increase. 




















Brought forward 


2,403,512 


3,516,117 


4,050 


1,116,655 


5. 


THE ALLIANCE TRUST Co., 












LTD. 












4% Cum. Preference 












Stock 


700,000 


721,600 




21,600 




4% Cum. Preference 












Stock 


200,000 


194,700 


5,300 


... 




Ordinary Stock 


300,000 


987,000 




687JOOO 




Debentures and Tem- 












porary Loans 


1,180,905 


1,180,905 






6. 


NORTHERN AMERICAN 












TRUST Co., LTD. 












4% Preference Stock ... 


600,000 


572,000 


28,000 


... 




Ordinary Stock 


400,000 


1,032,000 




632,000 




3% Debenture Stock ... 


750,000 


062,500 


87,500 






Terminable Debentures 


250,000 


250,000 


... 






Temporary Loans 


84,000 


84,000 






7. 


BRITISH CANADIAN TRUST 












Co., LTD. 












20,000 44% Pref. Shares 












of 5 each, fully paid 


100,000 


97,250 


2,750 






20,000 Ord. Shares of 












5 each, fully paid ... 


100,000 


130,500 


... 


30,500 




Debentures and Tem- 












porary Loans 


93,020 


93,020 


... 


... 




TOTAL 


7,161,437 


9,521,592 


127,600 


2,487,755 


(b) DUNDEE-CALCUTTA JUTE COMPANIES. 






N ' 1 


Market 










Value. 


ividrKeL 
Value. 


Decrease. 


Increase. 


l. 


THE SAMNUGGUR JUTB 












FACTORY Co., LTD. 












5,000 5% Cum. Pref. 
















Shares of 10 each ... 


50,000 


49,375 


625 






20,000 Ordinary Shares 












of 10 each 


200,000 


266,000 


... 


66,000 




Debentures and Tem- 












porary Loans 


90,073 


90,073 




... 




Carried forward 


340,073 


405,448 


625 


66,000 



356 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



Brought forward 



Nominal 
Value. 


340,073 



2. TITAGHUR JUTE FACTORY 

Co., LTD. 
15,000 5% Cum. Pref. 

Shares of 10 each . . . 150,000 
30,000 Ordinary Shares 

of 10 each 300,000 

Debentures and Tern - 

porary Loans ... 194,667 

3. THE VICTORIA JUTE Co., 

LTD. 
15,000 5% Pref. Shares, 

10 each 150,000 

20,000 Ordinary Shares, 

10 each .. .. 200,000 
Temporary Loans ... 60,104 



Value! Decrease - ^crease. 





1,875 



405,448 

148,125 
399,000 
194,667 



146,250 3,750 

224,000 
60,104 



625 66,000 



),000 



24,000 



TOTAL 



... 1,394,844 1,577,594 6,250 189,000 



Vl^ ' 



INVESTMENT COMPANIES ... 7,161,437 9,521,592 127,600 2,487,755 

CALCUTTA JUTE COMPANIES 1,394,844 1,577,594 6,250 189,000 



TOTAL 



... 8,556,281 11,099,186 133,850 2,676,755 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 357 

The Progress and Development of the 
Harbour of Dundee. 

By J. Hannay Thompson, M.Sc., M. Inst. C.B., P.R.S.B., 
General Manager and Engineer. 

THE Harbour of Dundee is situated on the north bank 
of the estuary of the River Tay, about ten miles from the 
North Sea, and is controlled by the Trustees of the 
Harbour of Dundee, whose jurisdiction extends from the 
North Sea for a distance of 12 miles from Buddonness to 
the westward to an imaginary line drawn from Inver- 
gowrie to Balmerino. The estuary of the River Tay 
within the jurisdiction of the Dundee Harbour Trustees 
coders an area of 25 square miles. Owing to the 
configuration of the coast, it forms an excellent Harbour, 
being protected from the north-east and south-east gales 
by the Gaa and Abertay Sandbanks at the entrance to the 
river, which form natural breakwaters, and vessels can lie 
at anchor in the roads in perfect safety during the heaviest 
gales from any direction. The depth of water is sufficient 
to allow vessels of any draft to anchor at all states of the 
tide. The width of the navigation channel at the Bar is 
1,600 feet, with a depth of water at high-water ordinary 
spring tides of 40 feet. 

The Port of Dundee has been an important one since 
the fifteenth century, and from authentic records it is 
evident that it was well known for many centuries 
previous to that date. It is one of the very few natural 
Harbours on the east coast of Scotland and England, and 
this fact doubtless led to the establishment of settlements 
near Dundee in the early days, and from remains found 
during the last 100 years at the Stannergate, consisting of 
urns of unburnt clay, stone coffins with human remains, 
etc., this seems to have been the case. Perhaps the most 
valuable of these archaeological finds was the disclosure of 
the large shell bed or "Kitchen Midden," which was exposed 
during excavations carried out between the river and the 
railway in 1878. 



358 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

It can be shewn by records within historic times that 
the locality was regularly used as a Harbour of refuge. 
Wyntoun states that the ships of Malcolm Canmore, when 
that monarch was pursuing Macbeth, entered the Tay to 
support his soldiers about 1040, and although no records 
of commerce exist regarding this period, it is certain that 
a river which was navigable for ships of war would afford 
equal facilities for those engaged in commercial enterprise. 
The earliest charter to the Burgh of Dundee, viz., that 
given by William the Lion in the latter half of the twelfth 
century, and confirmed by Robert the Bruce, granted a 
free Harbour to the Burgesses, thus implying that a 
Harbour had been in existence before his time. 

The first reference in documents to the existence of 
an actual shipping Harbour is found in connection with 
the Abbey of Coupar Angus. Dundee was the port at 
which all merchandise arriving in Scotland for the use of 
the Abbey was received, and on April llth, 1225, 
Alexander II. granted a license for a vessel to the Abbot 
of Coupar : " To export wool and other merchandise to 
Flanders, under the charge of Robert of Pert and Friar 
Gilbert, Faber." Numerous entries in the Exchequer 
Rolls in the 13th century prove that at that time Dundee 
was used as a Harbour of imports. 

Though it is difficult to form an adequate idea of the 
extent of the trade at the port at this early time, the 
accounts of the Customs levied on exports furnish some 
data by which to form an estimate. In the accounts of 
the Customs for the year 1326-1327, the earliest 
documents of the kind extant relating to Dundee, we find 
that there were 18 ships sailing from Dundee, which 
carried 68 lasts, 3 sacks, 9 stones of wool, 4,203 woolfels, 
7 lasts, 19 dacres, and 3 hides. The Customs levied 
amounted to 240. 4s. 8d. Included in the imports for 
this year were various super tunics of grey cloth, and of 
coloured materials, several pieces of dyed fabrics for the 
King's use, and confections and pepper for the Royal 
Household. Payment to Faskyn, merchant of Bruges, 
for various colours imported to Dundee, and purchased 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 359 

for painting the King's Chambers in the Castle of Berwick, 
shews that Dundee was preferred to Berwick as a trading 
port by the merchants on the Continent. 

From this time records can be followed regularly. Thus 
in 1329, 23 ships sailed, the Customs being 267. 4s. 6d. 
in 1331, 28 ships sailed, the Customs being 303. 2s. 8d. 
in 1362, 28 ships sailed, the Customs being 906.13s. 6d. 
in 1372, 11 ships sailed, the Customs being 1050. 14s. Id. 
in 1383, ]2 ships sailed, the Customs being 902. 

In the early part of the fifteenth century, Flemings 
had been settled in different parts of Scotland in small 
colonies to teach the natives the art of weaving, and the 
result was that cloth became an export, and this was, 
doubtless, the commencement of the spinning and weaving 
trades at Dundee. 

It is difficult to say when the first built Harbours 
came into existence, but the reference in Kobert the 
Bruce's Charter of 1329 to a " free Harbour " existing in 
the time of Alexander III. shews that works of some kind 
had been erected in the thirteenth century. In 1447, it 
was proposed that the Harbour should be repaired, and 
James II. gave letters patent, ordaining that money should 
be lifted for the purpose from vessels frequenting the port. 
A charter to that effect, ordering also the enlargement of 
the Harbour, and sanctioning the impost, was granted by 
the King in 1458. This impost was afterwards known 
as " havin' silver," and was levied for centuries. 

A severe storm occurred in the winter of 1600, and 
had damaged the Harbour so seriously that an application 
was made to James VI. for assistance. The King granted 
a letter under the Privy Seal to uplift a " towst " for three 
years from all ships using the Harbour, in order that the 
necessary repairs could be effected. This " towst " was 
renewed in 1607 for five years, and again in 1612 for a 
further period of 19 years. 

An important charter granted in 1641 by Charles I 
confirmed the gifts made by his predecessor and defined 
the powers of the Town Council, as then constituted, with 
reference to loading and unloading ships on both sides of 



360 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

the Tay, and granted a new imposition to enable them to 
erect sufficient buoys and signals to mark the approach to 
the Harbour. No documentary evidence is available as to 
the extent of the Harbour at that period, but if Dr. 
Gumble, the biographer of General Monk, may be credited, 
he says that when Dundee was captured there were 60 
ships of all sizes taken in the Harbour. Assuming this to 
be correct, the shipping accommodation must have been 
extensive. 

In 1658 the Harbour was again seriously injured 
during a violent storm, which, following on the devastation 
committed in 1651 by General Monk and his army, 
reduced the town and impoverished its inhabitants. The 
Town Council in 1675 reconstructed a great portion of 
the Harbour works. Towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, piers and moles were constructed by the celebrated 
engineer, Smeaton, and, trade increasing, a considerable 
revenue was derived from the dues on goods and vessels. 

Up to 1815 the Harbour belonged to the town, and its 
affairs were administered by the Town Council (which 
was, of course, then differently constituted from that 
presently existing), under various Royal Charters, but in 
July of that year an Act of Parliament was obtained, 
placing the Harbour for a period of 21 years in the hands of 
a Commission, who were given powers to levy rates, borrow 
money, and carry out Harbour improvements according to 
plans prepared by the famous engineer, Thomas Telford. 

Prior to the construction of the new works authorised 
by this Act, the Harbour consisted merely of a small 
Tidal Basin, protected from storms by breakwaters, 
probably built of rough rubble stones, and with a landing 
wharf built of wood. 

Behind the north wall covering the ground, now known 
as the Greenmarket, was a Scouring Basin, into the walls 
of which were fitted sluices, and these being opened at 
low tide the enclosed water rushed out, scouring a certain 
amount of sand and silt from the Haven. 

In October 1815 the construction of the new works was 
begun. The Graving Dock was opened on the 24th 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 361 

December 1823, and was one of the finest in the Kingdom 
at that time, capable of receiving the largest vessels. The 
length of the Dock is 250 feet and the width of the 
entrance 39 feet. 

The King William Fourth Dock was opened on the 
24th November 1825. The water area was 6J acres and 
the length of quays 2,515 feet, and it was provided with a 
lockway 160 feet long. 

The cost of these works amounted to about 90,000. 
As a result of the policy initiated by the Act of 1815, the 
prosperity of the Harbour rapidly advanced. The tonnage 
of ships entering the port had increased from 70,000 tons 
in 1815 to 165,000 tons in 1829, while for the same period 
the revenue had grown from 1,700 to 11,000. Prior to 
1815, the greatest quantity of flax and hemp imported in 
one year had been 3,000 tons, while in 1829 about 18,000 
tons were brought into port. Shipbuilding had also 
become a flourishing industry, and slipways were laid 
down on the reclaimed ground east of the new works. 

In 1830 an Act was passed permanently vesting the 
Docks in the " Trustees of the Harbour of Dundee," the 
Harbour Trustees paying to the Town Council the sum of 
27,500 as purchase money for their whole rights in the 
Harbour and Docks. Earl Grey Dock, having an area of 
o acres, was opened in November 1834, and, thereafter, 
the works were gradually extended to the east. The 
Marine Parade, a sea-wall extending eastwards from the 
east roundhead of the West Tidal Harbour, the Patent Slip, 
the East Tidal Harbour (now Camperdown Dock and 
Victoria Dock), a shallow Basin, with rough protection 
walls, were in existence in 1848. 

But as time went on and trade increased it became 
necessary that further facilities should be provided. 

The average draught of the larger vessels frequenting 
the Harbour had, in 1855, increased to from 14A feet to 
17 feet, and, as on a neap tide there was only 14 feet on 
the cill of Earl Grey Dock, they were obliged to load or 
discharge a large part of their cargo in lighters, at great 
additional cost and inconvenience. 



362 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

This fact, together with the commencement of the 
importation of jute from Calcutta, necessitated the further 
extension of the Harbour. The manufacture of flax and 
hemp goods was the principal industry in the city, and 
the introduction of the manufacture of jute very largely 
increased the prosperity both of the city and of the 
Harbour, these trades being then, as now, the staple trades 
of the city, upon which the prosperity of the whole of the 
inhabitants is very largely dependent, there being, how- 
ever, many other thriving industries in the town. 

The Constitution of the Harbour Trust remained 
practically the same from 1815 till 1869, when the 
membership was increased from 21 to 32, the additions 
being representatives from the Chamber of Commerce, 
Shipowners, Harbour Eatepayers, and Municipal Electors. 
By a Consolidation Act, which came into operation in 
August 1911, the Constitution has undergone further 
change. The old basis of representation between the 
trading, shipping, and public interests has been retained, 
but there has been a reduction of the number of repre- 
sentatives formerly given to the Guildry and Trades 
Incorporations, in respect that the functions previously 
exercised by these bodies are now largely discharged by 
others, which have been given increased representation. 
Dundee Harbour Trust is now composed as follows : 
1 representative from the Admiralty, 8 from the Town 
Council, 2 from the Guildry and Trade Incorporations, 4 
from the County Council of Forfar, 6 from the Chamber 
of Commerce, 4 from the Shipowners, 6 from the Harbour 
Eatepayers, and 2 from the Municipal Electors, making a 
total of 33. 

The Harbour property now covers an area of 190 acres, 
the whole of which has been reclaimed from the river, 
with the exception of about five acres, and the length of 
the river frontage owned by the Harbour Trustees is two 
miles. The land upon which the North British and 
Caledonian Eailway Stations are built, and the East 
Station of the Dundee and Arbroath Joint Eailway, the 
Goods Yard Sidings of the North British Eailway, the 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 363 

Esplanade, the greater portion of the Gas Works, and the 
Cattle Market, have all been reclaimed from the river, as 
well as the whole of the land south of Yeaman Shore, 
Exchange Street, and the Seagate. 

There are four closed Docks at Dundee Harbour, and 
three Tidal Docks, of a total water area of about 38 acres. 
There are also two Deep Water Wharves, having a total 
length of 2,800 feet. An interesting feature at the Docks 
is the Koyal Arch, situated between King William and 
Earl Grey Docks, which was erected to commemorate the 
visit of Her Majesty Queen Victoria in 1843. Camper- 
down Dock was opened in 1865, and cost 100,000, and 
Victoria Dock, which, together with the Graving Dock, 
cost 145,000, was opened in 1876. The Deep Water 
Wharves have been built at various times since 1882 as 
the trade of the port rendered this necessary. These 
Wharves were originally constructed of timber, but they 
are gradually being reconstructed in ferro-concrete, and 
about 1,000 feet of the Wharves have now been completed 
in this material. The Docks are used for the coasting and 
Continental trade. The large liners and vessels in the 
East India and other foreign trades, are accommodated 
at the Deep Water Wharves on the river front. These 
Wharves have a length of 2,800 feet and a depth of water 
of 35 feet at bigh water. 

A Fish Dock and Market has been provided for the 
Trawling industiy, with sufficient depth of water for 
vessels to enter at any state of the tide. 

There are two Graving Docks, one 500 feet long, and a 
Slipway for the repair of vessels. The smaller Graving 
Dock, which is 250 feet long, is at present leased to the 
Admiralty for the purpose of repairing the Submarine 
vessels which are now stationed at the port. The Docks 
and Wharves are well provided with shed and warehouse 
accommodation, having a total area of nearly 12 acres, 
and this is being increased as found necessary. 

There are 10 miles of Eailways on the Dock property, 
and the total length of quayage is 3J miles. 

The Docks and Wharves are well provided with 



364 INDUSTKIAL AND COMMEKCIAL LIFE. 

Hydraulic and Steam Appliances for the handling of 
goods, and a large 20-ton Hydraulic Coal Hoist. 

The Harbour Trustees are the Lighting and Buoying 
and Pilotage Authorities for the Port, the river being 
well-equipped with Lighthouses and Automatic Low- 
pressure Acetylene Gas-lighted Buoys, the latter burning 
from 8 to 12 months without renewal. 

Many thriving industries are situated on the Harbour 
property, principal of which are Shipbuilding and Timber 
Yards, Confectionery and Preserve Works, Oil Works, 
Cold Storage, a Tannery, Canvas and Waterproofing 
Works. The Corporation Electric Power Station is also 
situated on Harbour ground. 

Owing to depth of channel on the spacious river, there 
are excellent facilities at Dundee Harbour for building 
ships up to 600 feet in length and over, while vessels up 
to 460 feet long can be launched, engined, and boilered at 
the port. 

The Harbour Trustees own and work the passenger and 
vehicular Ferry service between Dundee and Newport on 
the south side of the river. This service was previously 
controlled by the Justices of the Peace and Commissioners 
of Supply for the Counties of Forfar and Fife under Acts 
of the Scottish Parliament, dated 1617 and 1686. In 1815 
the Ferry was worked by 25 sailing boats, licensed by 
Lord Douglas, who had, by his title, a right to the passage 
of the water of Tay at Dundee, commonly called the 
Ferryboat Duty at Dundee, and who, for this privilege, 
received dues. The Ferries subsequently passed into the 
hands of the Caledonian Eailway Coy., who attempted to 
obtain Parliamentary sanction to work them as part of 
their system. The Harbour Trust successfully opposed 
this in Parliament, afterwards purchasing the rights 
and plant for a slump sum of 20,000. Immediately 
after the Ferries came into the hands of the Trustees they 
set about making improvements, and a policy of regular 
service was introduced and other changes effected, which 
were largely instrumental in Newport and other places on 
the south banks of the river finding favour as residential 
districts. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 365 

The Capital Expenditure on the Dock property has been 
1,270,000, and the present debt is 348,000. 

During the past 36 years the Harbour Debt has been 
reduced by nearly 250,000, notwithstanding the fact 
that the Trustees have spent 490.000 on new works for 
improvements and the remodelling of the Harbour during 
this period, upwards of 250,000 of which has been spent 
within the last 20 years. 

The Annual Kevenue of the Harbour is, approximately, 
80,000, and the Annual Expenditure about 74,000. 

The Kegistered Tonnage of Vessels entering the Harbour 
is about 800,000 tons. 

There are 40 acres of vacant land on the Harbour 
property, having a river frontage and railway connections > 
well situated for shipbuilding and other industrial 
purposes. 

The Trustees are at present considering schemes for 
large extensions of the deep water berthage on the river 
frontage and increased shed accommodation for vessels 
bringing jute from Calcutta. 

During recent years a great change has taken place in 
the size of the vessels engaged in this trade. 

In former years, the importation of jute was spread over 
the whole year, when no difficulty was experienced in 
dealing with it, but, owing to the above-mentioned change 
of circumstances, the whole of the jute arriving at the 
port has now to be dealt with in the course of from five 
to six months. 

Vessels over 500 feet long, and bringing from 8,000 to 
10,000 tons of jute, have arrived at the port, and, owing 
to many of these vessels arriving about the same time 
with such large cargoes, it has been found that, notwith- 
standing the veiy extensive accommodation which exists 
at the Harbour, nevertheless congestion sometimes takes 
place. 



366 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



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INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 367 

Agriculture: Dundee District. 

By James Cameron, Agricultural Editor, 
"Glasgow Herald." 

IN the agricultural sense the Dundee district is usually 
held to have its northern limits along the sunny side of 
the Sidlaws in the counties of Forfar and Perth and its 
southern about Leuchars and Kilmany in Fife. On the 
northern side of the Tay estuary, Inchture is generally 
regarded as the western boundary and Barry or Carnoustie 
as the eastern. In Fife the coastal range may be said to 
extend from Tayport to Balmerino. The areas now re- 
ferred to have Dundee as their main centre for marketing 
purposes. Agriculturally, the Dundee district presents 
very great variations in soil and climate. Geologically, 
the district is mainly a gift from the Lower Old Eed 
Sandstone and Devonian formations, but the breaks in the 
systems and the surface coatings from drifted materials are 
the important matters in the farming sense. 

The volcanic outcrops to the north and north-east of 
Dundee have undoubtedly added greatly to the fertility of 
neighbouring areas. Further to the north-east breaks of 
" rotten " sandstone have given an " eating " character to 
the soil, while adjoining pavement beds are surfacely in 
union with relatively cold till. Sections of a peaty nature 
and poor clay subsoils are found near the Sidlaws. To the 
west of Dundee the red soil of Longforgan is noted for its 
fertility and early harvests, while the upper slopes of that 
district and of Fowlis contains some of the best cropping 
land in Scotland. Again, although the Carse of Gowrie is 
an old lake bottom, the popular non-agricultural belief that 
it is all composed of clay has to be modified. Towards the 
eastern section, sand is more or less mixed with the clay, 
and the most " mortary " parts are where there is a 
commingling of the finer washings from the Old Red Sand- 
stone with the water-borne clay. To the east of Dundee 
the nature of the soil is exceptionally good for general 
farming purposes once there is a departure from the sandy 



368 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

and gravelly coastal fringe. Breaks of whin and trap give 
a blended character to the surface. In parts, as in Pan- 
lathy, the soil is somewhat stiff, but on the whole it may 
be said that there is only a sufficiency of " bone " or firm- 
ness for tillage purposes. 

The section of Fife now classed as in the Dundee district 
presents peculiar inequalities. Sand dunes and beds of 
gravel are in touch with excellent sections of loam, strips 
of clays, and some moss. In the Leuchars district areas of 
the finest farming soil in the county are very near a 
stretch of the poorest moorland. A mere study of the 
ordinary geological map is consequently of little practical 
value to the student who attempts to read the agricultural 
foundations from afar. 

From the mid fifties of the past century down to the 
late seventies the Dundee district, in common with other 
parts of the country, had great agricultural prosperity. 
Prices for all kinds of farm produce were so good that 
when depression began to be felt about 1880 one of the 
shrewdest of agricultural authorities declared that the 
growing of wheat in Scotland at 30s. per quarter was a 
" dream." In the prosperous times beef and mutton were 
from 15 to 25 per cent, higher in price than the average 
of the past ten years, while wages were about 30 per cent, 
lower and hours of labour slightly longer. Regular agri- 
culturists competed keenly for vacant holdings, and a 
proportion of those who had been successful in manu- 
facturing and general mercantile pursuits were to a con- 
siderable extent responsible for raising rents to " sporting 
figures." Many of those who entered farms towards the 
close of the sixties at nineteen years' leases lost consider- 
ably before they acquired their freedom. That was specially 
the case with those who took secondary or worse land. To 
the credit of the majority of proprietors it falls to be said 
that they either offered tenants breaks in contracts or made 
fair reductions in rents while times were on the down- 
grade. By 1890 the great majority of holdings had been 
subjected to readjustment in rents, and by 1895 it could 
be said that practically all farms within the district had 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 369 

been valued in accordance with the altered conditions in 
agriculture. In the case of loamy soils, or " black lands " 
as they are termed in the locality, the average reduction 
was fully 30 per cent., while on clays and soils of an allied 
character the fall in rent was from 40 to 50 per cent. 
the most stubborn clays having a beating down to the 
extent of 50 to 60 per cent. 

Although the first Agricultural Holdings Act and suc- 
ceeding enactments have given tenants increased liberty, 
and in some respects practical freedom in cropping and 
disposal of produce, it cannot be said that the farming 
methods of the past twenty-five or more years have shown 
a violent departure from the use arid wont of the more 
prosperous times. The typical Carse of Gowrie eight 
course, with one section in fallow, four in grain, one in 
beans, one in turnips, and one in hay, is still honoured 
where the conditions are suitable. On loamy soils of the 
best class near the city the majority prefer a seven course 
of cropping, with two years' grass or one year's pasture 
after hay. In that course winter wheat follows late 
potatoes. Some restrict the potato section to a certain 
extent by devoting part of that green crop area to cab- 
bages, tares, and mashley. In this way the risks incidental 
to the growing of such a speculative crop as potatoes are 
reduced, and additional food is secured for the live stock. 
Owners of dairy herds naturally take this line of cropping. 
The "sharp six" rotation of cropping which is still favoured 
to some degree in East Forfarshire is not much practised 
in the Dundee district. In that rotation there are three 
sections of grain, two of green crops, and one of hay. 
Outlying localities with secondary or late soil are usually 
farmed in a five or six course, with one green crop com- 
posed mainly of turnips. The standard straw crop is 
oats, and if the land is fit to carry a good sole of grass for 
three years it is allowed to do so. Live stock are the 
principal concerns on lands so farmed. A proportion of 
natural grasses is now generally sown down on those soils 
with the ryegrasses and clovers ; but as hay is never of 
front rank value on such lands, the best farmers cut only 



370 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

as much of its section as is required for home use. The 
natural grasses help to carry the pasture fairly well 
through the second and third years when ryegrass tends 
to fail. 

The quality of the produce grown on the red soil of 
Longforgan, the upper slopes of that locality, the Fowlis 
quarter, the volcanic section to the north arid east of 
Dundee, and on a very fair proportion of the land to the 
north-east and east is remarkably high. A like note 
applies to a moderate section of the land in North Fife, 
and more particularly to areas in the Leuchars district. 
Hay grown on a section of the Longforgan red soil has 
always taken leading rank in Dundee market, while the 
potatoes from the same soil have often competed very 
closely against the " Dunbars." Owing to the high condi- 
tion in which most of the soil in the Dundee neighbourhood 
is kept, the barley is generally more suitable for distilling 
and porter-making than for the brewing of beer. Oats 
thrash out well as a rule, and reach excellent weight per 
bushel on the firmer soils, while most of them are very 
fair in colour. As for wheat, that taken after fallow in the 
Carse practically always leads, but in some seasons wonder- 
fully good samples are secured on black land after potatoes. 
Turnips and Swedes from the loamy soils of some firmness 
and depth have always a greater feeding value than those 
from the very light, the mossy, and the clayey areas. On 
the clay, however, growth is more prolonged during the 
fall of the year than on any other varieties of soil. As 
cattle-feeding and dairying are such prominent industries 
in the Dundee neighbourhood, and as " turniping " of 
sheep is more or less practised further out, the growing of 
the important root crops has received special attention in 
recent years. The best methods of working the soil, most 
suitable manures, most profitable varieties, most effective 
systems of drilling, singling, and other points have been 
studied in a thoroughgoing manner, and the result is a con- 
siderably greater tonnage per acre than was grown during 
the " good times." Much of the improvement is due to the 
competitions fostered by the Farmers' Clubs. 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 371 

In the days of George, Lord Kinnaird, who was a man of 
advanced ideas in regard to the cultivation of the soil, it 
was thought by the more ardent that steam ploughing and 
grubbing would do much for all fairly level areas of some 
depth and strength ; but partly owing to the difficulty of 
timing operations or of working in perfect season, and 
partly owing to a steady fall in prices, steam power lost 
what it had gained in the fields, and horse haulage was 
more securely established than ever. Traction engines for 
shifting coal, potatoes, manure ,and other bulky materials 
have come fairly into use in the district, however, during 
the last fifteen or more years, and in this way tear and 
wear in horse flesh have been reduced. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of Dundee, but more especially on the 
northern side, a heavy amount of carting still falls to be 
overtaken owing to the local conditions. From twenty- 
five to thirty-five years ago, when the burgh occupied a 
smaller area than it now does, its cow-sheds had generally 
an average of 900 to 1000 milking animals. At the 
present time the city, with its extended area, has from 
1400 to 1500 head of milk cattle. All the stock is kept 
on the non-breeding system. Most of the cows principally 
Irish shorthorn crosses are bought when newly calved, 
and they are kept on a forcing dietary of farm foods, 
distillers' grains, and meals until they pass out to the fat 
market, which usually happens at the end of ten months. 
Many years ago some authorities predicted that urban 
dairying could not last long owing to the steady loss on fat 
cows, increased expenses in rent and labour, and stricter 
sanitary regulations, but the end is not yet. Cropping of 
the land in the vicinity of the city is very largely regulated 
by ilairying on the spot and by cowfeeders' demands. In 
early summer the young grass on the closely cropped 
farms is rouped or sold to the burgh dairymen at so much 
per square pole. Later in the season the East Carse and 
neighbouring areas are drawn upon for green beans and 
mashley ; soft turnips, Swedes, and straw follow, all those 
materials or sample loads being disposed of at so much per 
ton under the auctioneer's hammer. Carting has to be 



372 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 

done by the grower of the crops. This entails a large 
amount of horse work. But the severest strain on horses 
and tackle consists in the carting of manure from the cow- 
sheds to the farms. In practice the city district holder of 
land can never refuse to come to fairly liberal terms with 
his burgh customers. Generally speaking, the manure 
from the cowfeeders' premises is unduly expensive by the 
time it is laid on the fields, but it is necessary to secure it 
in order to preserve the working cgmbination. The 
fertility of the soil has to be upheld in any case by a 
return of manure. Spring labour is of course saved by the 
standard practice of carting the bulky manure to the 
stubble section which is to be prepared for the next 
season's green crops. Frosty weather affords an excellent 
opportunity for such carting, as the manure can then be at 
once piled and spread 'on the fields. 

Although a section of North Fife is closely in touch 
with Dundee in a sense, and finds the large burgh to be all- 
important for disposal of such commodities as fat stock, 
grain, and milk, the estuary forms a practical barrier 
against the close-cropping and produce selling which are 
the working principles on certain areas along the northern 
side of the water. Still, only a moderate proportion of the 
land between Tayport and Balmerino is fit to be subjected 
to the crop-and-sell rule, as strength and depth of soil are 
the exception. Ordinary courses of cropping are therefore 
pursued, and, apart from dairying, the feeding of cattle and 
sheep is most successfully practised. From what has been 
stated in connection with the cropping of farms within a 
short distance of Dundee on the northern side of the 
estuary, it will be understood that summer grazing of 
cattle cannot always fall into the working arrangements. 
But winter feeding takes a fair position, and by this means 
use is made of surplus fodder and roots, while cartages of 
bulky manure from city or railway siding are averted to 
large extent. 

Generally high rents and special courses of cropping for 
local requirements have been against the breeding of high- 
class animals of pure blood, but the older race of agricul- 



INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LIFE. 373 

turists in Dundee district can recall the time when some 
excellent shorthorn cattle were bred by the Arklay family 
at Ethiebeaton. At Naughton in North Fife, Miss Morrison 
Duncan (now Mrs Anstruther Duncan) had an excellent 
Aberdeen- Angus herd, which was dispersed in 1896. The 
herd contained very fine representatives of the Erica, Lady 
Ida, Pride of Aberdeen, Elena, Kuth of Tillyfour, Fyvie 
Flower, and Drumin Lucy families. At the sale Mr 
Andrew Mackenzie repurchased for Dalmore the fifteen 
years' old Maydew of Montbletton, the last heifer calf of 
Lady Ida. and with Maydew he took her heifer calf Make 
Haste. The late Colonel Smith Grant acquired at the 
same time the noted stock bull Edric for 240 guineas. 

At Powrie, near the northern boundary of Dundee, the 
late Mr Thomas Smith owned a large and famous herd of 
Aberdeen-Angus cattle for many years. His Witches of 
En dor, Marys, Kubys, Naomies, and Prides, his Monarch, 
Rover, Wilfred, and Norfolk bulls, were his joy and solace. 
Admirers of black cattle from all parts of the world visited 
Powrie. The herd was sold in the autumn of 1902, shortly 
after Mr Smith's death. For a long term of years Powrie 
had further been noted for its Leicester sheep, but the 
flock was disposed of in 1885. 

Severe carting work is a practical handicap on the 
breeding of draught horses around the city, but a vigorously 
conducted Society for the breeding of superior Clydesdales 
is associated with the Dundee and Carse of Gowrie districts. 
Incidental reference has been made to farmers' organisa- 
tions. The Arbroath Analytical Association and Farmers' 
Club and the Carse and Dundee District Farmers' Club 
have done excellent work during the last quarter-of-a- 
century. They have been of immense service to buyers of 
artificial manures and feeding stuffs ; they have stimulated 
and improved crop-growing ; and they have formed effective 
bases for discussing questions of importance to farmers 
within their bounds. 

Dundee is provided with excellent fat stock markets and 
si; i ughter-houses. Until electric tramways came into force 
its hay market was generally accounted to be the best in 



374 INDUSTRIAL AND COMMEECIAL LIFE. 

Scotland for first-class quality. It was a natural outlet for 
much of the top quality produce from the Carse of Gowrie, 
and it drew supplies from East Fife, the Carse of Stirling, 
and occasionally from Easter Eoss. The market is still a 
very good one, but its overturn is much restricted. Meet- 
ing in the open for disposal of grain has an attraction for 
Dundee district agriculturists, but the recent and present 
stances have been classed as awkward and slightly dangerous 
on account of tramway and general traffic. 




SECTION II. 



.377 



Ecclesiastical Architecture in Dundee. 

By P. H. Thorns, F.R.I.B.A. 

A VIEW of our city from the river or from Fife gives 
evidence that the ecclesiastical necessities of the com- 
munity are amply provided for, although the towers and 
spires of churches are perhaps overshadowed in importance 
by the tall chimneys of the numerous mills and factories. 
On examination we are compelled to admit, however, that 
our Church buildings do not possess the architectural 
interest which may be found in many cities of less 
importance, both in our own land and on the Continent, 

Our sole remaining heritage from mediaeval times is the 
Tower of St. Mary, better known as the " Auld Steeple," 
and in it we have a monument of which any city might be 
proud. It is undoubtedly the boldest and most striking 
tower of its kind in Scotland. It forms an important and 
picturesque feature in any view of the city, and holds 
a cherished place in the heart of every Dundonian at home 
or abroad. We are impressed, in spite of the richness of 
ornament, by its strength, resembling that of the grim 
Keep Towers of the period by its soundness and honesty 
of construction, by its typical Scottishness. The warm 
grey tone of its well-hewn stonework, the broad, 
plain surfaces, the deep reveals of the windows, and the 
simple and massive details of mouldings and tracery, all 
combine to this effect of vigour and boldness. 

The history of the building is most intimately bound up 
with the history of the city, and is of the most intense 
interest. A very brief account is all that lies within the 
scope of this paper. 

The Church of St. Mary was founded in the end of the 
twelfth century, and a Church with Western Tower was 
built and completed, except for the North Transept, by 

2A 



378 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

1350. It must not be supposed, however, that this build- 
ing attained the proportions, or assumed the shape of that 
which later occupied the site. No vestige of this Church 
remains, nor is there any evidence as to its size and 
appearance, with the exception of the lower part of the 
Western Tower. 

It is on record that the Church and Tower were 
destroyed by the English invaders in 1385. Probably a 
ruined portion of the original Tower was left by the invad- 
ing soldiers after they had destroyed the Belfry, and 
carried off the bells. It is quite certain from the 
architectural style, and plainly to be read in the construc- 
tion of the interior, that the lower portion of the Tower is 
a survival from a previous building. 

Before this date 1385 the Church was under the 
care of the Abbey of Lindores, in Fife, and its endow- 
ments were administered by the Abbot and Chapter. No 
attempt seems to have been made to rebuild the Church 
for a considerable time after its demolition by the English 
invaders. Probably there were no funds available for the 
purpose, as the Abbey of Lindores must have suffered by 
the impoverishment following the invasion by the English 
troops, who overran the whole country at this time. We 
can well imagine how the sight of the desolate ruins 
saddened the hearts of the burgesses of Dundee. They 
made repeated applications to Lindores that the buildings 
might be placed in the charge of the Town Council, and 
about fifty years later an agreement was entered into 
granting their application on certain terms. A Kirkmaster 
was appointed in whose charge the buildings and 
accessories were placed. This office still survives, although 
at the present day the duties do not appear to be onerous. 
Funds for rebuilding the ruined Church were collected by 
contributions, by utilising certain fines levied in the 
Burgh Courts, and by other methods. 

First of all, the North Transept, which does not seem to 
have existed previous to the catastrophe, was erected and 
the remaiuder of the Church rebuilt and fitted up. It was 
then one of the largest and most important parish churches 






ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 379 

in Scotland, and there seems to have been a very keen 
interest and pride taken in the work by the burgesses of 
that day. 

About 1480 the Town Council, having completed the 
restoration of the Church, directed its attention to the 
ruined Tower, and resolved to rebuild it on a nobler scale 
than before, but to retain such relics of its predecessor as 
had been left by ' oure auld enernyes of England." The 
Norman style of architecture had, in the meantime, given 
way, through several intermediate stages, to the late Gothic 
or Perpendicular, and the problem confronting those 
builders of four centuries ago to superimpose upon the 
beautiful Norman doorway a building of a different style, 
and yet in complete harmony with it has been, I am sure 
all will agree, most admirably solved. 

The lower portion of the Tower, with the doorway, is 
the only part of date previous to 1480 now remaining to 
us,, and it is to be regretted that Sir G. Gilbert Scott, in 
his restoration of 1872, made such a free translation of 
the details. 

The corbels existing at the level of the capitals of the 
four corner pillars in the interior indicate that the ceiling 
of the original lower storey was much lower than the 
present vaulting. The presumption is, that the object of 
removing this ceiling was to make room for the fine late 
Gothic window in the west wall above the doorway. On 
the capitals of the corner pillars referred to were placed 
clusters of smaller shafts, from which springs the vaulting 
of the loftier roof. 

The last stones on the top of the Tower were probably 
placed in position about 1492, and then the work seems to 
have come to a standstill, probably owing to lack of funds. 
At this period the nation was completely impoverished, 
by reason of the constant wars with England, which 
culminated in the fatal field of Flodden. 

There should be no doubt whatever that the intention 
of the original builders was to finish the Tower by the 
erection of flying buttresses meeting above to form an 
open or "crown " termination, as in the Tower of St. Giles 



380 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

Cathedral, Edinburgh. I have carefully measured and 
drawn out the whole of the upper portion of the Tower, 
and the formation of the angle stones at the top of the 
structure, together with the huge stones in the centre of 
the north and south walls, extending some feet below the 
level of the present Cape House, clearly indicate that their 
function was to serve as bases for the corner- and mid- 
pinnacles for the flying buttresses of the crown. The 
positions of the mid-bases on east and west walls are now 
occupied respectively by a fireplace and an " aumbry " or 
press in the Cape House, and it is natural to presume 
that the base stones were removed in order to provide 
those conveniences. 

Another feature which confirms the theory that a crown 
termination was intended is the very close resemblance, 
almost amounting to identity in form and detail, between 
the upper balustrade of this Tower and that of St. Giles, 
Edinburgh, where similar stones can be seen performing 
the constructional functions for which those in the Old 
Steeple were intended. It is a tradition that the architect 
of the Dundee Tower of St. Mary's and the Tower of St. 
Giles, Edinburgh, was Sir William Bischington of Ardross, 
Fife, and this may account for the similarity. 

However, it seems quite certain that the crown termina- 
tion, though several stones were actually hewn for its 
construction, as will be afterwards shown, was never erected, 
and that the building remained at a standstill until about 
1548. In this year the English, under Admiral Wyndham, 
bombarded Dundee and took possession of the town, 
treating the inhabitants with great cruelty, and setting 
fire to their houses. The Admiral garrisoned the Tower, 
erected cannon thereon, built up the lights of the west 
window, and made it a strong place for controlling and 
keeping in subjection the inhabitants. 

The Cape House, which to this day forms the termina- 
tion of the Tower, was built at this time by (or at least for 
the use and shelter of) the English soldiers, and a careful 
examination of its masonry will reveal the fact that 
several moulded and hewn stones, intended, in all 



ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 381 

probability, for the crown termination, were built into the 
walls, which themselves are much thinner, and much less 
soundly and honestly put together than the walls below. 
In addition, there is to be seen a fragment of a tombstone, 
bearing the initials " K. H.," built into the western wall, 
indicating that the builders of the Cape House took the 
first stones that came to hand for their purpose. 

The Cape House and the fortified west window which the 
English had made were afterwards used for defensive 
purposes, and in 1644, when Montrose made his descent 
upon Dundee, instructions were given to John Milne, the 
King's Master Mason, to build " two roundis" on the top 
of the Staircase Turret, which had previously terminated 
at the top of the storey containing the triple windows. 
The purpose of this was to make access to the top of the 
Tower more direct and continuous. 

Much damage was done to the Tower and Church both 
in 1548 and at this time. Six years later the Tower was 
once more the scene of strife, when the brutal General 
Monck perpetrated the atrocities which have made his 
name execrated in Dundee. 

Four churches had gradually developed from the original 
cruciform structure in connection with the Tower. They 
were called St. Mary's, or the East Church ; St. Paul's, or 
the South Church ; St. John's, or the Cross Church ; and 
St. Clement's, or the West Church. St. Clement's was so 
badly damaged that it had to be entirely rebuilt in 1789. 
Then, in 1841, they were almost totally destroyed by fire, 
and were thereafter rebuilt as three churches, in the form 
in which we have them to-day, St. John's being transferred 
to a new site in Tay Street. 

On the morning of the fire, January 1841, which fell on 
a Sabbath, an uncle of mine, then aged about three weeks, 
was waiting, gorgeously arrayed in the family christening 
robe, to be conveyed to St. John's for baptism, when the 
nurse entered and said : " Ye needna tak' the bairn tae 
the kirk the day. It's a' in a lowe." 

This completes the record of the building of St. Mary's 
Tower and the City Churches to the present date, except 



382 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

that in 1872 the Tower was somewhat drastically restored, 
under the direction of Sir G. Gilbert Scott. 

The Town Council is to be congratulated on the careful 
manner in which the recent restoration of the stonework 
of the Churches has been carried out, and on the improve- 
ment in amenity which has resulted from the removal of 
the former high railings, and the laying out of the precincts 
with paved paths and terraced lawns. 

Before we leave the consideration of St. Mary's Tower, 
a brief description of its salient features is necessary. The 
Tower is about 40 feet square over the walls of the lower 
storeys, which are 8 feet thick. Above the first parapet the 
walls are 5 feet thick. It rises to a height of nearly 160 
feet. The western doorway consists of two round-headed 
openings comprised within an elliptical arch, which in its 
turn is enclosed by a square moulding. The jambs and 
central pillar are moulded with alternate rounds and 
hollows, and the capitals, which have a continuous abacus, 
the arch mould, and the elliptical label, are all enriched 
with foliated carving. In the spandril over the central 
shaft is a circular panel enclosing a carving representing 
the Virgin and Child ; arid below, on a shield, are the arms 
of the diocese of Brechin. 

A lofty traceried window of six lights, having the large 
central mullion, so common in Scottish Gothic, rises above 
the doorway. The tracery is late Gothic, well proportioned 
and pleasing. The Tower is vaulted above this window, 
and an interesting feature is the irregularity in which the 
corner shafts supporting the vaulting are fitted into posi- 
tion. This irregularity, together with the small clusters 
of shafts which rise above the capitals of the main shafts, 
suggests that considerable changes were effected at a later 
date on the original work, as I have already indicated. 

A round-headed window, completely filled with tracery, 
occupies the next stage, and above that there is a two- 
light pointed window. Then comes the beautiful enriched 
parapet, pierced with quatrefoils and having crocketed 
pinnacles, which divides the Tower into two main stages. 
The upper stage of the Tower is crossed about halfway up 



ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 383 

by a string-course. Below this string-course there are 
triple-pointed and cusped openings on each side, except 
the north, where, the space being curtailed by the Stair- 
case, there are only two openings. The portion above the 
string-course has two similar openings on three sides, and 
one on the north side. 

The walls are surmounted by an elaborate pierced 
parapet, having the quatrefoil, as in the lower parapet, for 
its motive. The huge bases of the pinnacles for the crown 
termination occur at each angle, and in the centre of each 
side, corbelled boldly out from the walls. 

At the north-east angle of the Tower, the Staircase Turret 
projects. It is circular as to the interior, and the outside 
of the wall forms part of an irregular octagon. The upper 
parapet returns round the turret, which is finished with a 
steep conical roof of stone. 

The project of removing the Cape House and erecting 
a crown on the Tower has engaged the attention of the 
authorities on several occasions. 

Records prove the existence of quite a number of 
monastic buildings, churches, and chapels, in Dundee 
during the Middle Ages, but no vestige of any of these 
remains, although fragments of Gothic jambs and window 
tracery have been unearthed, from time to time, in various 
localities. 

Not until the seventeenth century was nearing its close 
did the Renaissance style become the usual mode of 
architectural expression in Scotland, and our first im- 
portant ecclesiastical edifice in this style is St. Andrew's 
Parish Church, at the foot of King Street, which was 
erected in 1772, from the design of Samuel Bell. In 
several publications the design has been erroneously 
ascribed to the elder Adam. This Church occupies a 
commanding site, set well back from the street, from 
which it is separated by a graveyard, bisected by a broad 
pathway ending in a flight of steps. It is a plain rect- 
angular building, with a Tower and Spire at the west end. 
The South Front is well proportioned, and its principal 
features are the two three-light windows in the Italian 






384 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

manner, the centre light being arched, and the sidelights 
flanked by Ionic pilasters, and surmounted by architrave, 
frieze, and cornice. Over the solid between those windows 
is an oval panel, and on each side of this panel is a bold 
carved festoon, somewhat crude in design and workman- 
ship. The eaves cornice is small, though effective, hav- 
ing tiny modillions at short intervals. Very finely 
carved vases ornament the putt stones and apex of the 
gables. 

The first stage of the Tower above the Church roof 
is slightly set back at the corners, which are occupied by 
vases of refined design. It consists- of large clock dials, 
with bold surrounding moulding. Above this stage the 
Tower becomes octagonal in shape, and the corners used to 
be decorated by vases slightly smaller than those below. 
I have been informed that one of those vases was brought 
to the ground in fragments by an ingenious slater, who 
hitched a rope over it to sling his hanging scaffold. The 
other three were removed to restore the symmetry of the 
Tower! The octagonal stage contains narrow, round- 
headed openings in each face, and is covered by a bold 
rounded intake, out of which rises the slim, graceful spire, 
pierced at intervals by small round openings, and finished 
by a well-designed copper weather vane representing 
a dragon. 

The interior of the Church is bald and uninteresting. 
The Nine Trades and the Three Trades cannot be con- 
gratulated on the alleged stained glass with which they 
filled the three-light windows flanking the pulpit. It is 
of poor design, and the drawing of the figures is very 
faulty. 

This Church is quite a good expression of the Renaiss- 
ance taste of the period. The details of the stonework 
particularly are charming and refined. 

St. Peter's Church, Perth Road, is a building of similar 
character, but it is bald and crude, lacking the importance 
and interesting detail possessed by St. Andrew's. 

We now come to the consideration of the modern 
Church buildings of the city, from which, though their 



ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 385 

name is legion, we can only pick out a very few as of real 
architectural interest. 

St. Paul's Cathedral Church, Castle Hill, the strong- 
hold of the Episcopalians, is our foremost example. It 
was built in 1853 from the designs of Sir G. Gilbert Scott, 
aud is a cruciform structure with a lofty spire. It is 
unfortunately somewhat jostled by neighbouring buildings 
of uninteresting character, and while the fine spire takes 
an important place from many points of view, the 
remainder of the Church can hardly be seen. 

The Church consists of West Tower, Nave, and Aisles, 
Transepts and Chancel, with apsidal termination, and is 
in the style of the Middle, or Decorated period of Gothic 
architecture. The roof is an open timber one, except 
over the Chancel, where it is vaulted in stone. The lower 
storey of the Tower is also stone- vaulted. The Tower is 
bold and massive, with the Staircase Turret projecting at 
the north-west corner. The Main Entrance in the Tower 
is a lofty pointed arch, richly moulded. Above it there 
is a traceried window, which lights the West Gallery 
occupying the space over the Entrance. Two rich para- 
pets, supported on corbels, traverse the upper part of the 
Tower, and the bold gargoyles are specially noteworthy. 
The spire is broached, with massive pinnacles rising from 
the broaches. 

The interior of the Church is impressive and noble in 
proportion. The nave arcade is lofty, and the pillars and 
arches are particularly graceful and satisfying, the mould- 
ings being of very refined design, and the carved work 
unobtrusive. One has the feeling that the chancel is 
scarcely large enough, and that the woodwork therein is 
not quite worthy of its position. 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Lochee, by Hansom, 
built in 1865, is, though unpretentious, a very delightful 
work in a somewhat unconventional type of late Gothic. 
One of its most interesting features is the quality of its 
masonry, the stones being very small, giving to the sur- 
faces a charming and truly Gothic texture. The Church 
consists of a long nave with aisles, and a chancel which is 



386 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

carried up in the form of an octagon, with a high pitched 
slated roof, and very deep buttresses, enclosing high 
traceried windows. The long lines of the low nave and 
aisles, with many small clerestory and aisle windows, 
terminating in the low chancel tower, produce a peculiarly 
picturesque effect. The interior is constructed of brick, 
terra-cotta, and stone of various colours, and the small 
scale repeating ornament and details show remarkable 
ingenuity and fertility of design A very noteworthy 
feature is the scientific and constructive manner in which 
the walls are corbelled and inclined to meet the thrust 
of the roofs, with deep splays on the outer surfaces. 
Provision seems to have been made for the erection of 
a tower at the end of the nave. 

In the Hilltown district we have St. Salvador's Church, 
a fine example of the art of the late G. F. Bodley, who 
died quite recently, and who occupied probably the 
premier place among the Church architects of his day. 
It consists of nave with narrow aisles, chancel, and Lady 
Chapel. The nave was built in 1869, and the chancel 
and Lady Chapel in 1874. The exterior, though quiet 
and unassuming, is dignified and beautifully proportioned. 
In style it is based on the late work of the Middle period 
of Gothic. Owing to the restricted dimensions of the site, 
it has been found necessary -to project the buttresses of 
the nave into the aisle, and the effect of the plain walls of 
the aisle, with the buttresses rising above the roof, is 
unusual, but distinctly pleasing. 

The interior, in its woodwork particularly, is of late 
Gothic character, and it is remarkable how successfully 
the architect has infused the spirit of harmony and unity 
into the whole work. In every detail one sees the touch 
of the master hand. The nave arcade is simple, the 
pillars being splayed, and the arch mouldings dying down 
on the splays, without capitals. The chancel is spacious, 
and has no east window, the east wall being occupied by 
a rich tabernacled reredos and altar. On the north wall 
of the chancel is a projecting stone aumbry of interesting 
design. 



ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 387 

The roof is of timber and plaster. The windows of the 
chancel contain some very good stained glass, particularly 
the Bishop Forbes window. 

This Church is a very successful example of the 
application of colour and gilding to stone- and wood- work. 
The original colour decorations remain in the Lady 
Chapel, and throughout the remainder of the building the 
original decorations in water paint have been very care- 
fully reproduced in flat oil paint. 

We are fortunate in having such a beautifully complete 
Church in our city. It is worthy of very careful exam- 
ination by all interested in architecture. 

In the period from 1850 to 1880 a very large number 
of Presbyterian Churches were erected, and while many 
of these are somewhat ornate as to the outside, the 
interiors are of that distressing Victorian type, containing 
many galleries, iron pillars, much pine wood, and shiny 
varnish. 

St. Paul's U.F., Nethergate ; St. John's U.F., St. Mark's 
and M'Cheyne Memorial, in the Perth Road, are all spired 
Churches, in a type of Gothic which shows French 
influence. Of these, St. John's U.F., by our late towns- 
man, Mr. James Hutton, is probably the most interesting. 
It has a good open situation, and the spire is slim and 
graceful. 

St. Enoch's Church, Nethergate, has square towers 
flanking the gable over the Entrance. It is set back from 
the street, but the major portion of the forecourt is 
occupied by shops, which detract from the appearance of 
the building. 

The Catholic Apostolic Church, Constitution Road, is 
a large plain building, in the Middle Gothic style, having 
nave, aisles, and octagonal-ended chancel. The detail, 
though severe, is scholarly, and the interior is lofty and 
impressive. 

Panmure Street Congregational Church occupies a good 
site facing the Albert Institute. It is a low building, with 
small slated towers flanking the main gable, and groups 
picturesquely with its surroundings. 



388 ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. 

The Episcopal Church of St. John the Baptist, Albert 
Street, designed by the late Rev. Mr. Sugden, while 
probably one of the least pretentious church buildings 
in the city, is interesting on account of the quality and 
colour of its stonework. The chancel has recently been 
adorned with rather elaborate carved oak choir stalls, 
wall panelling, and reredos, the designs for which were 
inspired by the beautiful and well-known woodwork in 
King's College Chapel, Aberdeen. 

In most of our recent Church buildings, particularly 
those devoted to the Presbyterian form of worship, the 
utilitarian spirit of the age is plainly evident. In nearly 
every case an attempt has been made to obtain a richer 
effect externally than the available funds justified, with 
the result that one misses in the interiors that devotional 
feeling which is so impressive in, for example, St. 
Salvador's. 

Of recent Churches the most important are St. Thomas's, 
Lochee Road ; St. Patrick's Roman Catholic, Arthurstone 
Terrace ; Baxter Park U.F., Wishart Memorial, King 
Street ; and Clepington U.F. 

The appearance of the Gilfillan Memorial Church, 
Whitehall Crescent, designed by the late Malcolm Stark, 
of Glasgow, does not indicate its ecclesiastical character. 
It is, however, a well-proportioned building in the 
Renaissance style, with interesting details. The high 
buildings on either side somewhat detract from its effect 

Now that the suburb of Downfield is included within 
the boundaries of our city, I am pleased to be able to 
conclude this brief notice by mentioning its very charming 
little Episcopal Church, the only modern building in our 
neighbourhood which displays any of the characteristics of 
our national type of Gothic. The walls are rough casted, 
and the roof is covered with heavy stone slates of 
beautiful colour. 

The architectural enrichments are sparingly used, and 
the broad plain surfaces, the crow- stepped gables, the 
simple mouldings, and the rough paved pathways give an 
admirably native air to the building. 






389 



Public Buildings, 

By James Thomson, City Architect. 

HAVING regard to its antiquity and commercial import- 
ance, Dundee cannot be said to be rich in its possession 
of buildings having any outstanding architectural merit. 

THE TOWN HOUSE, 

situated on High Street, and occupying the site of St. 
Clement's Church, is probably the most interesting of the 
public buildings. Designed by William Adam, popularly 
called the elder Adam, and erected in 1734, it occupies a 
fairly prominent position in the main street of the city. 
The building, as originally designed, was estimated to cost 
2,852, and the architect's fee for this work is believed to 
have been thirteen guineas. As completed, the whole 
cost of the building with furnishings did not exceed 
4,000, including architect's fees. The building stands a 
few feet in advance of the line of the adjoining buildings, 
and the front portion of the ground-floor is an open 
piazza (called " The Pillars ") with shops in the rear. 

The first and principal floor contains the Council 
Chamber and the Guild Hall, two lofty rooms with 
characteristic chimney-pieces and door-heads. These rooms 
have also some fine stained glass windows, the older ones 
in the Guild Hall being specially fine and more in keeping 
with the building than those inserted at a more recent 
date. The other smaller apartments on this floor are now 
used as store-rooms for preserving the public records. 

The upper and basement floors contain barrel-vaulted 
rooms which were used as prison cells up till 1836. 

The circular stair at the rear is built round a hollow 
newel, which formed the only means of light arid ventila- 



390 PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

tion to the condemned cell, a loathsome dungeon in the 
basement. 

A clock tower and spire surmount the building, the 
spire rising to a height of 140 feet from the pavement. 
The clock, marked 1735, is one of four dials and three 
bells, to which were added seventy years later four smaller 
bells to chime the quarters. 

Unfortunately a very inferior quality of stone was used, 
and it decayed to such an extent that the whole front 
had to be faced with Roman cement and painted. 

THE ALBERT INSTITUTE 

occupies a site which was formerly public meadows, marshy 
in its nature, and the buildings were necessarily founded on 
piles. The buildings were erected in three sections, the 
first being designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, and opened in 
1867. This portion was first used for the meetings of the 
British Association, which visited Dundee that year. 

In 1869 the Free Library was opened to the public, and 
so greatly was it taken advantage of that, after only four 
years, it was found necessary to extend the buildings. 
This addition, which provided accommodation for a museum 
and art gallery, was designed and carried out by Mr. 
M'Kenzie, a Dundee architect, and opened in 1873. 

Another and larger extension of the Institute was made 
in 1887, and was designed and carried out by Mr. William 
Alexander, City Architect. This large wing to the east 
was opened in 1 889 in honour of the jubilee of the Queen, 
and called in her honour the " Victoria Galleries." 

Six large galleries were thus added, four being entirely 
devoted to the display of pictures. 

The western section is still used as a lending depart- 
ment of the public libraries on the ground-floor, the 
Albert Hall over same being used as a reference library 
and lecture hall. The Albert Hall, a part of the original 
building, has, through the generosity of Sir William 
Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., been quite recently improved by 
the introduction of stained glass windows and handsome 
electroliers. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 391 

THE HIGH SCHOOL. 

On the rising ground at the top of Reform Street, and 
facing southwards towards the High Street, stands the 
High School occupying a very prominent position close to 
the Albert Institute buildings. 

Designed by John Angus, Edinburgh, and erected in 
1833 at a cost of 10,000, it is one of the most out- 
standing architectural compositions in Dundee. 

In the centre of the facade is a fine Grecian portico of 
six columns standing on a stylobate of steps, supported on 
either side by wings forming a dignified frontage of fine 
proportions. 

THE KOYAL EXCHANGE. 

This building occupies a site fronting Albert Square, 
and, together with the other public buildings in the 
Square, forms a part of what would seem to be a fairly good 
example of Town Planning of over half a century ago. 
Like the Albert Institute, the Royal Exchange building 
is erected on marshy ground, and difficulty was 
encountered in forming the foundation, so much so, that 
the tower which forms the main feature of the Exchange, 
and was to have been finished with a crown, was never 
completed. The building was designed by David Bryce, 
Edinburgh, and was completed in 1856 at a cost of about 
12,000. The first floor is taken up principally by a large 
hall, used as a reading-room, while the rest of the building 
I is occupied as offices for merchants in the jute and flax 
industry. 



THE COURT HOUSE. 



This building was erected from designs by William 
! Scott, City Architect, Dundee, and faces a large open 
square near the centre of the city. It is conveniently 
situated in respect of its proximity to the Central Police 
Station on the east, and the Prison Buildings on the 
north. 

In grouping, the Court House strongly resembles the 



392 PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

High School, having a long frontage, with central block, 
connected to lesser ones by screen walls pierced by gate- 
ways, giving access to the Prison and Police Buildings in 
the rear. The front is treated with pilasters of the 
Tuscan order, and in the centre of the main block is a 
pedimented portico of four columns, reached by a flight 
of steps. The Prison Buildings in the rear were erected 
in 1836 to take the place of the cells in the Town House. 

THE ROYAL INFIRMAKY. 

One of the most commanding situations in the city is 
that occupied by the Royal Infirmary Buildings, standing 
as they do on the slope of the Dundee Law and over- 
looking the River Tay. 

The original main buildings were erected to designs by 
Messrs. Coe & Goodwin, London, and many additions 
of importance have been made, notably the Caird and the 
Maternity Hospitals, both provided through the generosity 
of James K, Caird, Esq., LL.D., Dundee. 

Another addition made during recent years was a 
Nurses' Home, the gift of Sir William Ogilvy Dalgleish, 
Bart., and two years ago the out-patients' department was 
extended and modernised. 

The institution is exceedingly well placed for its 
purpose, being within easy distance of the centre of the 
city, and occupying a site which, for openness and healthi- 
ness, would be difficult to equal in any city. 

THE CUSTOM HOUSE. 

Conveniently situated at the Docks, this building 
occupies a prominent position, facing Dock Street. It 
was the joint design of Mr. Leslie, Harbour Engineer, 
and Mr. Taylor, Architect, of Glasgow, and was erected 
in 1843. 

In the centre of the fa9ade, and over a rusticated base- 
ment, is a boldly projected tetrastyle portico, with Ionic 
columns running through two floors, surmounted by a 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 393 

pediment enclosing the Royal Arms. The windows on 
either side are carefully grouped, with the centre ones 
marked by richer treatment, and the elevation with a 
strong crowning cornice forms a simple and pleasing 
composition. 

This building furnishes accommodation for the Customs 
and Excise, while the east wing is occupied by the 
Harbour Trustees, and contains board room and offices for 
Engineer, Clerk, and Treasurer. 

It is built entirely of local stone, and took the place of 
the old Custom House which stood in the Greenmarket 
and was only recently taken down to make way for central 
improvements. 

THE MORGAN HOSPITAL 

was founded and endowed through the beneficence of 
Mr. John Morgan, an Indian merchant, who was a native 
of the city. Designed by Messrs. Peddie & Kin near, 
Edinburgh, it was erected in 1861 at a cost of 15,000. 

Standing on a triangular piece of ground between 
Forfar and Pitkerro Roads, in the north-east of the city, 
the site of this building is a happily chosen one for a 
public school. The position is airy and open, and the 
grounds are more than usually extensive for such a 
building. 

In its earliest years boys were boarded and educated, 
there being provision for 100 boys, and the work was 
conducted according to the original scheme for twenty 
years. In 1889 it was acquired by the School Board, and 
opened as a day school known as the " Morgan Academy." 

Extensive alterations were made at that time, chief 
among these being the roofing in and flooring of the 
quadrangle which now forms a commodious assembly 
hall. The building is two storeys in height, the central 
feature being a massive tower, flanked by wings. 



2B 



394 



The Auld Howff ; or, Cemetery of Dundee. 
Monuments and Inscriptions. 

By A. H. Millar, LL.D., Chief Librarian. 

To the meditative mind of the romantic tourist who 
happens to visit Dundee, the quaint old graveyard called 
the HowrT will offer material for reflection. The very 
name has a species of poetic suggestiveness. The good 
old Scots word " Howff" means a favourite meeting-place, 
and though that name was not applied to the cemetery 
as a burying-ground, it has a peculiar appropriateness. 
For three hundred years it was the principal graveyard of 
Dundee, and within its sacred precincts there lie the 
remains, as their tombstones tell us, of "godlie and 
honest " men, and " chaste and verteuous " women, of civic 
rulers and humble craftsmen who were the makers of 
Dundee, and the conservers of her political and religious 
liberty. Long before this place became a cemetery it had 
interesting historical associations. The ground was the 
orchard of the Franciscan Monastery, which was founded 
by the beneficent Devorgilla, mother of King John 
Balliol. and foundress of Balliol College, Oxford. You 
may wonder why a Princess of the Royal Blood and the 
mother of a Scottish King selected Dundee as the burgh 
to be honoured by her munificence. It is too long a story 
to tell completely, though a passing reference may be 
made to it. William the Lion granted the burgh of 
Dundee to his brother David, Earl of Huntingdon, about 
1192. When the Earl died in 1219, he was succeeded by 
his only son, John le Scot, who died without issue in 1237. 
The property of the Earl was then divided amongst the 
daughters of Earl David. Margaret, the eldest, was 
married to Alan, Lord of Galloway, in the parish Kirk of 



THE AULD HOWFF. 395 

Dundee, which her father, the Earl, had founded, and, as 
a large portion of the burgh had fallen to her share, 
including the mansion known as Huntingdon Hall, it is 
very probable that Devorgilla was born in Dundee ; hence 
her design to further Christianise her birthplace by found- 
ing the Franciscan Monastery. It is interesting to learn 
that, through the partition of the burgh after John le 
Scot's death, all the daughters of Earl David held property 
in Dundee, and there are deeds extant showing the 
possessions of Isabella de Brus, Ada de Hastings, and 
Devorgilla de Balliol, in the burgh. The succession to 
the Scottish Throne was contested by the descendants of 
these Dundee ladies of the olden time. 

The Franciscan Monastery continued to flourish for 
about three centuries till the Reformation, but was over- 
thrown about 1560. Seven years after that date Mary 
Queen of Scots and Henry Darnley visited Dundee, and 
it was then pointed out to her that the graveyard of 
Dundee at St. Clement's Kirk (on the site where the 
Town House now stands) was in the centre of the burgh, 
and was therefore dangerous to the health of the inhabi- 
tants. Accordingly, by Letter of Gift, dated 1567, the 
Queen handed over " the orchard of the Grey Cordelier 
Friars " to the town to be used as a burying-place in all 
time coming. It is strange to notice that the reason 
assigned for selecting this spot as a graveyard was that it 
was "without the town wall." The place is now in the 
very centre of the modern city of Dundee. Interments 
soon began in the new ground, and the oldest monument 
now extant is dated 1577. 

For two hundred years after the date of this gift the 
orchard was used as the meeting-place of the different 
crafts of Dundee, and this is how it came to be known as 
" the Howff." There was a kind of sentimentalism even 
in the business meetings of these honest old craftsmen 
long ago which we look for in vain nowadays. The lead- 
ing members of the various trades selected certain parts 
of the orchard for their lairs, and the meetings of the 
craftsmen were usually held beside the graves of departed 



396 THE AULD HOWFF. 

members of the trade, as if the presence of the voiceless 
dead gave a seriousness to the business in hand. Thus 
the Bakers, who are well represented in our town, met for 
two centuries beside the grave of David Tendall, who died 
in 1591, after a long career of usefulness, thus perpetuat- 
ing his memory, and calling him to witness from his tomb 
how faithfully they were administering the trust he had 
committed to them. When the Trades Hall was built in 
1778, there was no longer any necessity for these open-air 
meetings, and the Howff was abandoned as a meeting- 
place for the Trades, though the old colloquial name has 
adhered to it. It continued to be used as a burying-place 
until 1858, when it was closed save to a few existing lair- 
holders. The last interment was that of George Duncan, 
M.P. for Dundee, who died in 1878. 

It is possible to study the changes in monumental 
designs for three hundred years by examining the tomb- 
stones in the Howff. Here will be found characteristic 
examples of sixteenth century inscriptions in linear raised 
Gothic characters, with peculiar emblems introduced. On 
many of these there are heraldic bearings of Scottish 
families, now extinct. Indeed, for the student of heraldry 
there is no other graveyard in Scotland so rich in armorial 
blazons of families whose arms are not to be found in any 
published works on Scottish heraldry. There are also 
examples of the richly decorated monuments of the seven- 
teenth century, and characteristic types of eighteenth 
and nineteenth century tombstones. These serve to 
illustrate the alterations in monumental taste since 1577. 
The mural monuments, though now in a dilapidated condi- 
tion, have been of great beauty and elegance of design. 

It may be mentioned as an instance of the rampant 
Vandalism and utilitarian Philistinism of our day that, in 
1892, it was seriously proposed to a Committee of the 
Dundee Police Commissioners that the whole of the west 
wall of the Howff, with all its historic monuments, should 
be demolished ; that a portion of the graveyard containing 
about three hundred lairs should be violently annexed ; 
and that a modern street, with causeway blocks to suit 



THE AULD HOWFF. 397 

Post Office requirements, should be made over the dust of 
some of the noblest heroes whose names are recorded in 
the annals of Dundee. Within the space thus proposed 
to be desecrated there lie the bones of several Bailies who 
fell fighting in defence of the town, at the siege in 1651. 
There also reposes the sacred dust of Provost Fletcher, 
who boldly withstood the repeated attempts of James 
VII. to wrest civic power from the people. The Wedder- 
burns of Blackness, the Guthries of Guthrie, the Forresters 
of Millhill, the Duncans of Lundie, the Kinlochs of 
Kin loch, the Goldmans of St. Fort, and many others well 
known in history, would have all been included in the 
scheme of sacrilegious spoliation. Fortunately this act of 
Vandalism was prevented. 

The following are some of the notable tombstones, with 
quaint inscriptions : 

No. 195. At the West Wall near the second recess, 
Tombstone of William Newton, litster (dyer), 1608. 

The memorial of the rightivs is in the remembrance of 
the Lord continvally, and sail not taist of the second 
deith; but the memorial of the vikit sal rot, and pass 
away and decay. 

Ve leir fra Abraham oor father of old, 
To honor the burial ve soold be bold. 

No. 15. T. S. probably Simson, date circa 1600. 
Men sis Marcii die 6 
Man, tak hed to me, 
Hov thov sal be, 

Quhan thov art dead ; 






Drye as a trei, 
Vermes sal eat ye ; 
Thy great boote , 
Sal be like lead. 

Ye tyme hath bene, 
In my yooth grene, 
That I vas clene 
Of bodie as ye ar ; 



398 THE AULD HOWFF. 

But for my eyen 
Nov tvo holes bene ; 
Of me is sene 
Bvt benes bare. 

No. 71. Flat stone, Alexander Gray and Elspet Smythe, 
1613, Arms of Gray and Smythe. 

Ve pas from deith to lyf. 
As gras ve pas 
From that ve vas, 
Ve hope againe 
Vith Christ to raigne. 

No. 101. Tombstone of Walteir Cooper, tailyour, 1628. 
Kynd Comarads, heir Coopar's corps is layd, 
Walter by name, a Tailyour to his trade ; 
Both kynd, and treu, and stut, and honest hartit, 
Condol with me that he so soon departit ; 
For I avow, he never weyld a sheir 
Had better pairts nor he that's borid heir. 
No. 19. On the North side of the gate, Andrew 
Mureson and Margaret Ramsay, his wife, 1629. 

Stay, trav'ler, notice who entomb'd heir lyes 
On that was verteous, chast, and very wyse, 
Good to the poor, still liv'd a godly lyfe, 
Both first and last, since she becam a wyfe. 
To quarell Death for her change wer but vain, 
For Death spares nather godly nor prophane ; 
To say she's chang'd twer but a foolish storie, 
If not to live eternalie in Glorie. 
No. 68. Robert Mureson, 1637. 

Avay, vaine vorld ! thov ocean of annoyes, 
And com, sveit heaven, vith thy seternal joyes. 
No. 262. Heir lyis ane godlie and honest man, James 
Wat, flesher, Burges in Dondie, who lived in the holie 
band of matrimonie with Agnes Theane 38 yeiris, and did 
buir to him 8 childring. He departit this lyif the 26 of 
Sep. 1641, his age 62. 

Come, quirists al, and sing with me, 
Hale lu ja. Hale lu je. 



THE AULD HOWFF. 399 

No. 264. Sarcophagus stone with full-length effigies 
of John Baxter, baker, and Helen Seyton, his wife, 1609, 
with arms of Baxter and Seyton, marshalled. 

Ve live to die, and deiis to live for ever. 

No. 17. Flat stone with full length effigies of John 
Kynneir and Eupham Gray, 1627. This tomb has 
evidently been erected by the husband in his lifetime, 
spaces having been left for the date of his death, which 
are still blank. 

Heir lyis tvo godlie aigit personis to wit Johne Kynneir 
merchand and Eupham Gray his spous, quha deceissit as 
folowis to wit, the said Eupham Gray deceissit the first 
day of March 1627, of the aige of 59, and ye said Johne 
Kynneir deceissit ye [ ] day of [ ] of ye 

aige of [ ]. 

10. Recess, West Wall. On the coping of the wall are 
richly decorated panels showing arms and initials, the 
legend on the cornice being " In monvmentvm sepul- 
tvrae familiae Mvdeorvm erexit Jacobvs Mvdevs anno 
1602." Fragments built into the wall are from the 
tombstones of Sir Thomas Mudie, Provost of Dundee, 
1651, and James Wedderburn. At the end of the wall 
the inscription reads : " So sal the Lord bliss the in all 
thy proceidinges." 

No. 117. Sarcophagus monument to Dr. David Kinloch 
of Aberbothrie, 1617. The translation of the Latin inscrip- 
tion, now partly defaced, is as follows : " The monument 
of sepulture of a man of the greatest honour, Magister 
David Kinloch, of great learning, and adorned through 
life with many illustrious virtues ; a most skilful Physician 
to the Kings of Great Britain and France, by whose letters 
and seals the nobility of his family and descent is amply 
testified and proved. He died in the Year of human 
salvation 1617, and of his age, 58." 

Dr. Kinloch was Physician to James VI., and while 
confined in one of the prisons of the Inquisition in Spain, 
he cured the Grand Inquisitor of a dangerous disease, and 



400 THE AULD HOWFF. 

was set free with many tokens of gratitude. He was 
recognised as one of the foremost Latinists of his time, 
and several of his poems were published in the Delitiae 
Poetarum Scotorum. On one of the sloping sides of the 
tomb there have been numerous coats of arms, many of 
which are now defaced. Dr. Kinloch's own arms still 
remain, and there are ribbons with the names of Ramsay, 
Lindsay, Scrymgeour, and Stewart. On the same slab an 
inscription formerly stood in memory of Sir James Kinloch, 
Nevay, who garrisoned Dundee for Prince Charles Edward 
in 1745, and whose estates were forfeited. 

15. Recess, West Wall. The large monument near the 
north end of the wall is that of the Duncans of Lundie, 
ancestors of the Earls of Camperdown. It is much decayed, 
but has been a splendid monument. It was erected in 
1718 by Alexander Duncan of Lundie, in memory of his 
father, Alex. Duncan of Lundie, 1696, his mother, Ann 
Drummond, daughter of John Drummond of Megginch, 
1695, and their five children. 

No. 188. The cope-stone of a sarcophagus bears a 
Latin inscription, of which this is the translation : 
" David Lindsay placed this in remembrance of his wife 
Christian Rutherford, adorned by piety and virtue, and 
accomplished in Greek, Latin, and French literature. She 
died 9th November, 1603, aged 40 years." 

No. 271. Robert Pattillo, skinner, and his wife Margaret 
Spens, 1648. Arms of Patillo and Spens, marshalled. 

The man is blest that careful is 

The needy to consider ; 
For in the season perilous 

The Lord will him deliver. 
The Lord will make him safe and sound, 

And hapie in the land ; 
And he will not deliver him 

Into his enemies' hand. 

No. 270. Covering stone of a sarcophagus erected by 
Thomas Vichtane in memory of his wife, 1645. Figures 



THE AULD HOWFF. 401 

symbolical of Morning and Evening of Life, and Life and 

Death. 

When dayes and yeires ar all by gone 
Then most we compt with God alone. 

No. 600. Table stone with fielded panels, initials 
G. M. and M. K. with marshalled arms. 

Remember man as thou goes by, 
As thou art now so ons was I. 
As I am now so shal thou be, 
Remember, man, that thou must die. 

No. 156. Elegant sarcophagus monument erected to 
Andrew Archibald, lithotomist, now much out of repair. 
It formerly bore a long and curious Latin inscription re- 
ferring to his surgical operations. The date is September 
1662, and his age is given as 67. After the inscription 
an ingenious quatrain is added, in which the word " Mors " 
is spelled four times, reading downwards. 

Mors solet innuJI/eris morbis corruMpere vit&M 
Omnia mors rostrO devorat usque suO 
Rex princeps sapiens seRvus stultus mise.fi segeJR 
Sis quicunque velis pulvi$ et umbra $ummu$. 

No. 526. Monument erected to James Chalmers, book- 
seller, Dundee, originator of the adhesive postage stamp. 

Nos. 941-970. Burial-place of the Tendals, bakers in 
Dundee for over 100 years, 1591-1600-1694. The tomb- 
stone of John Tendal, 1565-1591, has the following 
verse : 

Lat nane be sure 
Lang to indure 

His lyfe in yird a hour, 
But Deid mon cum 
And maw him down 
As in ye field a flowre. 

Nos. 612-613. Tombstone of John Roche, brabner 
(weaver) and Eupham Pye, with their children. There 



402 THE AULD HOWFF. 

are fourteen skulls representing the parents and their 
offspring. 

Nos. 723, etc. Burial-place of the Wedderburn family, 
including the Wedderburns of Croft, of Pearsie, of Easter 
Powrie, and of Ballindean. The principal monument is 
the upright column, erected in memory of Lady Margaret, 
daughter of David, Lord Ogilvy, and sister to David, Earl 
of Airlie. She was the mother of Sir David Wedderburn, 
Bart. On the west side of the pedestal there is a beauti- 
ful marble tablet by Schumacher, the tutor of the 
celebrated Nollekens the sculptor. 



403 



Ancient Trades and Incorporations. 

By Joseph Wilkie, Clerk to the Guildry. 



.THE ancient Trade Incorporations of Dundee still existent 
are : 

THE GUILDRY. 



The Bakers (originally " Baxters ") 
The Shoemakers (originally "Cordiners") 
The Glovers (originally " Skinners ") 
The Tailors 



The " Nine 



The Bonnetmakers . . . . ] Incorporated 
The Fleshers .... . / Trades of 

The Hammermen Dundee." 

The Weavers (originally " Brabners " or 

"Websters") 

The Dyers . 

The Masons . .1 The u Three United 

The Wrights . Trades of Dundee." 

The Slaters . 

The Fraternity of Maltmen. 

The burgesses of Dundee were at a very early period 
in Scottish history endowed with valuable privileges of 
self-government and exclusive trading within the Burgh. 
These privileges were confirmed and enlarged by successive 
sovereigns, notably by King William the Lion in the 
twelfth century, and by Alexander III. and David II. 
in the fourteenth century. The other royal burghs in 
Scotland were similarly favoured by the Crown, with the 
view, no doubt, of fostering commerce and the handicrafts, 



404 ANCIENT TRADES AND INCORPORATIONS. 

which in those early days- must have been in a very poor 
and struggling condition in Scotland ; but probably also 
with a politic eye to the expediency of establishing 
powerful communities of townsmen who might be relied 
upon to assist the Crown in its frequent disputes with 
the turbulent feudal barons. 

In working out their privileges and for the proper- 
regulation of their communities, the burgesses in Dundee, 
as in other royal burghs, seem to have gradually resolved 
themselves into fraternities or combinations, each having 
for its object the regulation and protection of the particular 
handicraft or calling of its members. The formation of 
these distinctive bodies of the burgesses took place with 
the approval and assistance of the magistrates, and the 
authority which they exercised within the burgh was 
supported by the law and usage of the country. Strict 
dividing lines were observed between burgesses engaged 
in commerce and burgesses engaged in the handicrafts, 
the former being known as " Merchant Burgesses " or 
" The Guildry," and the latter as the " Trades " or 
" Crafts." 

There is no record of any formal charter in favour of 
the Dundee Guildry or Trades until near the end of the 
fifteenth century ; but it is tolerably certain that they must 
have existed and been recognised as authoritative bodies in 
the burgh for, at least, two centuries before. The earliest 
formal constitution of the Guildry, of which there is any 
record, is contained in an agreement or contract called a 
" Merchandis Letter," entered into between the Town 
Council of the Burgh and the Merchant Burgesses in the 
year 1515, whereby the merchants bound themselves to 
raise money by a tax on merchandise for the support of 
the " Holy Blood Altar " in the South Aisle of the Parish 
Church ; and, on the other hand, the Town Council bound 
themselves to recognise the merchants as a Guild, with 
power to choose "ane Deane of Gild; ye whilk Deane 
of Gild sail hawe power of collectorschip of ye halie bluid 
siluer, and wther duties of ye halie bluid ; and till exerce, 
hant, and vse ye office and awthoritee perteining to ye 



ANCIENT TRADES AND INCORPORATIONS. 405 

Deane of Gild, according to ye statutes of ye Gild and ye 
burrow-lawes." The " Merchandis Letter " was ratified 
and confirmed by a charter dated 17th July 1526 granted 
by King James V. 

The Guildry had power to make laws regulating the com- 
merce of the burgh ; it had the first offer of all goods brought 
into the burgh for sale ; and no ship could be chartered unless 
in the presence of the Dean of Guild, or sail without his per- 
mission. Obedience to the regulations of the Guildry and 
the decrees of the Dean of Guild was rigorously enforced 
by fine and imprisonment. Before the representative of 
the burgh attended Parliament a meeting of the Guildry 
was called to give its instructions ; the magistrates could 
not impose local taxes without its advice and consent ; 
and its permission was also required before the Town 
Council could grant charters Qr " Seals of Cause," as they 
were called, to the Trades. 

Mercantile law-suits and questions relating to property 
within the burgh were disposed of in the Guild Court, 
presided over by the Dean of Guild, who had all the 
powers of a judge at common law. The jurisdiction of 
this Court was repeatedly recognised by Parliament, and 
continues to the present day, but is now limited to cases 
relating to the erection of new buildings, or the demolition 
or alteration of old buildings, the prevention of encroach- 
ments by individuals upon the property of their neighbours, 
or on the public streets, and similar matters. 

"Seals of Cause" were granted by the magistrates to 
most of the " Trades " or " Crafts " at about the same time 
as the royal charter was granted to the Guildry; the earliest 
extant being that of the Bonnetmakers, dated 31st July 
149(3. Some of the Trades are supposed to have been 
possessed of early charters which have been lost. Each 
Trade was a distinct Incorporation, complete in itself, with 
power to choose its own Deacon, " Box master " (Treasurer), 
and other office-bearers, and had the sole power of admit- 
ting new members. No one was allowed to execute work 
within the burgh unless he was a member of the particular 
trade to which the work pertained. An entrant to a Trade 



406 ANCIENT TRADES AND INCORPORATIONS. 

had to serve a regular apprenticeship, and to prove before 
admission that he was " apt and fit " for his craft, usually by 
working an "essay piece" to the satisfaction of essay masters 
appointed by the members. Each craftsman had to con- 
fine himself to the exercise of his own particular craft, and 
was not eligible for admission to any other " Trade," nor, 
of course, to the Guildry, whose membership was confined 
exclusively to merchants. The Deacons of the various 
Trades held courts for the purpose of administering justice 
in matters relating to their crafts. Lawsuits between the 
craftsmen and their journeymen and apprentices were 
raised before the Deacon, whose power and privileges in 
his own Trade were somewhat similar to those exercised 
by the Dean of Guild in the Guildry. The Deacons' Court, 
however, appears to have fallen into desuetude in the 
early part of the seventeenth century. 

In the exercise of their various rights and privileges, 
the Guildry and the Trades frequently came into collision, 
and arbitration and litigation were occasionally resorted 
to. In these disputes the various Trades made common 
cause against the Guildry. This led to a movement for 
closer union amongst the Trades, which, after various 
schemes had been tried, culminated in nine of the Trades 
forming themselves, previous to 1573, into a confederation 
or united body called the " Nine Incorporated Trades of 
Dundee." Each of the individual Trades forming this 
confederation retained its own corporate capacity, and con- 
tinued to elect its own office-bearers and manage its own 
affairs as formerly. The "Three United Trades" is a 
similar combination of the Mason, Wright, and Slater 
Trades. 

The Guildry and Trades continued to exercise their 
privileges of exclusive trading within the burgh until the 
year 1846, when, by " The Burgh Trading Act " of that 
year, all such privileges in burghs or elsewhere in Scotland 
were abolished. Dundee had extended by this time 
far beyond the ancient burgh boundaries, and the burgesses 
privileges, which had originally been necessary to preserve 
the infant trade of the burgh from extinction, had become 



ANCIENT TRADES AND INCORPORATIONS. 407 

merely useless and vexatious restrictions on the trade of a 
large and prosperous town. 

Although no longer possessed of their ancient trading 
privileges, the Guildry and Trades have preserved their 
original constitutions, and continue to exist as prosperous 
and popular institutions in the city. They elect repre- 
sentatives to the Dundee Harbour Board, the Dundee 
Royal Lunatic Asylum Board, the Directorate of the High 
School, the Morgan Trust, and similar bodies. The office 
of Dean of Guild and the Convenerships of the Trades are 
highly prized by the citizens, and carry with them seats at 
most of the public boards in the city. By the "Royal 
Burghs (Scotland) Act 1833 " the Dean of Guild was recog- 
nised as an ex officio member of the Town Council, and in 
the comparatively recent Town Councils Act of 1900 the 
Dean's seat at the Town Council is continued. The funds 
of the Guildry and Trades are now principally devoted to 
the support of decayed members and their widows and 
families. 



408 



Scientific and Literary Institutions. 

By John Paul. 

LOOKING back over the Dundee records, one institution, 
from the success it achieved and the results which followed, 
stands naturally at the head of its scientific and literary 
history. 

THE WATT INSTITUTION 

was founded in 1824, in honour of James Watt, the cele- 
brated engineer, and was intended for " the instruction of 
young tradesmen in the useful branches of arts and 
sciences." The first session opened appropriately on 19th 
January 1825, the anniversary of the birth of James Watt, 
by a gathering in Willison Church. A membership of 460 
and two lecturers was a good beginning, and for the first 
twenty years the Watt Institution was popular, and 
imported valuable education at small cost. The Directors 
were fortunate in their choice of Lecturers. One of them, 
James Bowman Lindsay, appointed in 1829, has attained 
world- wide renown as a pioneer in Electricity and Wireless 
Telegraphy. For the efficient carrying on of the classes, 
books, apparatus, and specimens were a necessity, and 
suitable premises were in demand. One of the halls of the 
Public Seminaries (now High School) was secured for a 
museum, and on 1st January 1838 the first exhibition of 
curios, natural and mechanical, was opened. A subscrip- 
tion was started for the erection of suitable buildings, and 
a site was secured in Constitution Road. Class-rooms 
and a lecture hall provided at a cost of 2200 were 
opened in November 1839, and for many years much good 
work was done. Unfortunately, about 1847, there was a 
falling away, and by 1852 the classes were at a standstill. 
It is interesting to note that in 1840 the Watt Library 



SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY" INSTITUTIONS. 409 

contained 1694 volumes. The Eastern Bank held a bond 
on the property, and the managers announced their 
intention of selling the books and specimens in liquidation 
of the debt. A number of leading citizens, headed by Sir 
David Baxter, approached the Bank managers, and the 
restricted sum of 350 was named for the movables. This 
sum was at once subscribed, and the Watt Library and 
Museum were transferred to a hall in Lindsay Street, 
where they remained till 1867. The public were admitted 
to the Museum for a nominal sum, and the Library was 
carried on by subscription. Weekly lectures on literary 
and scientific subjects were arranged, the Rev. George 
Giifillan and Sheriff Campbell Smith contributing, and 
the Watt Institution became once more a living power in 
the community. The Free Libraries Act was adopted in 
Dundee in 1866, and on the erection of the Albert 
Institute building in 1867, the Directors of the Watt 
Institution arranged to hand over their Library and 
Museum to the Free Library Committee. This was done, 
and on 10th June 1868 the Watt Institution ceased to 
exist. It was a worthy forerunner of the Albert Institute, 
and its books and specimens were a valuable nucleus for 
our present Free Library and Museum. 

Y.M.C.A. 

The Watt Institution buildings in Constitution Road 
were acquired by the Directors of the Young Men's 
Christian Association in 1871, and being only seven years 
in existence at the time, they brought all the ardour of 
youth to bear on the problems before them. In addition 
to the religious aspect which naturally was predominant, 
the Directors at once started evening classes in Mechanics, 
Mathematics, Steam, and Chemistry. During the first 
-ion 90 students were enrolled. Other subjects were 
added in subsequent sessions, and for seventeen years the 
Y.M.C.A. was the acknowledged centre for technical train- 
ing. The number of students for the session 1886-7 was 
617. Every evening had its special subjects, arid every 

2c 



410 SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

room its class. Though the Technical Institute became a 
rival in 1888, the number attending the Y.M.C.A. was 
well maintained, and by the close of the century both 
Institutions were filled to overflowing. In 1902 the 
Education Department urged that the classes in both 
Institutions should be united under one management, and 
the Y.M.C.A. Directors handed over the control to the 
Technical Institute Committee. Thus for thirty- one years 
the Y.M.C.A. carried on successfully the scientific and literary 
education of working-men . The personality and enthusiasm 
of teachers like Robert Chalmers and Frank W. Young, 
D.Sc., could not fail to inspire young men and popularise 
scientific studies. 

THE TECHNICAL INSTITUTE. 

During his lifetime Sir David Baxter manifested a keen 
interest in the practical work done by the Watt Institution, 
and at his death in 1872 he left 20,000 for the founding 
of a Mechanics Institution. His Trustees carried out his 
wishes in 1888, when the Technical Institute in Small's 
Wynd was opened. At that time the commodious build- 
ing, now an integral part of University College, was 
considered ample for the needs of the city, but so great 
became the demand for instruction in Science and Art by 
the beginning of the century, that the Directors found the 
accommodation at the Technical Institute and Y.M.C.A. 
quite inadequate. Government came to the rescue in 
1906 and offered pound for pound raised locally for new 
premises. The result was the extensive new Technical 
College in Bell Street, erected and equipped at a cost of 
75,000. Sir William Ogilvy Dalgleish, Bart., in opening 
the Institute, 3rd March 1911, thus summarised technical 
education in Dundee : "My story began in 1871 with one 
teacher of 4 subjects and 90 pupils, and it closed in 
1911 with 49 teachers, teaching 20 subjects, divided int< 
80 classes and about 1300 students." 



SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 411 



INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERS. 

The Dundee Institute of Engineers was formed in 1884, 
and they incorporated the Society of Experimental 
Engineers in 1909. This vigorous Society has excursions 
to places of mechanical interest during summer, and 
lectures, &c., during winter. A special feature has been 
the encouragement given to younger members who write 
essays and pursue original research. 



EARLY LITERARY SOCIETIES. 

The weavers and craftsmen of the first half of last 
century had a natural aptitude for debate, and could 
express their ideas in fluent language by tongue or pen. 
Newspapers then were few, small, and expensive, and 
manuscript magazines were laboriously prepared and 
circulated to the members of the various societies. During 
the forties of last century no fewer than ten such magazines 
were in circulation monthly. The names indicate to some 
extent the special characteristic of each society. 

Diagnostic Literary Society's Magazine; Dundee 
Natural History Magazine; Dundee Literary Reposi- 
tory; Dundee Literary Institute Magazine; Magnum 
Bonum Literary Society Magazine; Lochee Literary 
Casket ; Lochee Literary Budget ; Dundee Literary 
and Scientific Institute Magazine ; Dundee Natural 
History and Literary Magazine; Lawson's Magazine 
of Natural History. 

These neatly written M.S. magazines exhibit an 
amount of enthusiasm highly commendable. Thomas 
Lamb of Lamb's Hotel was beloved by the enthusiasts of 
his day, and his premises in Murraygate was the meeting- 
place of many of these early Societies. " The Halls of 
Lamb in Reform Street continued to be a literary centre 
during the lifetime of A. C. Lamb, the son of Thomas. 
He was a diligent collector of " Old Dundee " memorials, 
and his magnificent collection was in 1901 gifted to the 



412 SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

Free Library Committee by Edward Cox of Cardean. 
Many of the unique M.S. magazines are among the 
treasures. 

NATURALIST SOCIETIES. 

In 1828 William Gardiner, botanist and poet, was the 
moving spirit of a society, " The Gleaners of Nature," and 
up till 1835 his M.S. magazine circulated among the 
members. 

The Dundee Naturalist Association was started in 1847, 
George Lawson, the first President, became afterwards 
Professor of Natural History in Nova Scotia. William 
M. Ogilvie, the Secretary, did yeoman service in his day as 
a Naturalist, Town Councillor, and Magistrate. In Lamb's 
rooms the members met for some years. 

On 22nd January 1874 the Dundee Naturalist Society 
was formed, Bailie Ogilvie being first President. The 
Society's record of Lectures, Exhibitions, and Excursions 
from its inauguration to the present day is most creditable, 
and the impetus given to the study of Natural Science 
has carried intelligence to a higher level, and stimulated 
and enriched the community. 

The Dundee Working Men's Field Club was instituted 
28th April 1885, being then an offshoot of Clepington 
Parish Church Guild. Excursions for the study of Nature 
have been a special feature, and the explanatory remarks 
on the specimens gleaned have proved highly instructive. 

GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

The Royal Scottish Geographical Society was founded 
in 1884, and Dundee is one of the four centres where the 
annual course of Lectures have been delivered. Nearly 
all the leading and best known explorers, British and 
Foreign, have thus been brought to the city. 

LOCHEE LITERARY ASSOCIATION. 

This organisation began in a humble way in 1875, and 
step by step grew in influence, moulding and shaping the 
life of Lochee. Peter Anderson was first President and 



SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 413 

for many years Secretary. Dr. A. B. Connel gave active 
assistance and donated over 200 volumes to their library. 
In 1883 they entered their present premises in High 
Street. For a series of years excellent courses of popular 
lectures were arranged and many celebrities were thus 
brought to Lochee. 



DUNDEE PARLIAMENT. 

Budding politicians drift naturally into the local 
Parliament where they find scope for their argumentative 
and oratorical gifts. This useful debating society was 
instituted in 1877 and is a valuable training ground for 
public life. 

ARMITSTEAD LECTURES. 

In 1873 Lord Armitstead of Castlehill, at the close of 
his first term as M.P. for Dundee, placed 5,000 in the 
hands uf Trustees for the founding of a Working Men's 
Ciub. The original intention proving a qualified success, 
the Trustees instituted popular lectures instead, at a 
popular price. The first course was opened in 1882, and 
have been continued yearly since. Distinguished people 
who would not otherwise have been heard in Dundee have 
lectured to large audiences. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC ASSOCIATION. 

The first Photographic Exhibition held in Dundee was 
opened in March 1854; since then local photographers 
have kept abreast of the times. In 1880 they formed the 
Dundee and East of Scotland Photographic Association, 
under the Presidency of J. C. Cox, Lochee. Many inter- 
national exhibitions and two Scottish Photographic 
Salons have been promoted by this body. For many 
years the monthly meetings were held in Lamb's Hotel, 
but of late they have taken place in University College. 
The Scottish Photographic Federation (now comprising 
nearly 50 societies in Scotland) was founded in 1903 at a 



414 SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 

meeting in Dundee, and a Scottish monthly Journal, The 
Camera, is published in the city. The photographic 
survey of Dundee was undertaken some years ago, and is 
now nearing completion, several thousands of pictures 
having been taken and preserved. 

BURNS SOCIETY. 

The centenary of the death of Robert Burns saw the 
inauguration of the Burns' Society. A Recreation Club, 
led by John Ramage, handed over their rooms and assets 
in Nethergate, and the first conversazione was held in the 
Art Galleries, 23rd July 1896. Dr. A. H. Millar was first- 
President, and Robert Fulton, Secretary. The chief aim 
of the Society has been the study of Scottish literature 
before and after Burns. Able local lecturers and talented 
musicians and dramatists have kept up a high standard. 

CHURCH AGENCIES. 

Most of the churches have literary guilds which are 
practically public institutions. Some of them, like the 
Literary Societies of Wallacetown and Ward Chapel, were 
supported by all denominations, and arranged courses of 
lectures for the inhabitants. Men of ability like C. C. 
Maxwell, Frank Henderson, M.P., and James A. Rollo, 
were the leaders, and most of our public men found their 
tongue at such societies. Of specialised study the Castle 
Street Chapel Shakespeare Society is a good example. 
Of late years, Church guilds have suffered in consequence 
of the healthy crave for technical education. 

ALBERT INSTITUTE LECTURES. 

The Free Library Committee acted wisely in arranging 
courses of popular lectures, and their success since their 
initiation in 1906 proves their utility. With the Victoria 
Art Galleries and Branch Libraries at their command, the 



SCIENTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 415 

natural evolution would be for the Natural History, Fine 
Art and Literary Institutions in the city to work in con- 
junction with, and under the wing of the Free Library 
Committee. Courses of Lectures could then be arranged in 
different parts of the city in keeping with the aims and 
objects of the central Institution. 



416 



Charles Lyell and Forfarshire Geology. 

By Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 

THE first Meeting of the British Association at Dundee in 
1867 was remarkable for the large company of geologists 
who attended it. Not only were they numerous, but they 
included one or two of the veteran chiefs whose recollec- 
tions went back to what has been called the " heroic age " 
of geology, and who had themselves played a notable part 
in laying the foundation-stones of the science. Murchison, 
still active alike in mind and body, with his erect figure 
and voluminous neck-cloth, was a conspicuous feature on 
the platform of Section C. Lyell flitted about among the 
different Sections, full of interest in every fresh discovery, 
and eager to hear the details of it from the lips of the 
discoverer himself. Egerton and Enniskillen were there 
to see the latest additions to the store of fossil fishes from 
the Old Eed Sandstone. Pengelly came with his annual 
racy account of the excavations at Kent's Cavern. Charles 
Martins, of Montpellier, told how he had found traces of 
former glaciers in the Pyrenees. A gathering which in- 
cluded also such men as Andrew C. Eamsay, Thomas 
Oldham, James Mcol, Eobert Harkness, Charles W. 
Peach, and other well-known names was one worthy to 
be held in lasting remembrance. 

Of all this brilliant assemblage the figure that the 
present Meeting of the Association in Dundee more 
especially brings to mind is that of Sir Charles Lyell. 
Not only a Scot, but also a Forfarshire laird and proud of 
his native soil, he was drawn to the Meeting in 186*7 not 
only by his keen interest in the progress of science, but by 
loyalty to his county, and his desire that the gathering in 
Dundee should be successful. He never forgot how much 
he owed to the geological features of Forfarshire for their 
influence in stimulating his early efforts to study the 
history of the Earth by personal observations in the field. 



CHARLES LYELL AND FORFARSHIRE GEOLOGY. 417 

A copy of Bakewell's " Geology " which, when a lad, he 
had found in his father's library, had given him the first 
inkling into this science. When, at the age of nineteen, 
he travelled from his College at Oxford by coach to 
Scotland, he was already observing the characters and 
succession of the rocks that were passed on the journey. 
As he crossed the Sidlaw Hills from Dundee to Kirmordy 
his new-found zeal gave him a fresh interest in the scenery. 

While at Oxford his geological proclivities were decisively 
stimulated by the genial lectures and enjoyable excursions 
of the enthusiastic Buckland. He now determined to take 
geology as his special field of scientific activity. The 
Geological Society, which had come into existence a dozen 
of years before, was then in the first flush of its youthful 
ardour, with Buckland as one of its most energetic and 
inspiring members. The young Oxford student was in- 
troduced into that lively company by his sympathetic 
Professor, and in 1819, when only 22 years of age, he was 
elected a Fellow. We may infer with what eagerness he 
entered into the work and spirit of the Society from the 
fact that in the course of only four years he was chosen to 
be one of the Secretaries. 

When he returned to Scotland, longing, doubtless, to 
turn to account the geological knowledge and methods of 
observation which he had now acquired, he found his 
native district to be full of interest and variety. That 
part of the county had as yet only been superficially 
examined by men of science, and thus lay temptingly open 
to the first competent observer who would patiently study 
its details. Had Lyell then settled on his paternal 
estate he would probably have devoted himself to this 
study. But it was well, not only for the cause of geology, 
but fcr that of science at large, that he was led into a 
wider field. Nevertheless, his visits to his home after 
leaving the University and before he launched upon his 
brilliant career left their mark on the history of Scottish 
geology. 

It is interesting to recall that Lyell in these early days 
recognised the anticlinal arch of the Sidlaw Hills and the 



418 CHARLES LYELL AND FORFARSHIKE GEOLOGY. 

great synclinal trough of the Mearns, and thus for the 
first time saw the true geological structure of Forfarshire. 
The striking section which he gave of that structure in 
his " Elements of Geology " held its place in all the suc- 
cessive editions of that work, and thus became one of the 
classic illustrations of its subject. In one of these youthful 
excursions around his home he came upon a remark- 
able dyke of igneous rock which has a particular interest, 
since it formed the theme of his first published scientific 
paper. His essay appeared in the year 1825 as the forerunner 
of the many memoirs and volumes with which he was 
yet to enrich geological literature. Not only the older 
rocks, however, but the younger superficial accumulations 
attracted his notice, and became the subject of his investi- 
gations. The digging-up of marl on the site of a former 
lake upon his father's property at Kinnordy, and the dis- 
covery of some antlers in that deposit, were incidents 
eminently suited to awaken his interest, giving him an 
opportunity to compare recent fresh-water deposits with 
those of earlier geological periods. His observations formed 
the subject of another paper in which he struck the keynote 
of his geological philosophy, that the past can best be 
interpreted by a detailed study of the present. 

After the appearance of these early essays on problems 
suggested at his Forfarshire home, the scenes of Lyell's 
scientific activity lay far from his native place, and 
extended over wide tracts both in the Old and the New 
World. For a dozen of years, travelling all over Europe 
for the purpose of enlarging his knowledge of geological 
facts and strengthening his grasp of the great principles of 
the science and his power of expounding and illustrating 
them, he made no additions to Forfarshire geology. 
When, however, in the year 1840, Louis Agassiz startled 
the geologists of Britain by boldly proclaiming that their 
country had once been swathed in snow and ice, and that 
traces of this Arctic condition remained fresh and unmis- 
takable to the present day, Lyell, ever ready to receive 
new truths and to expound them to the world, entered 
the arena wherein the Swiss naturalist was meeting with 



CHARLES LYELL AND FORFARSHIRE GEOLOGY. 419 

strong opposition, especially from some of the older 
geologists. From his native county of Forfarshire he 
brought forward new evidence to confirm part at least 
of Agassiz' contention. Among the hills overlooking 
Glen Clova he had found two lakes, each nestling in a 
picturesque rock-girt corrie and hemmed in on front with 
conspicuous mounds of earth and stones that ponded back 
the water. He described these mounds as true glacier- 
moraines formed of the detritus that the ice had carried 
forward from the encircling crags behind. Important in 
the history of the progress of geology as one of the earliest 
contributions to the now voluminous literature of glacia- 
tion, the paper in which Lyell described these examples of 
former glaciers has a special interest to Scottish geologists, 
as it was the first of the long series of memoirs and books 
which have so fully revealed the successive stages of the 
Ice Age in Scotland. The evidence which attracted Lyell's 
notice and was described by him, though obvious to a 
trained eye, was much less imposing than much which has 
since been discovered. That Lyell should have recognised 
its true character and boldly proclaimed his belief, at a 
time when such ideas were not yet favourably regarded by 
the general body of British geologists, is a proof of his 
power of observation and of that courage on behalf of 
what he believed to be truth which he so bravely dis- 
played to the end' of his life. 

No geologist of his day realised more clearly than Lyell 
the necessity of visiting and comparing in different 
countries the various kinds of geological evidence from 
which the principles of the science are deduced. In his 
1 on suit of this self-imposed task he from the very be- 
ginning travelled into one region after another all over 
Europe. Each succeeding season found him at work, 
either investigating some district in his own country, or 
a 1 noad among the rocks and in company with the geologists 
"t some tract in which he was interested. In these 
journeys, after his marriage, he had the inestimable 
ad vantage of the companionship and assistance of his 
I" "liiplished wife. He twice visited North America, and 



420 CHARLES LYELL AND FORFARSHIRE GEOLOGY. 

travelled over a wide extent of Canada and the Eastern 
States, keeping his eyes open not only on the geology, but 
on the habits and social problems of the communities 
through which he passed. 

His scientific aim in all these numerous peregrinations 
was not so much to make original observations as to see for 
himself the work of others on their own ground and, where 
possible, under their guidance, and thus to be able to judge 
from personal inspection of the character and value of that 
work and the validity of the conclusions that might have 
been based upon it. His trained observing faculty, how- 
ever, could not fail now and then to enable him to detect 
errors of observation and to note the importance of 
evidence that had previously been missed. He united 
the powers of a keen critic, and of a philosophical and 
eloquent historian, and he devoted these powers with 
unwearied zeal to the furtherance of the science which 
all through his life had the first place in his regard. 
The appearance of each fresh edition of his " Principles " 
and " Elements " was looked forward to with keen anticipa- 
tion by his contemporaries, who knew that they would 
find in them a masterly discussion of the advances made 
by each section of geology and a balanced judgment 
respecting the more important problems still awaiting 
solution. 

It is hardly possible to overestimate the debt which 
the science in this country owes to the writings of 
Charles Lyell. He found the subject in a state of 
anarchy, amidst which the Plutonists and Neptunists 
waged an angry warfare with each other. He left it 
with the Neptunists not only routed from the field, 
but extinct and almost forgotten, and the victorious 
Plutonists almost everywhere following his lead as the 
great prophet of the Uniformitarian School. Towards 
this great advance many other able and enthusiastic 
fellow- workers powerfully contributed. Yet they would 
have been the first to acclaim him as their redoubted and 
inspiring leader. The reaction which has since set in 
against what has been regarded as the too exclusive 



CHARLES LYELL AND FORFARSHIRE GEOLOGY. 421 

Uniformitarianism of Lyell can in no way diminish our 
recognition of the splendour of his achievement and the 
world-wide influence which he has had in placing geology 
on a firm basis as an observational science. 

In his school days, and still more during his college 
career at Oxford, Lyell distinguished himself by his taste 
for literature and his pronounced literary faculty. In those 
years he wrote verses both in English and Latin. One of 
his compositions at school was a mock-heroic poem in 
Latin on a fight between the land-rats and the water-rats. 
In one of his college vacations he made a trip to the Isle 
of Staffa, and on his return to Oxford sent to his father 
four Spenserian stanzas, giving his enthusiastic impressions 
of that wonderful piece of rock-scenery. When he began 
to write on scientific themes his literary power showed 
itself from the first, whether the subject was a plain 
straightforward account of his own observations embodied 
in a paper read before the Geological Society or a brilliant 
article in the " Quarterly Review " on the labours of some 
other scientific man. When in later years he issued his classic 
volumes on the " Principles " and " Elements " of geology, 
they were hailed with universal approbation for their 
literary charm, not less than for their scientific value. 
By the grace of his style he undoubtedly attracted a much 
wider circle of readers and made the aims of his favourite 
science more generally appreciated than any other writer 
of his time. 

In his private life Lyell was a singularly attractive per- 
sonality. His stately courtesy of the old school was 
combined with a kindly and unassuming manner that 
made one half-forget for the moment that he was one of 
the most noted men of his day. His talk, full of informa- 
tion, ranged easily over both science and literature, often 
with flashes of humour and reniiniscences of incidents that 
he had met with in his travels. His brother-geologists 
felt the inspiring enthusiasm of his eagerness for fresh 
knowledge and his keen interest in every new discovery. 
The readiness and geniality with which he welcomed and 
encouraged the entry of younger men into the scientific 



422 CHARLES LYELL AND FORFARSHIRE GEOLOGY. 

field is a treasured memory in the hearts of those who 
experienced it. I well remember the occasion on which I 
first made his acquaintance. It was at the first Meeting 
of the British Association at Aberdeen in the year 1859, 
where, when little more than a lad, I read my first paper 
in Section C. I was one day sitting on one of the back 
benches in that Section-room, listening to the papers and 
discussions, but more especially gazing with much interest 
on the magnates of geology who were mustered on the 
platform, none of whom I knew personally, though I was 
familiar enough with their names and their writings. I 
remember to have specially watched the movements of Sir 
Charles Lyell and the attentive way in which he was 
regarding the proceedings. Being short-sighted, he would 
from time to time screen his eyes, screwing them to get a 
better view of the speaker or the diagrams. By and by 
he rose from his seat and spoke to one of the Secretaries 
sitting at the green table on the platform] who pointed to 
the part of the room where I was sitting. Cautiously 
stepping down to the floor and peering around into the 
audience in front of him, he advanced in my direction, and, 
to my surprise and delight, sat down beside me and began 
at once to ask many friendly questions about my work and 
to give me words of encouragement in my career. It was 
a proud moment in one's life to be in this way welcomed 
into the ranks of science by one of the great masters to 
whom from a distance one had looked up with mingled 
awe and admiration. The kindly sympathy which the 
illustrious author of the " Principles of Geology " showed 
to younger men bound them to him by ties of affection 
that heightened their! regard for his genius and their 
gratitude to him for the instruction and stimulus which 
they owed to his writings. 



423 



George Don. 

By Gr. Claridge Druce, Hon. M.A. Oxon., F.L.S. 

AMONG the celebrated botanists connected with this 
romantic and beautiful county of Forfar two names stand 
out prominently from the rest, the one, Robert Brown, who, 
with great natural ability and having many advantages, 
made for himself a foremost position in the Botanical world, 
as an exceptionally able systematist ; the other, George 
Don, belonging to a widely different type, was primarily 
a nature lover, endowed with great physical powers of 
endurance, who pursued an unwearied and diligent 
research at the floristic botany of his native county, and 
indeed took toll of the Botanical treasures of a large area 
of Scotland, so that his discoveries of new plants are 
probably larger and more important than those made by 
any other British botanist. Yet such is the irony of fate 
that he always lived in penury, and his latter days were 
made more bitter from the clutches of malignant disease, 
and his end was rendered more terrible to his sturdy, 
independent spirit, by absolute poverty, and the knowledge 
that those near and dear to him were dependent upon 
promiscuous charity for their daily bread. Thus it was 
by a bitter and stormy passage he entered into his rest. 
Even then malignant fate pursued him, not content with 
all that it had done to bear down his spirit by painful 
disease, to crush his independence by starvation, society 
still held in reserve a more cruel weapon ; his character for 
common honesty was impeached, so that for some years, 
if not for two generations, his name became a byword, and 
his records stigmatised as "one of George Don's reputed 
discoveries." If the mills of God grind slowly, yet eventu- 
ally time, the great healer of sorrow and prover of truth, 
has given a more correct judgment than that which arose 



424 GEORGE DON. 

in 1820 from the cold judgment of easy-chair professors ; 
and few Englishmen and no Scotsman to-day would 
venture to assert that Don was not an. honest and truthful 
botanist ; moreover, considering the period in which he 
lived, and the opportunities which he possessed, no one 
among us but would admit that his field work was 
exceptional in quantity and quality, and that we are 
justified in claiming for him a foremost place among 
field naturalists, and at the same time in recognising his 
special gift in observing the minute differences in plants, 
which is the true test of Holistic specialisation. 

The details of the early years of George Don are misty 
and indistinct. Even as regards his mother's Christian name 
and his birthplace there are two versions the one given 
by his son to Dr. Neill (Memoir, p. 279), that his father 
was born at Dundee, and that his mother's name was Jane 
Fairweather, would at first sight appear to be authentic, 
but on examination breaks down ; since, when George Don 
the elder died, his son was only a lad, and these details were 
supplied by him to Dr. Neill thirty-five years after, and when 
challenged on one or two points, Don the younger says : 
" All the information I have given does not rest on my 
authority ; it was derived from Mr. James Don, my father's 
cousin in London, who probably may have been wrongly 
informed." The second version is that given by my friend, 
Mr. John Knox of Forfar, whose articles in The Scottish 
Naturalist (1883-4) first drew attention to the injustice 
which had been done to George Don, and were the chief 
means by which his reputation has been vindicated. He 
says that George Don was born on the Farm of Ireland, 
which is on the west flank of the famous hill fort of 
Catterthun, in the parish of Menmuir, in Forfarshire, and 
that he was christened on llth Oct. 1764, his parents being 
Alexander Don (1717-1813), and Isobel [? Jane] Fair- 
weather. Alexander was afterwards a cutler at Dundee, 
and in 1771 or 1772 removed from Beechail, Menmuir, 
to Little Causeway, Forfar, where he worked as a shoe- 
maker, as was not unusual then among small farmers, 
and he was also fond of Horticulture as a recreation. 



GEORGE DON. 425 

To support Mr. Knox's statement may be cited (Mem,.. 
p. 235) that George Don speaks of having seen " a 
peregrine falcon in the possession of the Laird of Balna- 
moon's grandfather, and of his servants hunting with it 
about 1771." Balnamoon is in the parish of Menmuir, 
and in 1771 Don would be seven years of age. Knox says 
that Don was educated at Forfar, receiving an ordinary 
elementary education, and that as a boy he was keen on 
natural history. I have made a somewhat exhaustive 
examination of the various dates given by Don himself 
as to the dates at which he collected certain plants, and 
feel convinced that, after leaving school, he was first 
sent to his cousin, R. Miller, who was gardener at 
Dupplin about 1779, when Don would be fifteen years of 
age. To support this is the fact that (Mem., p 168), under 
Herb. Brit., n. 145, he says, "I first discovered this moss 
[Anodon Donianus] in the Den of Dupplin in Nov. 
or Dec. 1779, being then in fruit." At Dupplin, too, he 
found either then, or subsequently, Geranium phaeum 
(p. 160), Pilularia (p. 177), Scirpus setaceus (p. 168), 
S. pauciftorus (p. 167), Habenaria viridis (p. 164), 
Doronicum Pardalianches (p. 167), Phegopteris 
Dryopteris, and Polystichum aculeatum, besides several 
Mosses and Lichens. Moreover, he says (Pref. to Herb. 
Brit.} that he "first began his Botanical excursions in 
the Highlands in 1779." 

Probably from Dupplin Don went to Dunblane to learn 
Clock-making, but we have no certain evidence a,s to the 
exact date ; even under Scolopendrium (Herb. Brit. y 143) 
he only says that it came from a well at Dunblane. 

Knox (p. 56) says that when he was at Dunblane he 
made a Hortus siccus, of which no trace is extant. In 
1782 he gathered Valeriana pyrenaica (p. 157) at Blair 
Adam, in Kinross; and in 1784 he was on Ben Lawers 
and gathered Poa glauca (p. 196), which would not be 
in evidence before June. We next hear of him in 
Worcestershire at the garden of Hewen Hall, the seat of 
Lord Plymouth, whence he records Ranunculus parvi- 
florus in 1784 (p. 149), Saponaria (p. 175), Arenaria 

2D 



426 GEORGE DON. 

tenuifolia (p. 167), Geranium columbinum (p. 160), 
Stellar ia aquatica (p. 180), Potentilla procumbens 
(p. 146), P. verna (p. 163), Lamium Galeobdolon 
(p. 159), Lycopus europaeus (p. 146), and Phyllitis 
Scolopendrium (p. 143) ; also in Herb. Blake there are 
specimens of Trifolium fragiferum, Linaria vulgaris, 
var. peloria, Brachypodium pinnatum, and Carex 
axillaris, as well as an example which is almost, 
certainly of his collecting, Cerastium tomentosum from a 
wood near Redditch. From Worcestershire he also records 
Galium spurium (p. 161), a new alien to the British 
flora. About this period he was at Broadsworth (p. 258), 
5 miles from Doncaster, for six months, and here he 
found several species, including Teesdalia nudicaulis (p. 
173), Cerastium arvense (p. 180), Galium Mollugo (p. 
162), and Campanula glomerata (p. 162); and in a letter to 
Winch (p. 258) he refers to Ophrys apifera, 0. muscifera, 
Spiranthes spiralis, Orchis ustulata, and 0. pyramidalis, 
as growing in that district. There are also specimens in 
Herb. Blake from this place of Rhamnus catharticus, 
Daphne Mezereum, Bupleurum rotundifolium, with 
Don's name on the sheet, and one of Staphylea pinnata 
without the name, but apparently of the same collector. 

He visited Bristol in 1785, where he found (Herb. Blake) 
Apinella glauca and Carex humilis ; in 1786, in April, he 
was in Dundee and found Potentilla opaca, and was in 
London (p. 280) either, as his son says, " following his trade 
of a clockmaker," or as Dr. Neill more probably suggests, 
occupied in a nursery garden. In 1787 he was in Bristol 
again, for there is, in Herb. Blake, a specimen of Phleum 
paniculatum, gathered by him in that year. This was 
probably only a flying visit, for there are also specimens of 
Panicum sanguinale (Herb. Blake) from Surrey in 1787 ; 
and from Boxhill, where he gathered Buxus sempervirens 
(Herb. Blake*) in the same year. He also found Polypogon 
monspeliense on the Essex shore (Herb. Blake), and 
speaks of Matricaria Chamomilla (p. 164) "as being a 
common weed in nurseries and gardens near London, 
particularly on the Surrey side ; " he refers to having seen 






GEORGE DON. 427 

Lyttirum Salicaria (p. 172) near London, and under 
Potentilla opaca (p. 172) says, " The P. opaca of English 
authors appears to be the P. verna, at least such was the 
case with the plant cultivated in Mr. Curtis' garden at 
Lambeth Marsh ; " he also says that he has " seen 
Campanula Rapunculus by the sides of hedges near 
Millbank, but it appears hardly indigenous ; " and in his 
Herbarium (and Herb. Blake) there is a specimen of 
Briza maxima (p. 186) from Newington Butts of 
course only as an escape from cultivation ; while under 
Alopecurus pratensis (p. 199) he says, " When I was in 
London about 1786 I saw a patch about 20 yards square 
of this grass cultivated by Mr. Curtis." However he 
may have been employed in London, he differed from 
most of his countrymen (the majority of whom are not 
botanists) and failed to make both ends meet, so that his 
father had to remit him the means to return to Scotland. 
Either on his homeward journey or on one of his previous 
wanderings he passed Oxford, for he says of Senecio 
squcilidus (p. 168) that he saw it. " in the neighbourhood 
of that classic city the habitat given in Eng. Bot." 
Sibthorp (Fl. Ox., Pref.) in 1794 only alludes to it as 
Senecio species. 

It appears probable that, on his return to Scotland, he 
went as a journeyman to Glasgow, where, it is said, he 
worked at his trade five days in the week, devoting the 
remainder to his botanical excursions. In 1788 he records 
Car ex filiformis (p. 150), Poa alpina, Anthemis tinctoria, 
and Hypnum cordifolium from his native county. 

In 1789 he is said (p. 58) to have married Caroline 
Clementina Oliphant Stewart, whose acquaintance he had 
iirst made when at Dupplin, she being related to the 
Oliphants of Gask. His son George says that he was 
married before he went to Glasgow, if so the date would be 
1 7X9 or 1790 ; at any rate, in 1789, he visited Ben Lomond, 
re he found Carex saxatilis ; and Bartsia alpina 
(p. 154) on Maelgyrdy ; Polygonatum verticillatum (p. 258) 
in the Den of Rechip, Perth ; as well as Silene nutans in 
Forfarshire. But in 1790 he was in Forfar, for he gives 



428 GEORGE DON. 

that date as that, of his discovery of Galtha radicans ; in 
1791 he found Eriophorum alpinum at Forfar; and in 1*792 
introduced Stratiotes to Forfarshire. During his residence 
in the western metropolis, he made the acquaintance of 
John Mackay in 1791 (p. 266), or 1793 (p. 23), and records 
Festuca sylvatica in 1790 ; and Scirpus maritimus 
from Dumbarton ; Lythrum Salicaria and Lycopus from 
near Paisley; Raphanus maritimus in November 1793 
at Greenock ; and Carum verticillatum from the opposite 
shore. He also added a new alien to the British flora, 
Agrostis verticillata (Herb. Blake). Evidently he went 
backwards and forwards between Glasgow and Forfar, but I 
suspect that he went to live at Forfar in 1793, for under Poa 
glauca (p. 196) he says, "He has cultivated it at Forfar 
since 1793 ; " and that about this time he discovered 
a grass now known as Deschampsia setacea (p. 193). In 
that year he was on Ben Lawers, where he saw the long- 
legged Plover, and discovered Arenaria sulcata (p. 128) 
in the company of his friend John Mackay, as well as a 
new species of grass. It seems to rank under the genus 
Elymus. He gave it the trivial name Alpinus, but of this 
variety he could only find two plants (p. 24). This is the 
grass now known as Agropyron Donianum. 

In 1794 he visited Skye, where he gathered Eriocaulon 
(p. 147), Arabis petraea (p. 155), Brassica campeslris 
(p. 147), Alchemilla argentea, Schoenus nigricans 
(p. 152), Scirpus rufus, Rynchospora alba (p. 152), 
Carex pauciflora (p. 155), Sagina maritima (p. 170), 
Sparganium ajffine (p. 131), and other plants ; he also 
climbed Ben Nevis, where he gathered Poaflexuosa, Sagina 
alpina, Carex saxatilis (p. 176), Hieracium eximium, &c., 
and then found Stellaria scapigerct; to the east of Loch 
Nevis. Ben Lawers was again visited, where he dis- 
covered Juncus castaneus and J. bulbosus, and probably 
J. biglumis. 

In 1795 he worked the Clova hills, discovering Juncus 
tenuis ; on Little Culrannoch Lychnis alpina ; and in the 
lowlands of Angus gathered Grimmia Doniana and 
Vogelia paniculata. In 1796, on the hill of Turin, he 






GEORGE DON. 429 

found Crepis pulchra, which is now extinct, and was 
probably only of casual origin. 

After 1797 there is no difficulty in tracing Don's career. 
In that year, with the small sum of money which he and 
his wife had saved, he purchased of Mr. Charles Gray of 
Carse an acre of land, called the Dovehillock, on a ninety- 
nine years' lease, and at a yearly rent of five shillings, on the 
condition that two dwelling-houses should be built thereon. 
This piece of ground sloped to the west towards what at 
one time had been Forfar Loch. He lived in his house 
which he built in a very penurious and frugal manner, 
selling vegetables to such of the Forfar people as chose to 
send for them. He made a large artificial pond, which he 
stocked with aquatic plants and fish, leaving room for a 
broad border in which the native plants were arranged 
according to the Linnean system, and grown in their 
appropriate soils. He also frequently explored the High- 
lands, and sent his plants to patrons such as Brodie of 
Brodie, the Bishop of Carlisle, Mrs. Dawson Turner, the 
Countess of Aylesford,* Mr. Blake,* afterwards of Danes- 
field, Herts, and others. On these expeditions he occa- 
sionally absented himself for a week at a time ; his plaid, 
and a bag of oatmeal, or bread and cheese, sufficed him 
for shelter and sustenance (Memoir, p. 6.1). 

In 1801 Don explored Lochnagar, and added that most 
striking and rare species, Lactuca alpina, and the rare 
grass, Alopecurus alpinus, to the British flora, the latter 
being new to science. By Loch Lee he found a variety 
of Arabis hirsuta, which was at first mistaken for 
A. ciliata. 

In 1802 Don went northward over the Cairngorms, 
where he added Carex vaginata to the British list ; to 
Banff, where he added Campanula persicifolia to the 
British flora from Cullen. 

In 1802, owing to the influence of Brodie of Brodie and 
others, he was, after a somewhat curious delay, appointed 

* The plants of these two are in the writer's possession, the first 
\v:is -^iven to him by Miss C. E. Palmer, a grand-niece of Lady Ayles- 
ford, and the second was acquired by purchase. 



430 GEORGE DON. 

to succeed the talented Mr. J. Mackay * as principal 
gardener of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh ; and to 
" Scotia's darling seat " he removed in December of that 
year, leaving his garden at Forfar in the care of his father. 
Don's salary was 40 a year. While in Edinburgh he made 
the friendship of Dr. Patrick Neill, whose firm became the 
printers of his principal work, The Herbarium JBritanni- 
cum, of which the first two fascicles appeared in 1804 ; 
Nos. III. and IV. in 1805 ; Nos. V. and VI. in 1806 (about 
which date Don left Edinburgh for Forfar) ; VII. and 
VIII. in 1810; and No. IX. in 1812 or 1813. From 
the Preface to this work we may obtain some idea of 
Don's Scottish explorations. In the Preface he says, 
" Since he first began his Botanical explorations in 
1779, he has repeatedly ranged over the fine mountains 
of Angus-shire which surrounds the great district of 
Clova, where no one on a similar pursuit has ever 
preceded him. He has also searched the vast range 
of mountains which stretch about 60 miles through the 
district of Knoydart, in Inverness-shire, a region which 
has never before been examined by a botanical eye. He 
is the only botanist, too, who has explored the lofty moun- 
tains of Cairngorm, and the great hills of that neighbour- 
hood." 

In 1803 Don, for his discoveries, was made an associate 
of the Linnean Society, and during his residence at Edin- 
burgh, attended the medical lectures with the view of 
obtaining a medical degree. He made many expeditions 
round Edinburgh, added many plants to the local flora, and 
found about 100 herbaceous plants and 200 cryptogamia in 
the King's Park, which had not been enumerated in Mr. 
Yalden's Catalogue (p. 64). 

Among his gatherings at Edinburgh may be mentioned 
Vicia lutea, and Astragalus danicus at North Queens- 
ferry ; in 1804 Chaerophyllum aureum, near Corstorphine. 

On the Pentlands he added Galium uliginosum to the 
Scottish flora and gathered Arena fatua. 

* Mackay died on the 14th April. Don was not appointed til] 
12th December. 



GEORGE DON. 431 

At Pettycur he found Arenaria tenuifolia. 

In and about the " grey metropolis of the north " he 
found Poa humilis, Bromus secalinus, Stellaria palustris, 
Draba muralis, Stratiotes, Mentha gentilis (Herb. Blake), 
Radicula sylvestris, Vicia lathyroides, Senecio viscosus, 
Scirpus fluitans, Arenaria verna, Festuca rigida, &c., 
and Galium cinereum, near Slateford. 

At Arniston he noticed the naturalised Galanthus and 
Pulmonaria officinalis. 

Near Gullane and Leith he found Artemisia maritima, 
Atriplex littoralis, Beta maritima, Apium repens, 
Asparagus altilis, Potamogeton densus, Glyceria 
distans, and Lepturus filiformis. 

He gathered the American Solidago lanceolata at 
Haddington ; Symphytum tuber osum at Bel ton Bar ; and 
Glyceria maritima at Burntisland. 

Don did not long remain in Edinburgh ; he had little 
knowledge of stove plants (p. 65), and it must be confessed 
that he did not shine in that department of horticulture, 
but the stipend was manifestly insufficient to keep a 
large family in a city in anything like comfort, and Don 
loved an untrammelled life. Hence arose a want of cor- 
diality between himself and the Professor, so that he once 
more went back to Forfar and his old occupations, but 
dabbled in surgery (p. 67), at which he might have been 
successful, had not his wandering habits been a stumbling- 
block. These rambles became more prolonged and frequent, 
so that his business gradually fell away, and his circum- 
stances became more straitened. 

So many of his specimens are undated that no accurate 
account of these expeditions can possibly be made, but 
we can cull some facts from the dates which he gives. The 
high ground of Clova and Lochnagar were certainly visited 
in 1807, and on his way were obtained the alpine Carex 
rariflora, Cochlearia alpina, and the grass, A vena alpina, 
all new to science. In the same year he found Equisetum 
variegatum, new to Britain, on the sands of Barrie, and 
also records Arenaria fastigiata (which has never been 
confirmed), but says he found it in Clova several years 



432 GEORGE DON. 

previously. He also gathered Hieracium cerinthoides 
from the Head of Clova, but the plant is H. anglicum, var. 
cerintJiiforme (Backh.), H. calenduliftorum (Herb. Br. 
Mus.), and H. globosum from Lochnagar. 

In 1808 he found, near Forfar, a grass new to Scotland, 
Deyeuxia neglecta, though now destroyed by drainage, and 
Phleum Michelii " on the highest hills of Clova," but this 
has never been confirmed. It was probably in this year 
that he found Deschampsia alpina on Lochnagar, where it 
still grows, and about this date he records an unconfirmed 
species, Ranunculus alpestris, " about 2 or 3 rocks on the 
mountains of Clova." In 1809 he records Potentilla 
tridentata from the hill of Werron in Angus, gathered 
on "3rd April ; but this again has not yet been refound. 

In 1810 he gathered Chaerophyllum aromaticiim, and 
visited Ben Lawers, where he found a variety of Eriophorum 
vaginatum, which Smith thought was capitatum, and 
also an alpine state of E. angustifoliuvn, which he 
erroneously believed to be E. gracile, but he also added 
Garex atrofusca to the British flora, a plant which 
remained undetected on that much worked hill until 
1892. In a marsh near Forfar he also found the alien 
Jris xiphioides naturalised. 

About this time he became so impoverished that, in 1812, 
he had to make an arrangement with his creditors, a chill- 
ing blow to his sturdy and independent spirit. He was 
also in the clutches of malignant disease ; notwithstanding, 
he made in 1812 a long excursion up the Clova Hills to 
Deeside, whence he ascended Ben Macdhui and the Cairn- 
gorms. On the way to Glen Dole he added that most 
interesting alpine, Oxytropis campestris, to the British 
flora; gathered Salix lanata (p. 290) on the Clova moun- 
tains, Hieracium crocatum in the river bed near Mai- 
Lodge ; Ranunculus nivalis, an alpine form of R. acris, also 
near Mar Lodge; and Juncoides arcuatum, that local alpine 
from Ben Macdhui ; and in the same year found Hierochloe 
borealis (Savastana odorata) in Glen Kelly a grand 
gathering as the climax of his labours. In 1813 his father 
Alexander, who had been living with him, died at the age 



GEORGE DON. 433 

of ninety -six,* and in that year was published (as an Appen- 
dix B. to the General View of the Agriculture of the County 
of Angus, or Forfarshire, by the Rev. James Kenrick, 
Edinburgh, 1813) An Account of the Native Plants in 
the County of For far, and the Animals to be found there, 
which, although clumsily arranged by Don, gives an immense 
amount of knowledge of the Natural History of his native 
county. It contains many new British species. Don 
had also, in 1807, published (Trans. Highland Soc. ofScotl., 
vii., 194, 1807) Observations on Some of the indigenous 
Grasses of Britain which seem deserving of Culture for 
Pasture or Hay, for which he was awarded a piece of 
Plate, value 15 guineas; and in 1811 he read a paper On 
the Varieties of Pinus sylvestris, or Scots Fir (Mem. Cal. 
Hort. Soc., i., 1814), in which he describes four varieties of 
that tree. 

In the early part of 1 813, probably his last fasciculus 
was issued, and we find that he came home from one of 
his expeditions in the autumn of 1813 labouring under 
a severe cold, which being neglected grew gradually worse. 
A suppurating sore throat ensued, and under conditions of 
poverty so extreme that he and his family had to depend 
upon the charity of neighbours, he lingered in excruciating 
agony for six weeks and died on the loth January 1814 
(p. 78). 

Although during his life Don lived apart from his 
fellows, with whom he had not much in common, yet his 
worth and integrity were recognised by them, so that when 
they buried him, the whole town turned out to witness it, 
or to follow his body to the kirkyard. The references to 
his death in the local papers bore testimony to his 
worth, as did the contemporary evidence of Dr. Neill and 
others ; but later on, as I have said, his bona-fides was 
questioned, and certainly in the forties, fifties, and sixties 
a botanical student at Edinburgh heard little in his favour. 
Doubtless Professor Arnott's (of Glasgow) attitude had a 
deal to do with this ; the two men were as the 



* Late W. G. Don of Dumbreck (Glasgow Herald, 14th Sept., 1816). 



434 GEORGE DON. 

poles asunder. That Arnott was possessed by a bitter 
animus and not* merely by a scientific desire for the 
certainty of newly discovered facts is evident from his 
own words. Under Caltha radicans (no longer a reputed 
discovery), he says : " Is only known, and in our opinion 
has never been known except as a garden variety " (Br. Fl. 
Ed., vi. p. 11). Under Stellaria scapigera: "We now 
believe [it] to exist nowhere in a wild state. . . . Don 
cultivated it extensively in his garden at Forfar" (Br. Fl. 
Ed., vii. p. 70). His statement under Lychnis alpina is 
more calumnious still : " We have strong reasons for think- 
ing that the plant was sown there (Culrannoch) about 
sixty years ago " (Br. Fl. Ed., vi. p. 61), which was about 
the date when Don recorded it. Hypericum barbatum : 
" We do not believe that this species was found wild in 
Scotland" (I.e., p. 81); respecting this there is a speci- 
men of a form of Glechoma hederacea in Herb. Blake, 
on which Don writes : " By the side of a hedge, about 
1 mile east of where I discovered Hypericum, bar- 
batum." Juncus tennis : " We have specimens from 
Don's garden at Forfar, but we much doubt if 
the roots were found in Clova" (I.e., p. 451). 
" Hierochloe borealis : found only by Don, notwithstanding 
that Glen Kellar or Cally has been minutely searched ; 
the specimens we have seen from Don appeared to have 
been cultivated." These extracts will suffice to show 
the evidence of mistrust which inspired Arnott of Don's 
bona-fides, and led him to slander a poor man who was 
dead. 

Enough of this painful side. I had hoped, from a chrono- 
logical investigation of Don's plants, that it might have 
been possible to infer whether these unverified records had 
been made in the later years of his life under failing mental 
conditions, but such is not the case. It does, however, 
appear that the majority of these were made after his 
return from Edinburgh, when his garden at Forfar was 
crowded with exotic plants and had become untidy, so 
that immature plants from the hills might easily have 
been confused with exotics already in his garden; I can 



GEORGE DON. 435 

offer no other explanation in the case of Ranunculus 
alpestris and Potentilla tridentata, unless, indeed, these 
plants with others still await rediscovery. 

I have, therefore, briefly sketched the life of Don and 
glanced at his Botanical discoveries, for a full list of 
which see Memoir, pp. 126-141, but to which may be 
added Glyceria plicata, which he distinguished from 
G. fiidtans. We may also notice that, in addition 
to the new British plants already mentioned in those 
pages, he found, on one of his ascents of Ben Lawers, 
Myosotis pyrenaica ; in the Clova Valley, Rosa Doniana ; 
by the Esk, Carex aquatilis ; he ascended the high 
peak of Cairntoul, and the massive Ben a Bourd ; he 
explored the coast of the Moray Firth, the neighbour- 
hood of Gordon Castle, the fir woods of salubrious 
Gran town, the seacoast of Aberdeen and Kincardine, 
and the shores of Lochs Leven, Laggan, Katrine, and the 
Gareloch of Loch Long. 

Nor was his own county (rich as it is in natural beauty) 
neglected. In his description of its Natural History, already 
alluded to, he enumerates 300 species of the larger and 
rarer plants, most of which he says he cultivated in his 
garden. He gives about 100 species of Mosses and Liver- 
worts, over 100 species of Lichens, and upwards of 100 
species of Algae. A large and valuable list of the Fauna is 
also included. Besides the plants already alluded to in 
Forfar, he added to science the Lamium, which he 
appropriately called intermedium; the Willow from 
Baldovan Wood, Salix Doniana ; and as new plants to 
Scotland, Potamogeton zoster if olius, in Rescobie Loch ; 
Juncus balticus, from the sands of Barrie; and near 
Montrose, Carex divisa, Scirpus Tabernaemontani, 
and Chaerophy Ilium aureum, recently discovered at 
Callander. As I have said,* the list of Don's 
discoveries is by no means exhausted, since but little 
allusion has been made to the numerous species of Hawk- 
weeds which he found ; nor have I more than glanced at his 

* Address on Unveiling the Monument to George Don at Forfar 
in Sept. 1910. 



436 GEOKGE DON. 

keen discrimination of varieties and forms, much as I should 
have liked to mention this in some detail, because it shows 
his power of acute perception, and testifies to his great 
critical ability, winning for him a high place among British 
Field Botanists. His notes show that a plant to him was 
not only a name but a living organism. He had but an 
elementary education, he was of lowly birth, and without 
influential connections, poverty was his daily companion, 
and must have severely limited his range of reading, a 
deprivation especially detrimental to a botanist ; but he 
had one book, although his poverty made even this difficult 
to examine as freely as he desired the Book of Nature, 
which he studied with a minute scrutiny, so that it gave up 
secrets to him which had not been revealed even to the 
holders of professorial chairs. From his earliest days he had 
dipped into this volume as he wandered over moor and fell ; 
as a journeyman, he stinted himself of rest and leisure in 
order to explore its pages ; in his late years he pursued 
the search until his physical powers gave way. 

We may quote from the introduction to his paper on 
"The Indigenous Grasses," which appears to have been 
written when at Edinburgh ; he says : " In the early period 
of his life, and as far back as his recollection can reach, he 
felt an irresistible and almost instinctive attachment to 
the delightful objects of the vegetable kingdom. This 
ardent desire for attaining knowledge increased with his 
years. No motives of interest or even the stimulus of 
emulation, but an invincible propensity to botanical study, 
induced him to abandon in a great measure the more 
ordinary paths of industry, and devote himself chiefly to 
his more favourite pursuit. Even now, however agreeable 
in some respects the situation which he occupies may be 
to his wishes, it is by no means lucrative. ... At his 
outset in life, he formed the arduous, although to him 
pleasing, resolution of visiting every corner of his native 
country, in search of its vegetable productions ; and for 
twenty-five years past he has been in the practice of 
making several botanical excursions every year, particu- 
larly in the alpine districts of the Highlands, where he 



GEORGE DON. 437 

has spent many days and even nights with pleasure 
among the lofty cliffs, far from any human habitation, 
animated by the attainment, or by the hope of botanical 
discoveries." 

For this special work of exploring the mountainous 
districts of Scotland, Don was physically well fitted ; he 
brought to the guest a strong and active frame ; tall and 
vigorous, he could march 30 miles in twelve hours 
without breaking fast. His needs were of the simplest ; 
therefore there is no doubt that, in his lengthy pilgrimages 
and laborious ascents, he visited places which even yet 
have not been re-examined by botanists of sufficient know- 
ledge to be able to recognise all the various plants which 
Don has enumerated. He had in a very special degree 
those absolute essentials for the field naturalist quick per- 
ception, accurate discrimination, unflagging zeal, patient 
industry, a retentive memory, and above all, that innate 
touch of genius, which gives to its possessor a rich dowry 
in compensation for the drawbacks with which it is not 
unusually accompanied. 

He may be classed, and in no inferior position, with 
Hugh Miller the geologist, as a worthy investigator of 
Natural Science ; each was equally devoted to one ideal, 
pursued through many years with conspicuous ability and 
unfaltering tenacity. Nor is it invidious to add that 
he occupies even a higher plane than those two Nature 
lovers, Robert Dick the Baker-Botanist and Geologist 
of Thurso, and Thomas Edwards the Naturalist of Banff, 
already immortalised by Smiles. 

A contemporary of Robert Burns, he possessed the 
same qualities of independence of character and keenness 
of intellect in a marked degree, and, like the poet, perhaps 
suffered by their over-development ; yet while criticising 
we can only mildly censure the hypertrophy of qualities 
growing scarcer in these comparatively tamer times. 

As Walter Scott made known the beauties of Caledonia 
stern and wild, and popularised with a wizard's power its 
varied and romantic history, so Don in his narrower sphere 
laid open to the botanist of succeeding times the rich moun- 



438 GEORGE DON. 

tain flora, which is so freely bestowed, yet often so skilfully 
concealed, among the corries and crags of the higher hills, 
and thus has created in the minds of us, who follow the 
same pursuits, a sense of gratitude and a keen admiration 
for his toilsome, exacting, and unremunerated labours. 
To those whose only standard of success is opulence his 
life will be pronounced a failure ; to those who love ease 
and luxury his career will be looked upon as insanely 
miserable ; yet I question if the wealthiest millionaire ever 
derived as much satisfaction from the accumulation of his 
riches as Don experienced in rinding a new species, or if 
the most self-indulgent individual ever obtained so 
exquisite a pleasure as Don enjoyed in those high alpine 
journeys, where, in the pure air, among the tumbled frag- 
ments of the hills, with the sense of unutterable calm, 
only broken by the soft sounds of distant streamlets' fall, 
or the plaintive notes of the Curlew and Golden Plover, 
he held his communing with Nature. There he learned 
the secrets of self-respect and independence, traits of 
character now apt to be disregarded, but which through 
generations have been the pride of Scotland. That Don's 
reputation has been vindicated, and that he no longer rests 
under a nameless grave, is a fact which will give pleasure 
not only to the botanist, but to all who admire an honest 
and sincere life. A plain obelisk, of blue Aberdeen 
granite, now stands in Forfar churchyard, with the follow- 
ing inscription : 

"To the memory of George Don, botanist, native of 
Forfarshire, who, after a residence of more than twenty 
years in Forfar, died at the Doo Hillock there, Jan. 15, 
1814. Don was a man of genius, who, with few educa- 
tional advantages, raised himself to a high place in the 
ranks of the botanists of his day. He established a 
Botanic Garden in Forfar, which contained a most exten- 
sive collection of British plants. He was Superintendent 
from 1802 to 1806 of the Edinburgh Royal Botanic 
Gardens. For his services to. British botany he was 
elected an Associate of the Linnean Society. In 1813 
he published an account of the native plants of the 



GEORGE DON. 439 

County of Forfar. In the course of many journeys of 
explorations made in the Highlands, under hardships and 
privations, he added largely to the then existing know- 
ledge of the flora of his native country ; and so long as 
there are Students of the Alpine flora of Britain his name 
will be held in affectionate remembrance. Five plants 
perpetuate his name. A rose (Rosa Doniana) ; a 
willow (Salix Doniana) ; a grass (Agropyron Doni- 
anum) ; and two mosses (Grimmia Doniana and 
Seligeria Doniana). 

" This monument was erected by public subscriptions 
through the efforts of the Forfar Field Club : John Knox, 
schoolmaster, Forfar ; and also of George Claridge Druce, 
M.A. Oxon., F.L.S., by whom it was unveiled, 8th Sept. 
1910." 






441 



Patrick Blair, M.D., F.R.S, Anatomist and 
Botanist. 

By A. P. Stevenson. 

IN the " Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 
of London," vol. xxvi., for 1710-12, a paper appears, extend- 
ing over a hundred and eleven quarto pages, which, in 
addition to general zoological interest, possesses a local 
value not generally known. Entitled " Osteographia 
Elephantina," it gives a description with an anatomical 
dissection of an elephant, which died on the road between 
Broughty-Ferry and Dundee on 27th April 1706. 

The writer of the Memoir, " Patrick Blair, Surgeon - 
Apothecary," communicated his matter to Sir Hans 
Sloane, and by him it was transmitted to the Royal 
Society, read and printed in its Transactions, of which the 
author was shortly afterwards elected a Fellow. 

The paper was accompanied by four large folded copper- 
plates (one of which is reproduced on a smaller scale here- 
with), which were engraved in Dundee, and probably were 
the earliest work of the kind done here at least, they are 
considerably antecedent to those plates which Mr. A. C. 
Lamb claimed as the earliest engraved in this city. 
Blair's explanation of the plates being engraved in 
Dundee is characteristic. " They might have been finer 
done in London, but since I had the original by me, 
whereby I was able, from time to time, to correct in the 
engraving what errors happened in the drawing, I rather 
chose to have them done in Dundee." 

It so happened that this elephant was the first to 
be dissected in Great Britain, and notwithstanding the 
disadvantages under which Blair worked, and of which he 
gives a very quaint and amusing account, the accuracy 

2E 



442 PATRICK BLAIR. 

and value of the paper has been recognised by experts. 
Not long ago, Professor Boas, of Copenhagen, one of the 
greated authorities, asserted that Blair's observations were 
most accurate and reliable. Some details in the life of . 
this Dundee doctor of 200 years ago may draw more 
attention to the man and his work. 

The date of his birth is not known; it was probably 
about 1666. His family was an old Dundee one, and the 
" Dr. Patrick Blair " who, according to Dr. A. H. Millar's 
t: Roll of Eminent Burgesses of Dundee " (page 134), was 
" made a Burgess and Brother of the Guild of Dundee, for 
his meritorious services to the Commonweal " (3rd March 
1625), was very probably one of his forbears. Apart from 
Blair's own letters and writings, the earliest public notice 
of him appears in an advertisement in The Edinburgh 
Gazette, for 29th September 1701, where, designating 
himself " Surgeon- Apothecary, Dundee," he intimates 
that he has ready for the press a work which, upon suit- 
able encouragement, would shortly be published. He gives 
the title in full : " Manuductio ad Anatomium ; or, A 
plain and easy method of dissecting, preparing, or preserv- 
ing all parts of the body of man either for public 
demonstration, or the satisfaction of private curiosity." 
In the books he published in later years there are references 
to medical and surgical cases with which he was concerned 
in the Low Countries in 1695-97, and as some of these 
deal with fighting and duelling, one may conclude he 
formed part of that army which " swore heavily in 
Flanders." 

Settled again in Dundee, as we have seen, he seems to 
have secured a responsible position ; and it was through 
his friendship with Provost Yeaman, that he had his 
opportunity with the elephant the Provost being gifted 
with the cadaver by the keepers of the animal, to whom 
he gave a certificate that it had come to its death in a 
natural way, and through no fault of its custodians. Blair 
was always a keen naturalist, and in the Sloane collection 
in the British Museum a large number of letters are 
preserved, written by him from Dundee to Sir Hans 



PATRICK BLAIR. 443 

Sloane and James Petiver, in which his " earnest desire 
to improve a close pursuit of the Natural History " is very 
evident. The letters date from 1706 to 1714 and are full 
of interest Blair revealing himself as a most likeable 
personality. On 26th July 1708 he tells Petiver that 
the death of the " huge " animal, " whereof the monuments 
are preserved with us," was "a great motive for me to 
engage several honourable and learned gentlemen in the 
neighbourhood, with the physicians and surgeons in this 
place, to erect a Public Hall at their own private charges, 
to use all means for improvement of the Natural History, 
to make a collection of curiosities, wherever they have 
come a good length, and to establish a Physik Garden, 
whereof I am overseer." * 

On 29th May 1712 Blair was made an M.D. of Aberdeen, 
" on the recommendation of the Bishop of Aberdeen and 
several eminent physicians in Angus," as the official record 
has it, and in the following year (1713) he left Dundee 
for London to see his correspondents Sloane and Petiver, 
whom he had never met personally. His visit must have 
been a memorable event to Dr. Blair, and on his return 
journey to Dundee, a long and gossipy letter to his "kind 
landlord and special friend " Petiver, dated Birmingham, 
9th October 1713, gives particulars of his visits to Oxford, 
Litchfield, and elsewhere, and the famous botanists and 
medical men with whom he foregathered on his home- 
ward route. Sadder days lay in store for the doctor. He 
was to see England and London again under very different 
conditions. His next meeting with his friend Petiver 
was in Newgate prison ! The Jacobite rising of 1715 
was the unfortunate event which made a turning-point 
in Blair's life. " The honourable and learned gentlemen 
in the neighbourhood," who built the " Hall of Rarities," 

* This " Hall of Rarities/' as Blair calls it, contained the skeleton 
id the stuffed skin of the elephant. Hall and elephant and speci- 
es have long since disappeared, although Small, in his M Account 
Dundee" (1792), speaks of the skeleton as having been "recently 
existence." A writer in the Dundee Advertiser, in 1825, said " he 
lad heard " that some proverbially thrifty townsman had got the bones 
mnd down to make a top dressing for his fields in Strathmore. 



444 PATRICK BLAIR; 

and founded the " Society for Natural Improvements of 
Dundee," were all strong adherents to the Stuart cause, 
as indeed at that time most of the townsmen of import- 
ance generally were so much so indeed that, when 
Argyll reached Dundee after Sherriffmuir, he had to 
appoint new magistrates and a town-clerk in place of 
the officials who had deemed it wise to leave the neighbour- 
hood. Blair's brother and nephew were active, and their 
names are among those exempted from the Acts of 
Indemnity of 1715 and 1745. Dr. Blair, however, main- 
tained that he " was in no respect accessory to the late 
troubles, but happening to reside near the parts where the 
rebellion broke out, the gentry forced him to accompany 
the army as a medical attendant." He was amongst the 
army which, under Mackintosh of Borlum, entered England, 
and ultimately surrendered at Preston, the same day 
the indecisive battle of Sherriffmuir was fought 13th 
November 1715. Dr. Blair was one of the melancholy 
company who were marched over the Midland counties 
and lodged -in Newgate. Here his friends Sloane and 
Petiver did their best for him, and after his trial and 
sentence to death, succeeded in obtaining a pardon for 
him. This, however, came at the very last moment, and 
his friend Petiver, writing to Sloane, gives a somewhat 
dramatic account of it. On the evening of the day 
before the execution Petiver came to see him. "The 
Doctor," he wrote, " sat pretty quietly till the clock struck 
nine, and then he got up and walked about the room ; at 
ten he quickened his pace ; and at twelve, no reprieve 
coming, he cried out, * By my troth, this is carrying the 
jest too far ! ' ' The reprieve, however, came soon after r 
and in due time the official pardon followed. Dr. Blair did 
not return to Dundee, but endeavoured to secure a practice 
in London. He resumed his connection with the Royal 
Society, and a "Discourse on the Sexes of Plants," read 
before the Society, formed the basis of his best known 
work, " Botanick Essays," published in 1720. In April 
of that year the '-struggle for existence" was so acute, 
that he "was nearly ruined," as he wrote Sloane, and had 



PATRICK BLAIR. 445 

to retire to a "country place," where he might live more 
<|iiietly and find a better livelihood. This he found at 
Boston, in Lincolnshire, and here he remained till his 
death in 1728. He still kept up his relations with his 
London friends, but the chief correspondent of his later 
\ ears was John Martyn, the son of a Hamburgh merchant 
with whom he had botanised in London, and to whom 
liis heart had gone out with the love of a father to a son. 
This "amiable youth," as Dr. Blair calls him, in after 
years became Professor of Botany at Cambridge, and 
always insisted that Dr. Blair was "his preceptor in 
Botany, and the most intimate friend of his early years." 
All the MSS. of Dr. Blair's last work passed through 
John Martyn's hands, and the proofs were read and 
corrected by him. Most of Blair's correspondence with 
Martyn is preserved in the Banksian collection in the 
British Museum. 

In addition to many papers printed in the " Philosophical 
Transactions of the Royal Society," Dr. Blair published the 
following works : 

" Osteographia Elephantina, 1713." A reprint of the 
Royal Society paper, with the four original plates, 
dedicated to Dr. John Arbuthriot. A copy of this work is 
in the "Old Dundee" Collection of the Free Library. 

" Miscellaneous Observations in Physic, Anatomy, 
Surgery, and Botanicks, 1718." This contains much 
interesting local matter, and bits of personal history, with 
a drawing of a Perthshire plant, which Dr. Blair also 
found in Wales. 

" Botanick Essays, 1720." This is the most outstanding 
of Dr. Blair's books, and was the first to give in English a 
?asoned and convincing proof on the question of sex in 
)lants, the Doctor demonstrating his case by experiments. 
Te also discusses the Structure of Plants, and the Methods 
)f Classification, indicating a strong preference for the 
\berdonian Morison's system, as against that of Ray. The 
Nourishment of Plants and the Circulation of the Sap in 
11 seasons are also treated with great fulness. The book 

mtains four plates, and is dedicated to Sir Isaac Newton, 






446 PATRICK BLAIR. 

the President, and to the Council and Fellows of the Royal 
Society, and his friend, Sir Hans Sloane, the President 
and the Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians, 
London. The book bears, under date 22nd October 1719, 
the "Imprimatur, Is. Newton, P.R S." 

" Pharmaco - Botanologia ; or, An Alphabetical and 
Classical Dissertation on all the British Indigenous and 
Garden Plants of the New London Dispensatory, 1723-28." 
This work was issued in Decads at irregular intervals the 
seventh and last division published synchronising with 
Dr. Blair's death and only reached the letter H of his 
alphabetical arrangement. It is full of varied and curious 
matter relating to the virtues and uses medicinal and 
otherwise of the plants discussed, and contains many 
allusions to local plants and their habitats, besides notes 
relating to the author's life in Dundee and the places of his 
youth and " wander years." The work is practically an 
English version of the Latin lectures given by Dr. Blair in 
connection with the " Physik Garden " of Dundee, of 
which he was " overseer," and which he used in the training 
of his "'prentices," his personal interest in whose welfare 
and progress is one of the many pleasant features in his 
letters to the London apothecary Petiver already referred 
to. 



447 



William Gardiner, Botanist. 

By A. P. Stevenson. 

WILLIAM GARDINER, the author of the "Flora of 
Forfarshire " and other botanical works, was born at the 
West Port, Dundee, on 13th July 1808, not 1809, as 
generally stated. ("The foundation stone of the Bell 
Rock Lighthouse was laid 10th July 1808, three days 
before my birth." Gardiner MS. in Lamb. Collection.) 
His parents were in very humble circumstances, and at 
a very early age the boy was apprenticed to an umbrella- 
maker in Dundee. He was entirely self-educated, as his 
school years had to be cut short that he might aid the 
family exchequer. A disposition he evinced towards 
natural history was fostered and encouraged by his father 
and uncle, who, especially the latter (Douglas Gardiner), 
were keen botanists, and friends of George Don of Forfar, 
with whom they often " herborized." 

Gardiner's little spare time, and all his early Sunday 
mornings, were devoted to his favourite studies. He was 
a keen observer of all living things. His early note-books 
and manuscript magazines still in existence, and in the 
possession of the Dundee Free Library, give ample 
evidence of this, and indicate a surprisingly wide acquaint- 
ance with both scientific and general literature. He was 
" neat-fingered," as his mounted specimens show ; made 
wonderful sketches, and wrote really good verse. 

In his notes he records his " finds " of rare flowers and 
insects at spots in and around Dundee, which now have 
lost their former life and glory and are bald in stone and 
lime. 

Through the kindness of a sympathetic employer later 
on when a journeyman never getting much beyond ten 
shillings of a weekly wage he was able to go botanising 



448 WILLIAM GARDINER. 

outside the immediate neighbourhood of Dundee. In 
Loudon's " Magazine of Natural History " for 1832, he 
records the results from a natural history point of view of 
a " Walk along the Coast of Forfarshire." 

In 1838 a proposal made by him to the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh, " to collect 2500 specimens in the 
Perthshire Highlands for a sum of five guineas," was 
accepted, and with this undertaking his career as a collector 
of British plants was begun. For some years he kept to his 
umbrella-making, doing his botanical work during the 
summer months ; but in 1844 he devoted himself entirely 
" to collecting and distributing our native plants, and 
hoped by this means to be instrumental in forwarding the 
cause of Flora, and at the same time gratifying my own 
fondness for the pursuit." 

He supplied extensive and well-prepared collections of 
plants to subscribers and others all over the United 
Kingdom, and correspondents abroad were pleased to 
have his assistance also. Articles by him, dealing with 
botany and entomology in particular, appeared in Loudon's 
"Magazine of Natural History," Rennie's "Field Naturalist," 
Newman's " Phytologist," and other journals of natural 
history ; and papers contributed by him were printed in 
the " Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh/' 
which Society elected him an Associate in 1838. At the 
time of his death he was referred to in the "Annual 
Report of the Linnean Society " as being " well known to 
the members," having been an Associate from 1849. His 
publications were as follows : 

" A Flora of Ten Miles Around Dundee " (1840 ?). 

This production the writer has never seen, his attention 
was drawn to it by the late Sir Joseph D. Hooker, who 
quoted the title from the library list at Kew Gardens, and of 
which Sir Joseph wrote later on : " The Dundee Flora 
is a myth. All I can find is a 12mo sheet, blank on one 
side, addressed to the Editor of the ' Journal of Botany ' 
(Sir W. Jackson Hooker), on the other in small print is a 
list of the Natural Orders, genera, and species, in tabular 
form . . . which W. G. has personally seen up to this date. 



WILLIAM GARDINER. 449 

The little sheet is evidently only a prospectus of a work 
that never appeared." This may be so ; the odd tiling is, 
that in the "Northern Warder" review of the "Flora, of 
Forfarshire," the book is said to be by the author of a 
" Flora of Ten Miles Round Dundee." Perhaps some 
Dundee collector may be able to throw light on this 
matter. 

" Botanical Rambles in Braemar in 1844, with an 
Appendix on Forfarshire Botany, 1845." 

This was primarily intended for his patrons to indicate 
the nature of the districts where the plants he supplied 
were collected. 

" Twenty Lessons on British Mosses." First Series, 1846. 
Second Series, 1849. 

In these little books dried specimens of the mosses 
described were mounted at the commencement of each 
article. 

Of the first series four editions were published. The last 
edition, on which Gardiner was engaged at the time of his 
death, was completed and issued by the late Bailie Ogilvie, 
Lochee, and his sister, for the benefit of Gardiner's orphan 
boy. 

" The Flora of Forfarshire, 1849." 

This was Gardiner's principal work, and with the 
exception of Don's list of the "Native Plants in the 
County of Forfar," published in the Appendix to 
Headrick's "Agriculture of Angus or Forfarshire" (1813), 
is the only published Flora of the county. 

The aspect of the county has changed very considerably 
in the sixty years since its publication, but the surprising 
thing is, as the late Robert Smith, B.Sc. whose early 
death was such a serious loss to Scottish and to Forfarshire 
botany pointed out, the stations indicated by Gardiner, 
srill remain in many cases actual habitats of the plants 
referred to by him. 

Gardiner had planned a volume on the Zoology of 
Forfarshire, but it was never executed. In the later years 
of his life he fell into poor health, and ultimately he was 
in such indigent circumstances that an appeal had to be 



450 WILLIAM GARDINER. 

made to the many botanists with whom he had been in 
communication for assistance. 

The response was very cordial, and the list of contributors 
published showed how extensive had been his corre- 
spondence with the best known workers in the field of 
British Botany. It was hoped he would soon resume his 
labours, but in his low physical condition he succumbed to 
an attack of typhus fever, 21st June 1852. 

At the sale of his effects, which had to be realised for the 
benefit of his orphan boy, his collections of plants were 
purchased by Professor C. C. Babington of Cambridge. 
Gardiner was buried in the old Howff burying ground, 
but no stone marks his place of rest. 

Public opinion at the time of his death favoured an effort 
to place a memorial of the humble botanist over his grave ; 
but the pressing needs of his only son took rightful pre- 
cedence in the subscriptions which had to be asked and 
obtained from those who thus indicated their respect for 
the work and memory of William Gardiner. 






451 



Patrick Matthew of Gourdiehill, Naturalist. 

By W. T. Caiman, D.Sc. 

THE name of Patrick Matthew is mentioned by most 
historians of the Evolution theory as one of those who 
anticipated Darwin and Wallace in enunciating the 
principle of Natural Selection. Matthew's views were pub- 
lished in 1831 in an appendix to a work on " Naval Timber 
and Arboriculture," and his claim to priority was fully 
admitted by Darwin. Apart, however, from the references 
in the " Historical Sketch " prefixed to the later editions ot 
the " Origin of Species " and in Darwin's " Life and 
Letters," little seems to be generally known about him, and 
it is perhaps not always recognised how complete the 
anticipation really was. Last year Professor Walther 
May, of Karlsruhe, published in the " Zoologische Annalen " 
(vol. iv. pp. 280-295) an elaborate essay on "Darwin und 
Patrick Matthew," in which full justice is done to 
Matthew's work and some biographical details are given. 
The article is accompanied by a portrait which is repro- 
duced here by permission of the publishers. 

By the courtesy of Professor May, I have been put into 
communication with Miss Euphemia Matthew, of New- 
burgh, who has kindly supplied me with much interesting 
information relating to her father, supplementing and, in 
some points, correcting the particulars given by Professor 
May.* 

Patrick Matthew was born on 20th October 1790 at 
Rome, a farm held by his father, John Matthew, on the 
banks of the Tay, near Scone Palace. His mother, Agnes 
Duncan, was related, though in what degree is not known, 

* I am also indebted, for information used in the preparation of 
this notice, to Mr. Francis Darwin, Mr. A. P. Stevenson of Dundee, 
and Mr. Thomas Bell of Balbeggie. 



452 PATRICK MATTHEW OF GOURDIEHILL. 

to the family of Admiral Duncan, the famous ancestor of 
the present Earl of Camperdown.* He was educated at 
Perth Academy and at Edinburgh University, but his stay 
at the latter cannot have been of long duration, lor, on his 
father's death, he undertook, at the age of seventeen, the 
management of the estate of Gourdiehill, near Errol. This 
estate he inherited from the Duncan family, in whose 
possession it had been for more than 300 years. One of 
his first employments there was the planting of an exten- 
sive orchard which, I believe, still exists. In 1817 he 
married his cousin, Christian Nicol, whose mother, 
Eupheinia, was a sister of Agnes Duncan. Matthew 
travelled a good deal on the Continent at various times. 
He was in France in 1815 when the news of Napoleon's 
return from Elba caused him hurriedly to leave the 
country. In 1840 he travelled in the north of Spain, and 
later he lived for some time in Hamburg and in Holstein, 
where he purchased an estate which lie frequently visited 
in later years. He died at Gourdiehill on 8th June 1874 
(his wife had died in 1857), and was buried in Errol 
Churchyard. 

Matthew was a frequent contributor to the local press, 
^specially the Dundee Advertiser, as well as to the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, Mark Lane Express, and other 
periodicals, writing chiefly on political and agricultural 
matters. He was an early and active supporter of the 
Chartist movement and of the agitation for the repeal 
of the Corn Laws. It is of interest on the present 
occasion to record that he attended the last meeting of 
the British Association in Dundee in 1867, and read a 
paper (not published in the annual " Report ") on 
" Capital and Labour" before the section of Economic 
Science. When the scheme for bridging the Tay at 
Dundee was being considered, Matthew advocated what 
he deemed a preferable route, crossing the Tay above 
Newburgh and bringing the various villages on th< 

* The family tradition alluded to by Professor May, according 
which the Matthews are descended from a sister of Robert Bruce, is 
declared by Miss Matthew to be quite without foundation. 



PATRICK MATTHEW OF GOURDIEHILL. 453 

Carse in touch with the railway, and so promoting 
their development. He strongly protested against the 
inadequacy of the proposed structure, holding that 
it was quite unfit to resist the gales that occasionally 
sweep down the valley of the Tay, and these apprehen- 
sions were tragically justified a few years after his death. 
In his last years Matthew gave much attention to the 
question of exhaustion of the soil, holding that " high 
farming and the application of foreign arid artificial 
manures are fast increasing the sterility of our land/' 

In addition to the work on "Naval Timber" already 
alluded to, Matthew published in 1839 a book entitled 
" Emigration Fields," and, in 1864, a political pamphlet 
on " Schleswig-Holstein." It is on the title-page of the 
last-named that he describes himself as " solver of the 
problem of species " (see Darwin's letter to Hooker, 
'' Life and Letters," vol. iii. p. 41). 

Matthew's chief claim to remembrance rests, however, 
on his " Naval Timber," and it is interesting to notice,, 
as Professor May points out, that the conception of Natural 
Selection is not so entirely foreign to the subject of the 
book as might at first sight be supposed. Matthew's 
main theme is naval supremacy, and the means of 
maintaining it. Writing at a time when the Napoleonic 
wars were a recent memory, he has much to say on the 
ennobling influence of war, and on the struggle for 
existence between nations. On the other hand, his 
experience as an agriculturist had given him a very clear 
idea of the importance of artificial selection (p. 106 y 
et seq.). The conjecture may be hazarded that Matthew, 
like Darwin and Wallace, had read Malthus's "Principles 
of Population." His reference on p. 247 to " population- 
preventive checks" would seem to suggest this. At all 
events in 1831, with the misery of the " hungry forties " 
already in sight, the problems of over-population were 
forcing themselves on the attention of all men. 

Matthew's views on Evolution are given, in somewhat 
haphazard order it must be confessed, in various passages 
of the appendix. He considers it not unphilosophic to- 



454 PATRICK MATTHEW OF GOURDIEHILL. 

hold " that living things, which are proved to have a 
circumstance-suiting power a very slight change of cir- 
cumstances by culture inducing a corresponding change of 
character may have gradually accommodated themselves 
to the variations of the elements containing them, and, 
without new creation, have presented the diverging 
changeable phenomena of past and present organised 
existence" (p. 382). His own explanation of this "cir- 
cumstance-suiting power" is given in the following 
passages : * 

" There is a law universal in nature tending to render 
every reproductive being the best possibly suited to its 
condition that its kind, or that organised matter, is 
susceptible of, which appears intended to model the 
physical and mental or instinctive powers to their highest 
perfection and to continue them so. This law sustains 
the lion in his strength, the hare in her swiftness, and the 
fox in his wiles. As Nature, in all her modifications of 
life, has a power of increase far beyond what is needed to 
supply the place of what falls by Time's decay, those 
individuals who possess not the requisite strength, swift- 
ness, hardihood, or cunning, fall prematurely without re- 
producing either a prey to their natural devourers, or 
sinking under disease, generally induced by want of 
nourishment their place being occupied by the more 
perfect of their own kind, who are pressing on the means 
-of subsistence " (pp. 364-365). 

" The self-regulating adaptive disposition of organised 
life may, in part, be traced to the extreme fecundity of 
Nature, who, as before stated, has, in all the varieties of her 
offspring, a prolific power much beyond (in many cases a 
thousandfold) what is necessary to fill up the vacancies 
caused by senile decay. As the field of existence is 
limited and preoccupied, it is only the hardier, more 
robust, better-suited- to-circum stance individuals who are 
able to struggle forward to maturity, these inhabiting only 
the situations to which they have superior adaptation and 

* Some slight changes have been made in the punctuation of these 
passages. 



PATRICK MATTHEW OF GOURDIEHILL. 455 

greater power of occupancy than any other kind ; the 
weaker, less circumstance-suited, being prematurely 
destroyed. This principle is in constant action ; it regulates 
the colour, the figure, the capacities, and instincts ; those 
individuals of each species whose colour and covering are 
best suited to concealment or protection from enemies, or 
defence from vicissitude and inclemencies of climate, whose 
figure is best accommodated to health, strength, defence, 
and support ; whose capacities and instincts can best 
regulate the physical energies to self-advantage according 
to circumstances in such immense waste of primary and 
youthful life, those only come forward to maturity from 
the strict ordeal by which Nature tests their adaptation to 
her standard of perfection and fitness to continue their 
kind by reproduction " (pp. 384-385). 

This " law " is described as " operating upon the slight 
but continued natural disposition to sport in the progeny," 
and " in concert with the tendency which the progeny have 
to take the more particular qualities of the parents," giving 
rise to species (p. 385). 

On the publication of the " Origin of Species," Matthew 
wrote to the Gardeners Chronicle (7th April 1860, pp. 
312-313), claiming priority for his discovery of Natural 
Selection, and giving long extracts from his book. A 
fortnight later a letter from Darwin appeared in the same 
periodical (pp. 362-363), in which he said, "I freely acknow- 
ledge that Mr. Matthew has anticipated by many years the 
explanation which I have offered of the origin of species 
under the name of natural selection." A further letter from 
Matthew appeared a few weeks later (p. 433). As Darwin 
wrote to Lyell at the time ("Life and Letters," vol ii. p. 
301), it was " a complete but not developed anticipation." 
Professor May points out that, while Wells and Prichard 
both preceded Matthew in recognising the action of 
Natural Selection, they only discussed its application to 
the races of mankind.* Matthew, on the other hand, brings 

* See, however, Prof. Poulton's interesting essay on Prichard 
("A Remarkable Anticipation of Modern Views on Evolution," 
Science Progress, New Series, Vol. I, No. 3, April 1897 ; reprinted 
in Essays on Evolution^ Oxford, 1908). 



456 PATRICK MATTHEW OF GOURDIEHILL. 

it forward as one of the factors in a general theory of 
evolution. 

By the kindness of Miss Euphemia Matthew I have 
been permitted to see three of Darwin's letters to her 
father. As they have not hitherto been published, it has 
been thought worth while to give them here in full. The 
years in which they were probably written have been 
kindly added by Mr. Francis Darwin. 

DOWN, BROMLEY, 
KENT, S.E., June 13th [1862]. 

DEAR SIR, I presume that I have the pleasure of 
addressing the Author of the work on Naval Architecture 
[sic] and the first enunciator of the theory of Natural 
Selection. Few things would give me greater pleasure 
than to see you ; but my health is feeble, and I have at 
present a son ill and can receive no one here, nor leave 
home at present. 

I wish to come up to London as soon as I can ; if, there- 
fore, you are going to stay for more than a week, would 
you be so kind as to let me hear, and if able to come up 
to London, I would endeavour to arrange an interview 
with you, which [would] afford me high satisfaction. 
With much respect, I remain, dear sir, yours very 
faithfully, CH. DARWIN. ' 

DOWN, BROMLEY, 
KENT, S.E., Nov. 21 [1863?]. 

DEAR SIR, Mr. Darwin begs me to thank you warmly 
for your letter, which has interested him very much. I 
am sorry to say that he is so unwell as not to be able to 
write himself. 

With regard to Natural Selection, he says that he is not 
staggered by your striking remarks. He is more faithful 
to your own original child than you are yourself. He says 
you will understand what he means by the following 
metaphor. 

Fragments of rock fallen from a lofty precipice assuntu 




PATRICK MATTHEW. 



PATRICK MATTHEW OF GOURD1EHILL. 457 

an infinitude of shapes these shapes being due to the 
nature of the rock, the law of gravity, &c. by merely 
selecting the well-shaped stones and rejecting the ill- 
shaped an architect (called Nat. Selection) could make 
many and various noble buildings. 

Mr. Darwin is much obliged to you for sending him 
your photograph. He wishes he could send you as good 
a one of himself. The enclosed was a good likeness taken 
by his eldest son, but the impression is faint. 

You express yourself kindly interested about his family. 
We have five sons and two daughters, of these two only 
are grown up. Mr. Darwin was very ill two months ago 
and his recovery is very slow, so that I am afraid it will 
be long before he can attend to any scientific subject- 
Dear sir, yours truly, E. DARWIN. 

DOWN, BECKENHAM, 
KENT, S.E., March 15th [1871]. 

DEAR SIR, I thank you for your kind letter. You 
show no signs of your fourscore years in your letter or in 
the newspaper article, which seem written with your 
pristine vigour. My health keeps very indifferent and 
every exertion fatigues me, so that I doubt whether I shall 
be good for much more. Your parable of the Damascus 
Woman is quite new to me and very striking. 

I sincerely wish you a happy meeting with your son. I 
have many letters to write, so pray excuse my brevity, 
and believe me, with respect, yours faithfully, 

CH. DARWIN. 



2F 



458 



Robert Brown and Other Botanists. 

By Lieut.-Colonel Sir David Prain, F.R.S., 
Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ROBERT BROWN, second son of the Rev. James Brown, 
M.A., by his wife Helen, daughter of the Rev. Robert 
Taylor, was born at Montrose, where his father was 
Episcopalian minister, on 21st December 1773. From the 
Montrose Academy he went, as a Ramsay bursar, in 1787 
to Marischal College, Aberdeen, and two years later, when 
his father left Montrose for Edinburgh, Brown entered the 
University there. Here he studied for several years, with 
the object of entering the medical profession, but did not 
take a University degree. While a student he worked at 
Botany, and his work was so highly regarded by Dr. 
Walker, then Professor of Natural History, that, in 1791, 
Brown was induced to communicate his earliest paper to 
the local Natural History Society, Shortly after the 
enrolment of the Fifeshire Regiment of Fencibles, Brown 
was given, in 1795, the double commission of Ensign and 
Assistant-Surgeon in the corps which he accompanied to 
the north of Ireland. Here he served until sent to 
England on recruiting service in 1798. During this 
deputation he passed some months of that year and 
the next in London, where he was made, in 1798, an Associate 
of the Linnean Society, and continued his botanical studies 
in the house of Sir Joseph Banks. Returning to 
regimental duty in 1799 he served in Ireland till December 
1800, when, on the recommendation of Banks, he was 
appointed Naturalist to an expedition about to be 
dispatched under Captain Flinders to survey the 
Australian coasts. Resigning his commission, Brown 
sailed with this expedition from Portsmouth about the 
middle of 1801, and was absent from England for over four 






ROBERT BROWN AND OTHER BOTANISTS. 459 

years, while the southern portion of Tasmania and the 
southern, eastern, and northern shores of Australia were 
being explored. On his return Brown landed at Liverpool 
in October 1805, with large Australian collections, and on 
reaching London was appointed Librarian to the Linnean 
Society. In 1810, the year in which the first and only 
volume of his Prodromus Florce Novce Hollandice 
appeared, Brown became, on the death of Dr. Dryander, 
also Librarian to Banks. In 1811 he was elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society. 

In 1820 Sir Joseph Banks died and bequeathed to 
Brown for his life the use and enjoyment of his library and 
his collections. In 1822 Brown resigned the Librarianship 
of the Linnean Society and became a Fellow ; in 1823 he 
was appointed a member of the Linnean Council. In 
1827, with Brown's assent, and in conformity with a 
provision in the testament of their original owner, the 
Library and Herbarium of Banks were incorporated in the 
British Museum, while Brown was appointed the Keeper of 
its botanical collections. This office Brown held till he 
died. 

In 1828 Brown was nominated a vice-president of the 
Linnean Society ; in 1832 he received the degree of D.C.L. 
from the University of Oxford ; in 1833 he was elected a 
Foreign Associate of the French Academy. At the instiga- 
tion of Humboldt, King Frederick William IV. conferred 
on Brown the Royal Prussian Order " Pour le Merite," and 
on the recommendation of Sir Robert Peel he was 
awarded a civil list pension of 200 in recognition of his 
s-T vices to science. In 1839 the Royal Society awarded 
Brown a Copley medal, the highest honour it can bestow ; 
and in 1849 he consented to serve as President of the 
Linnean Society. This position he filled until 1853, when, 
owing to his advanced age, he resigned the chair. Five 
years later, on 10th June 1858, Brown died in his eighty- 
fifth year, in the house in Soho Square which had been 
bequeathed to him by Banks nearly forty years earlier, and 
had been the scene of his own labours for sixty years. 

The paper which Brown communicated to the Edin- 



460 ROBERT BRCXWN AND OTHER BOTANISTS. 

burgh Natural History Society, when only a lad of 
eighteen, was a critical list of additions to Lightfoot's 
Fiora Scotica. Though never published, its merits were 
fully appreciated, and its facts, with Brown's assent, were 
utilised by Withering. In Ireland as in Scotland he not 
only botanised but studied his specimens critically, and it 
was a visit to Withering at Edgbaston, when he was on 
recruiting service in England in 1798, which led to his 
introducing himself to Dryander. The impression which 
Brown's knowledge and thoroughness made on Dryander 
led in turn to the recommendation of Brown by Banks as 
naturalist to the New Holland expedition. 

In the course of that expedition, as Sir Joseph Hooker 
points out, Brown " states that he collected nearly 4000 
species (3900) in Australia, and that the additions, not 
collected by himself, amounted to only 300 more, whence 
it follows that the amazing number of 4200 species of 
plants belonging to all orders, cryptogamous and phanero- 
gamous, at least three-fourths, which were new to 
science, were collected (with the exception of 300), 
accurately described, and accompanied by such observa- 
tions, as appear in the published volume of the Prodromus 
by one unaided botanist, and this between the very end 
of 1801, when he landed in Australia, and 1810, by which 
time one-half of. the manuscript had been actually seen 
through the press." As Hooker truly adds, "This 'is a 
feat unexampled in the history of botanical science." 

How this was possible Hooker also explains. In 
addition to his natural genius Brown was gifted with a 
singularly retentive memory, a powerful physique, and 
extraordinary powers of application. Whether collecting 
under a tropical sun or penned within the cabin of a 
storm-tossed sloop, his tireless industry . was unaffected. 
His plants were therefore in great measure described as 
he collected them in the field, and his descriptions were 
fully written out on board. On his return to England, all 
that had to be done was. to arrange the manuscript for 
the press. 

But, as Von Martius has remarked, Brown was as- 



ROBERT BROWN AND OTHER BOTANISTS. 461 

distinguished among aphoretic students as he was among 
peripatetic ones ; he was as great in the closet as in the 
field, and his later work was as pre-eminent in its quality 
and as astonishing in its extent as that of his earlier 
period. 

Space forbids an enumeration here of all Brown's 
contributions to natural knowledge or an assessment of 
all that botanical science owes to his labours. For this 
and for a picture of his unique personality we must turn 
to the Eulogiuni written by Von Martius when Brown 
died, and to that delivered nearly thirty years later by 
Hooker. If Alexander von Humboldt, with happy 
inspiration, was the first to describe Brown, then still in the 
plenitude of his powers, as botanicorum facile princeps, 
the verdict which the phrase implies was fully accepted 
both by Von Martius when writing of his ripe old age, 
and by Hooker when speaking with all the knowledge 
accumulated in the course of a whole succeeding genera- 
tion. The greatest botanist of his age, estimable and 
admirable alike as a master of his science and as a man, 
Brown is surely one of those whom Angus must feel 
pardonably proud to count among her sous. 

ALEXANDER GIBSON, who was born at Laurencekirk in 
the Mearns on 24th October 1800, after studying at the 
University of Edinburgh, and becoming a Licentiate of 
the Edinburgh College of Surgeons in 1819, was appointed 
in January 1825 an Assistant Surgeon in the service of 
the Hon. East India Company. During the first few 
years of his service he was attached to the Indian Navy, 
but in 1836 he was appointed to the Vaccination Depart- 
ment, the operations of which he conducted in the Deccan 
and Kandeish. Much devoted to botanical studies, and 
especially to the application of botanical knowledge to 
pharmacology and agriculture, the opportunities afforded 
him for field work during the continued touring which 
his new post entailed were fully utilised, and in 1838 
the Government of Bombay, recognising the value of 
his special knowledge, appointed him Superintendent df 



462 ROBERT BROWN AND OTHER BOTANISTS. 

their Botanic Garden at Dapuri. Here he did much 
useful work in the introduction and acclimatisation of 
exotic species important from the pharmacological and 
the arboricultural points of view. In 1847 Gibson was 
selected by Government to fill the important post of 
Conservator of Forests in the Bombay Presidency, and 
during the next fourteen years he rendered the greatest 
service to the administration in this capacity. Besides 
submitting official reports, themselves documents of con- 
siderable scientific value, published during this period, 
Gibson in 1855 edited Hone's Journals, and in collabora- 
tion with Mr. N. A. Dalzell, prepared for publication the 
well-known " Bombay Flora" issued in 1861. This work, 
characterised by great care and sound judgment, was 
indispensable to the resident in Western India interested 
in botanical subjects until Sir J. D. Hooker's " Flora of 
British India" was available for use. Gibson, who retired 
from the service of Government in 1860, with a public 
recognition of his " unremitting zeal in the discharge of 
his office," died at Bombay on 16th January 1867. 

JAMES LINDSAY STEWART, son of James Stewart, was 
born at Dalladies, in the parish of Fettercairn, Kincardine** 
sbire., on 13th December 1831. He studied medicine in 
Glasgow and Edinburgh, and after graduating in the 
latter University, was appointed to the Bengal Medical 
Service on 4th. August 1855. As an Assistant Surgeon 
he was present at the siege and capture of Delhi, receiving 
a war medal with clasp, and was later attached to the 
expedition which, in 1858, under the command of Sir 
Sydney Cotton, penetrated the Yusufzai country. During 
this expedition Stewart was able to make a valuable 
botanical collection, illustrating- the vegetation of a 
hitherto unexplored tract. In 1860-61 he -was appointed 
to officiate as Superintendent of the Botanic Garden at 
Saharanpur, and of the Government tea plantations in 
the North- West Provinces. While at Saharanpur, and 
subsequently, while Civil Surgeon of Bijnaur in Rohilkhand, 
he continued his botanical studies, and became familiar 



ROBERT BROWN AND OTHER BOTANISTS. 463 

with the forest vegetation in the plains and in the section 
of the north-west Himalaya between the Kali ami the 
Jumna rivers. Such was his reputation that when, in 
1864, the work of the Indian forest service in the various 
provinces was being co-ordinated, Stewart was invited to 
take charge of the forests in the Panjab. On his return 
to the province in which his first years of service had 
been passed, Stewart devoted much of his time to the 
botanical exploration of the Panjab Himalaya, Kashmir, 
the nearer parts of Tibet, and of the extensive Rakhs or 
brushwood tracts of the western Panjab and the adjoining 
province of Sindh. So thorough and so excellent was 
Stewart's work as an explorer, and so highly regarded 
were the papers published by him in scientific journals, 
and the valuable reports submitted by him to Government 
as Conservator of Forests, that he was induced to prepare 
a work entitled " Panjab Plants/' dealing with the trees, 
shrubs, and herbs of economic value growing in the 
Panjab, which was published at Lahore in 1869. When this 
work appeared Stewart, who had meanwhile been promoted 
to the rank of Surgeon, on 4th August 1867, proceeded to 
England on furlough for two years, and the opportunity 
thus offered was taken of entrusting to him the arduous 
task of preparing a Forest Flora of the North- West and 
Central Provinces, where he had served between 1860 and 
1864, and with the vegetation of which he was almost as 
familiar as he was with that of the Panjab. Stewart 
accordingly devoted a large part of his furlough, from 
1869 to 1871, to this task, and would no doubt have 
completed it had not his health unfortunately given way. 
He did not return to India until October 1872, but the ill- 
ness which had compelled the abandonment of his Flora, 
which was continued and completed by his friend and 
official chief, the late Sir D. Brandis, was a progressive 
one, and Stewart died of paralysis at Dalhousie, shortly 
after his return to the East, on 5th Julv 1873. 



464 



Famous Men and Women of Forfarshire. 

By David T. Sandeman, F.J.I. 

THE number of famous Men and Women belonging to 
Dundee and other parts of Forfarshire is simply legion. 
A goodly-sized book could be filled with their names alone, 
so that here a judicious selection must be made. Amongst 
them are Statesmen and other Politicians of eminence, 
Judges and Lawyers of all ranks, Scientists and Scholars 
of great distinction, Officers holding high command in the 
Army and Navy, Ministers of every denomination, Doctors 
of Medicine, Historians, Poets, and Novelists, Journalists, 
Artists, Merchants, and Manufacturers, Shipbuilders, 
Philanthropists, and other Worthies to whom the whole 
county is indebted for works .of enterprise and deeds of 
benevolence and mercy which have graced and dignified 
its history. 

THE SCOTTISH PATRIOT. 

Apart from the numerous Royal personages who have 
visited Forfarshire, more particularly Dundee, from the 
days of Malcolm Canmore, in the eleventh century, down, 
through the Stewart Kings, the James's and the Charles's, 
.to- those of Queen Victoria and Queen Alexandra, the fore- 
most place in this " bead-roll " of fame seems to belong of 
right to Sir William Wallace. If not actually born in 
Dundee and on this point tradition varies between 
Elderslie and this city, on the banks of the Tay Wallace's 
earliest days are associated with Dundee. It was here, 
according to Blind Harry, that he obtained his education, 
and it was here that he struck the first blow for Scottish 
independence, by resenting the overbearing tyranny of 
Selbie, the son of the English Governor of Dundee, and 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 465 

slaying this presumptuous youth in the Market Place. 
From that sword stroke, delivered in the heat of indignant 
passion, dates Wallace's long struggle for the liberty of 
Scotland. There is, however, a later connection of the 
patriot with Dundee. After receiving in 1298 the 
appointment of Governor of Scotland, one of Wallace's 
first acts was connected with that city. He granted to 
Alexander Skirmeshur, or Scrymgeour, the lands of 
Dndhope, the Upper Field of Dundee, and the King's 
portion of the West Field of this Burgh, together with the 
office of Hereditary Constable of Dundee. This interesting 
document, which is the oldest original Charter relating to 
Dundee known to exist, is preserved in the General 
Register House, Edinburgh. 



MEN OF SCIENCE AND OF INVENTION. 

SIR CHARLES LYELL. 

As .this volume is being compiled for the British 
Association, the next place in the roll of fame must be 
devoted to Men of Science. And in the van of these 
stands Sir Charles Lyell, who attended the meeting in 
Dundee of 1867, and who then along with the President, 
the Duke of Buccleuch, and his distinguished Colleagues, 
Sir Roderick Impey Murchison and Sir William Armstrong 
was admitted a Burgess of the city. As a special article 
dealing with Sir Charles appears in this volume from the 
pen of Sir Archibald Geikie, it is only necessary to say 
here that he was born at Kinnordy, near Kirriemuir, 
" when chill November's surly blasts "were ushering in the 
severe winter of 1797, that he returned there after 
establishing a wide reputation, that he was regarded with 
the highest admiration by all his neighbours, that he 
ultimately died at London in 1875, .full of years and 
honours, and was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey as 
the most important geologist in the world." 



466 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 



SIR JAMES IVORY. 

This famous native of Dundee, described by Lord 
Brougham as " the greatest mathematician the world had 
seen since the time of Sir Isaac Newton," was born thirty 
years before Sir Charles Lyell. He began life as a flax- 
spinner, but failing in that, devoted attention to his 
favourite study, and after obtaining the degree of M.A. 
became a teacher in Dundee Academy. Mathematics, 
however, were so little esteemed in those days at least in 
certain quarters that the short-sighted Chief Magistrate, 
after attending the annual examination of pupils, gravely 
proposed " to put Jamie Ivory awa', as they had a gude 
enough teacher of the ABC already." But Ivory's 
talents being fully appreciated elsewhere, he was appointed 
Mathematical Professor of Sandhurst Military College, 
Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, 
Corresponding Member of the Scientific Societies of Paris 
and Gottingen, and a Knight of the Order of Hanover. 
Physical astronomy is indebted to him for more than one 
important discovery, whilst for a time he supported alone 
the mathematical reputation of Great Britain. His 
scientific library, including the works of Descartes and 
other notable mathematicians, is the property of the 
Dundee Free Library. His death took place at London 
in 1842. 

THE FORFAR BOTANIST. 

Turning to a genius in another branch of science; the 
name and career of George Don have a never-failing 
charm not only for his townsmen of Forfar but for 
botanists all over the world. What lover of plants has 
not heard of the " Dovehillock Garden," or revelled in 
Don's charming description of its beauties ? So numerous 
and so valuable were Don's researches and discoveries, 
that he was in 1803 elected an Associate of the Linnean 
Society of London. He was also called on for articles by 
the leading botanical journals, arid the Edinburgh Botanic 
Garden Society elected him as their Curator. But 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 467 

ultimately he settled down in his beloved " Doo- 
hillock," which became a centre of attraction for botanists 
from all parts of the Empire. His closing years were 
unfortunately embittered by monetary troubles. The 
knowledge which he was the first to publish in its fullness, 
though the source of theories which gave deserved fame 
to many distinguished botanists, and untold pleasure to 
thousands of humbler followers of the science, brought 
little grist to Don's mill of material wealth. His inherent 
passion for botanical research failed to keep the wolf of 
poverty from his door, and when he passed away he left 
little behind him but his imperishable works. As James 
Ross sung : 

" Bid sylvan songsters that in shades sojourn 
Begin his elegy with plaintive tone. 
Bid Spring, the flowery-mantled maiden, mourn, 
For many a vernal debt is due to Don." 

A special article on George Don is included in this 
volume. 

THE DUNDEE POET BOTANIST. 

William Gardiner, who was born in Dundee some five 
years before Don's death, carried on with much the same 
detail and ability the task of classifying the botanical 
treasures of Forfarshire. Whilst labouring away as an 
umbrella-maker, he spent his mornings and nights in search 
of wild-flowers in such resorts as the Den of Mains, Hare- 
craigs, Baldovan Woods, and Wills' Braes. During 
holidays his botanical rambles were extended to Deerhill 
Woods, Auchmithie, Redhead, and the Sidlaws those 
hills of which Robert Ford, also a Forfarshire man, after- 
wards wrote in the Glasgow Ballad Club poems : 

" But aye my heart gaes dunt for dunt, 

Whaurever I may be, 
If ane but name the Sidlaws, 
The hills of hame, to me." 

Gardiner's wages in those days of ten shillings a week 
did not permit him to follow out, unaided, his project of 



468 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSH1RE. 

collecting Alpine plants on Ben Lawers or Lochnagar ; 
but thanks to the generosity of the Botanical Society of 
Edinburgh, he was enabled to make excursions into the 
Perthshire Highlands, and thus to increase our knowledge 
of the vegetable kingdom. There are, in fact, few British 
botanists whose collections have not been enriched by some 
of the rarities gathered by Mr. Gardiner. His literary 
gifts were of no mean order, as witness his small but 
charming work entitled " Twenty Lessons on British 
Mosses," and his more ambitious treatise on "The Flora 
of Forfarshire," giving an account of the localities of all 
the various plants found in the county, interspersed with 
graphic descriptions of the places in which the rarer 
plants are to be found. Mr. Gardiner was a poet as well 
as a collector of and writer on botanical treasures. But 
with all his talents he died, like Don of Forfar, a poor 
man. His one chance of obtaining a competency came 
when an appointment was placed at his disposal by that 
distinguished botanist, Sir William Hooker, but having an 
aged mother to support, Gardiner declined the offer. 
Several interesting examples of Gardiner's botanical and 
literary works are in the Dundee Central Museum. 

Another botanist of considerable reputation, Robert 
Brown, was born in Montrose in 1773 and died in 1858. 
A special article in which his presidency of the Linnean 
Society is mentioned appears in this volume. 



PARENT OF WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 

At a time when the system of Wireless Telegraphy is 
assuming enormous dimensions, not only as a means of 
communication over thousands of miles, but as a saviour 
of life at sea, through its unfailing method of summoning 
assistance to vessels in distress, great interest attaches to 
the parent of this development of science James Bowman 
Lindsay. Born at Carmyllie, and beginning life as a 
weaver, Lindsay devoted himself early in life to studies of 
mathematical and physical sciences, these leading him to 
secure a situation as teacher in Dundee Prison. For 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 469 

many years he laboured there six hours every day, impart- 
ing to prisoners a knowledge of the elements of the English 
language and of arithmetic. But this drudgery, so far from 
quenching his thirst for learning of a higher kind, seemed 
only to inflame it. He mastered astronomy, became a 
linguist, dived into electricity, was one of the first to 
exhibit " a constant electric light," originated the idea of a 
submarine cable to America, and led the way to wireless 
telegraphy. As early as 1859 he established electrical 
communication without wires across the Tay at Glencarse, 
where the river is about half a mile broad, and followed 
this up a year later by telegraphing across the Tay below 
the Earn. At the British Association meeting in Aberdeen 
of 1859 he read a paper explaining his wireless theory. 
Lord Rosse presided over the section at which the paper 
was read, and the originality of Bowman Lindsay's views 
drew forth special commendation from his Lordship, the 
Astronomer-Royal, and Professor Faraday, who, connected 
closely with Dundee, was one of the earliest, as well as the 
greatest, of all telegraphic experts. Mr. Lindsay's fame 
also attracted the attention of the Government of the day; 
and in 1858 he was granted, in recognition of his learning 
and attainments, an annual pension of 100. This well- 
deserved bounty enabled him to resign his appointment as 
teacher at Dundee Prison, and to devote his talents 
more exclusively to literary and scientific pursuits. He 
succumbed in lcS62 to a severe illness, and was buried in the 
Western Cemetery, his funeral being attended by the 
Magistrates and Town Council of Dundee. In 1901 a 
monument to his memory was by public subscription 
erected over his grave. How little did Mr. Lindsay, or 
even those who subscribed for the monument, imagine 
that the time would come so soon when, from the humble 
experiments on the River Tay would spring a system 
which is linking up mighty liners on the ocean, and is- 
about to encircle the whole of the British Empire. 



470 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 

THE BROUGHTY-FERRY ASTRONOMER. 

Though Thomas Dick, well known as the " Christian 
Philosopher," was born in Dundee in 1774, it was not until 
1827 that he took up his residence at Broughty-Ferry, 
and carried on those astronomical labours which gave him 
such a wide reputation. He had commenced them at an 
early age, his star-gazing propensities earning for him the 
title of being eccentric. His father on one occasion thus 
sorrowfully unburdened his mind to a friend : " I dinna 
ken what to do wi' that laddie Tarn, for he cares for 
nathing but books and glasses. I saw him the other day 
lying on the green trying to turn the steeple o' the kirk 
upside down wi' his telescope." But his supposed 
eccentricities took such a practical form, that he was able 
to write works on astronomy which appealed to a very 
large circle of readers, and proved to many a valuable 
means towards a wider education. Several ot his works 
were translated into foreign languages, and brought him 
honours from a large number of Universities, including the 
degree of LL.D. from America. Dr. Dick was one of the 
earliest of Christian Scientists, and became a preacher of 
the Gospel as well as a preacher of Astronomy. Like, how- 
ever, the scientists of Forfar and Dundee, the rewards that 
came to Dr. Dick for his labours were comparatively small, 
and he was left at the age of eighty without the means of a 
comfortable subsistence. It is far from creditable to the. 
Government of the period that the pension ultimately 
given to Dr. Dick did not amount to more than 50 
a year. 

POSTAL REFORMER. 

Another inventor who belongs to Dundee was James 
Chalmers, an early postal reformer, and amongst the first 
to suggest the employment of adhesive stamps on letters. 
The Government offered a premium of 200 for the best 
kind of postage stamp. Mr. Chalmers naturally was ^among 
the candidates, but although his plan was adopted, the 
premium never was awarded to any one. In the opinion 
of many, however, including Mr. Joseph Hume, the reward 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 471 

should have gone to the Dundee man. As a kind of 
solatium Mr. Chalmers was, in 1846, presented with a 
testimonial from his fellow townsmen, the value of it being 
quite equal to the premium of which he was unjustly 
deprived. 

ENGINEERING EXPERT. 

Mention must also be made of Professor Ewing, an old 
Dundee High School boy who has had a brilliant scientific 
career. Trained as an engineer, he went to Japan as 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Imperial 
University in Tokio, returning to Dundee in 1883 to take 
up the first Professorship of Engineering in University 
College. Seven years later he went to fill a similar post 
at Cambridge. 

OTHER SCHOLARS. 

Professor James Walker, the present occupant of the 
Chair of Chemistry in Edinburgh University, is another 
old Dundee High School boy, and so is Mr. Frank Young, 
H.M. Science Inspector of Schools. Professor Jebb, the 
eminent Greek scholar, was born at Invergowrie, close to 
Dundee; and Dr. Patrick Blair, the distinguished botanist, 
is gladly claimed as a son of the city ; whilst another notable 
botanist who has died recently, Mr. G. R M. Murray, 
F.R.S., was born in Arbroath. 

DUNDEE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

Dr. John Yule Mackay, though a native of Fifeshire, has 
been Principal of University College, Dundee, since 1897 ; 
whilst some of his colleagues, Professors Steggall, D'Arcy 
Thompson, Patrick Geddes, D. M'Ewan, and A. M. Stalker, 
also not natives of Dundee, have been long and honourably 
associated with the city. In connection with this College, 
special reference ought to be made to its first Principal, 
Dr. Peterson, who now holds the position of Principal of 
the M'Gill University, Montreal ; and to its former Professor 
of Chemistry, Dr. Carnelly, who afterwards went to 
Aberdeen, and whose career of great promise was cut short 
by his untimely death. 



472 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 



MEN OF AFFAIKS. 

Amongst the many Statesmen and other Politicians con- 
nected with Forfarshire,the names of the heads of the houses 
of Dalhousie and Panmure stand prominently forward. 

FOX MAULE. 

The greatest of them all was the Right Hon. Fox Maule. 
As eleventh Earl of Dalhousie and son of William Maule, 
Lord Panmure, he united the two branches and did so in 
a very brilliant way. His first official post after he had 
been elected M.P. for Perthshire was that of Under- 
secretary for the Home Department. This, however, 
was only preliminary to his appointment as Secretary for 
War, an office which he held from 1846 to 1852, and again 
from 1855 to 1858 dates covering those critical periods of 
the Crimean War, the Chinese Campaign, and the Indian 
Mutiny. For his eminent services to the country in this 
capacity he received many honours from the Crown, and 
was also enrolled as a Burgess of Dundee. 

ABOLISHER OF WINDOW TAX. 

Lord Camperdown, grandson of the famous Admiral 
Duncan, to whom attention will presently be drawn, 
represented his native county of Forfarshire for several 
years in Parliament, and whilst there was instrumental in 
obtaining the repeal of the obnoxious Window Tax. 
Before going to the House of Commons, he sat as one 
of the members of Dundee Harbour Board, doing service 
which is commemorated along with the feats of his 
grandfather in the name of the " Camperdown Dock." 

OTHER M.P'S. 

Lord Armitstead, a munificent benefactor to Univer- 
sity College and the principal charitable institutions of 
Dundee, and founder of the Armitstead Lectures ; Sir 
Henry Campbell-Bannerman ; Lord Lochee, of Gowrie ; 



ii 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN: OF FORFARSHIRE. 473 

and Lord Congleton, all served with distinction in 
Parliament, The same may be said of Sir John Ogilvy, 
Sir John Leng, W. E. Baxter, George Dempster of 
Dunnichen, an early owner of Skibo, George Duncan, 
George Kinloch, James Yeaman, Frank Henderson, and 
G. M. Barnes, most of whom belonged to Dundee. 
Another native of the city was Sir William Allan, M.P., of 
Belleville boiler fame, and of no mean reputation as 
a poet. 

GREAT FINANCIAL REFORMER. 

An even more eminent Member of Parliament con- 
nected with the county was Joseph Hume, the great 
advocate of financial and political reform. Mr. Hume 
was born at Montrose in 1777, and adopted medicine 
as a profession, going into the service of the East India 
Company. But he soon abandoned doctoring for politics, 
and embarked on that career which earned for him so 
much fame. 

SERVING BRITISH INTERESTS ABROAD. 

Distinguished in another field of political influence 
is Sir William Wallace, a native of Arbroath. For nearly 
a quarter of a century Sir William has been occupied 
with British interests in Nigeria, concluding treaties 
between potentates there, and generally advancing the 
cause of this country in that far distant region. 

Still another son of Aberbrothick, who has accomplished 
labours of a similar kind, is Lord Inchcape, better known 
as Sir James Lyle Mackay. He has done yeoman service 
for the State not only in India and China, but also 
at home ; one of his most recent works here being 
concerned with Lord Jersey's Committee to inquire 
into the relations between the Board of Trade and the 
Local Government Board. Only this year he has been 
appointed Chairman of an important Royal Commission 
to consider the trade relations between our country and 
our colonies " Empire Trade." 

2G 



474 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 



THE HERO OF CAMPERDOWN. 

Reference has already been made to Admiral Duncan, 
and to the fact that his memorable naval victory of 1797 
is embedded for ever in the history of Dundee by means 
of the " Camperdown Dock." His portrait may be seen in 
the Art Gallery, and though the humble house in which he 
was born has been swept away, his name and fame con- 
tinue to be cherished as warmly as ever. For the benefit 
of those who inspect the portrait of the gallant Admiral, 
the following inscription on it is quoted : 

" The Right Hon. Viscount Duncan, Commander of 
the British Fleet in the North Seas, in the glorious 
engagement with the Dutch near Camperdown, on the 
llth of October 1747, when the enemy were completely 
defeated, with the loss of nine ships of the line, among 
whom were those of the Admiral and Vice- Admiral. This 
portrait was placed here at the request of a general 
meeting of the noblemen and gentlemen of Angus, who 
were justly proud that their county had given birth to 
so distinguished an officer. And as a further testimony of 
their satisfaction, they at the same time resolved that 
a piece of plate, of 200 guineas value, should be presented 
to him by the county in memory of that great and 
important victory." 

JOHN GRAHAME OF CLAVERHOUSE. 

Among the natives of Forfarshire who held high 
command in the British Army, reference must be made to 
John Grahame, most widely known on the one hand as 
" Bloody Claverhouse," and on the other as " Bonnie 
Dundee." Whether he was the devil incarnate which 
legend and Lord Macau lay have painted him, or the 
humanitarian described by other historians the man who 
habitually shrank from inflicting capital or other penalties 
on the Covenanters is still, and probably will remain, a 
matter of dispute. The most recent research on the 
subject carried out by Michael Barrington, and embodied 
in a sumptuous volume, goes to show that Claverhouse had 






FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 475 

at all events brains as well as courage and other qualifica- 
tions that go towards the making of a great soldier. It 
was not a desire for amusement or adventure, but a love 
for his profession that led the future hero of Killiecrankie 
to learn war under Turenne and the Prince of Orange. No 
one had a higher opinion of his proficiency than Turenne 
himself, and the Duke of Wellington also testified to his 
abilities as a military administrator. Whatever the 
other trait in his character may have been, the story of 
his noble deeds and gallant death, as told by Mr. 
Barrington, seems to stamp Claverhouse as a true patriot 
whose connection with Forfarshire and the Castle of 
Dundee ought to be kept in remembrance. 

A FAVOURITE OF WELLINGTON'S. 

Sir William Chalmers, who served with distinction 
under Wellington in Spain, and also at Waterloo, was the 
son of a former Town Clerk of Dundee. Two of his deeds 
of bravery are deserving of special notice. When the 
Duke wanted a dispatch carried from one wing of his army 
to another during the Peninsular War, the French troops 
dividing the two, he selected Chalmers for the delicate and 
hazardous duty. Nor was this confidence misplaced, for 
though the Dundee hero had to run the gauntlet of the 
French sentinels, and fell from his horse which was killed, 
he escaped from his pursuers, and delivering his message 
in time, saved the situation. Again, at Waterloo, he was 
entrusted by Wellington with the command of a regiment, 
all the officers of which had been killed or wounded. But 
Chalmers, who seemed to live a charmed life, shared in the 
toils and honours of the victory without so much as a scar. 
After the peace of 1815, Sir William, knighted for his 
valour, retired from the army and settled down in his 
native towD, where his tall, military-looking figure was long 
familiar to his fellow citizens. 

SOUTH AFRICAN WAR HEROES. 

The last war for the supremacy in South Africa robbed 
Forfarshire of many of her brave sons, including the heroic 



476 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Earlof Airlie, who had served with distinction in Egypt 
before he fell on the veldt of Africa. The Hon. Claude 
Bowes Lyon, a scion of the house of Glamis, also shone in 
the front during the same war, and the late Colonel George 
Gordon, a native of Forfar, earned worthy laurels by the 
part he took in the defence of Umsitstand during the 
South African Campaign of 1877. 



JUDGES AND OTHER LAWYERS. 

If it seems a long cry from soldiers to lawyers, the 
transition in this roll of honour is an easy one, seeing that 
so many of our learned Judges, Sheriffs, and other legal 
luminaries have been and still are associated with 
Forfarshire. 

Sir George Mackenzie, born in the Overgate of Dundee 
about 1636, became a Judge of the Court of Session in 1674, 
and afterwards served as Lord Advocate to Charles the 
Second. He had great literary gifts, and is remembered 
as the founder of the Advocates' Library in Edinburgh. 
An extensive holder of land, he erected among other 
mansions Belmont Castle, so long occupied by the late Sir 
Henry Campbell-Bannerman. He was also proprietor of 
Bannatyne Castle, where, in its reconstructed form, so much 
noble work is being carried on for poor working women 
and girls. 

Lord Ivory, whose early rise at the bar was due to the 
foresight of Francis Jeffrey, and who afterwards obtained 
such renown as a Judge in the Court of Session, came of 
humble Dundee parents, and learned his lessons in Dundee 
Academy. Lord Craighill belonged to Forfar, and so did 
the family of the witty and erudite Lord Neaves. 

Sheriff Logan, renowned alike for his pawky humour 
and his ability as an advocate, was Sheriff of Forfarshire 
from 1854 till his death in 1862, when the procurators of 
Dundee, to show their admiration of his services, erected a 
marble bust of him in the Court buildings. Sheriff Thorns, 
whose jurisdiction over Orkney and Shetland carried with 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 477 

it the title of "Admiral," which he used to air with much 
pride, was the' son of one of the many excellent Provosts 
which Dundee has been fortunate enough to possess 
as rulers. Sheriff Fyfe, of Glasgow, highly popular, 
author of "Who's Who in Dickens," as well as of 
several law - books, and who is mainly responsible 
for the recent admirable Sheriff Courts Act, also 
belongs to Dundee. Sheriff Campbell Smith only 
lately retired from the position he ^so long occupied 
in Dundee, and his place is now occupied by Sheriff' 
Neish. 

Several lawyers have shone in the Chief Civic Chair of 
the City, among them being Lord Provost Urquhart, now 
occupying, with great acceptance to the community, a 
second term of office, and earning a high reputation 
as a peacemaker in strike troubles. His Lordship, it 
may not be generally known, is a poet as well as a 
lawyer. 

Mr. William Hay, who held the Provostship when the 
British Association last visited Dundee in 1867, also 
belonged to the learned profession. Mr. Hay resigned in 
1867, when he was appointed to the Town Clerkship, 
vacated by the death of Mr. Christopher Kerr, for long 
one of the ablest members of the Faculty in the City. 
On Mr. Hay's retirement in 1893, Sir Thomas Thornton 
became Town Clerk, and carried on the work with much 
activity and talent till his death in 1903, when the present 
Town Clerk, Mr. W. H. Blyth Martin took his place. The 
lawyer who for several years held with such distinction 
the important position of Town Clerk of Glasgow, 
Mr. Myles, belonged to Forfar. A veteran lawyer, Mr. 
Robert Smith, is just now at the head of the Faculty 
in Dundee, which has only recently been deprived by 
death of one of its best known members, Mr. George 
Ogilvy. 



478 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 



MEN OF THE CHURCH. 

Forfarshire especially Dundee has long been 
marked by a goodly array of divines belonging to all 
denominations. 

PRESBYTERIANS. 

Principal Tulloch, so long the talented head of St. 
Andrews United College, was once minister of St. Paul's 
Church, Dundee ; whilst Principal Stewart, the present 
chief of the St. Andrews College of St. Mary, and last year's 
Moderator of the Church of Scotland Assembly, officiated 
some time in the Church of the Mains. Professor Knight 
of St. Andrews was connected with St. Enoch's Church, 
Dundee. Professor Denney, one of the most distinguished 
teachers in the Free Church College, occupied for years 
the pulpit of a Broughty-Ferry Church. Dr. Donald 
M'Leod, a relative of the famous Dr. Norman M'Leod, and 
who has recently passed away after a long and notable 
ministerial career at St. Columba, London, was at one 
time in charge of St. Mark's Church, Dundee. The 
" saintly " M'Cheyne, Professor Islay Burns, who succeeded 
him at St. Peter's Church, Dr. Whyte, Principal of New 
College, Edinburgh, the celebrated Dr. Thomas Guthrie, 
Dr. Grant, Dr. Wylie, the author of the " History of 
Protestantism," are amongst the other divines who have 
either been born in Forfarshire, or been connected in the 
course of their lives with one or other of the Presbyterian 
Churches of the county. 

CONGREGATIONALISTS AND OTHERS. 

One of the earliest hymn-books published in Scotland 
was from the pen of the Rev. John Glas, at one time 
parish minister of Tealing, in Forfarshire, and who, after 
being deposed in 1728 for adopting independent views, 
founded the Congregation alist sect known as "The Glasites" 
in Dundee and Scotland, and through his son-in-law, as 
the Sandemanians in England. Mr. Glas was a man of 
great ability, and though his admirable collection of 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 479 

hymns, published under the title of " Christian Songs," is 
now little known, it is still used by the Glasites at their 
fellowship meetings. Though not a hymn-writer, the 
Rev. George Gilfillan, who did most of his life's work in 
Dundee, originally as a Presbyterian, was the author of 
"The Bards of the Bible," and of a large number of 
kindred works. For these and for his great accomplish- 
ments as a preacher and public speaker, as well as for 
his kindliness of disposition and his generous treatment 
of budding litterateurs, Mr. Gilfillan earned the respect 
and admiration of his fellow - citizens. A Memorial 
Church has been built to commemorate his name and 
fame. Dr. David Russell, also a voluminous author of 
religious books, and who laboured in Dundee for nearly 
forty years ; the Rev. David Macrae, another able writer 
and preacher ; and Dr. K. C. Anderson, the present minister 
of Ward Chapel, are amongst the remaining distinguished 
Congregationalists of whom Dundee can boast. 

OTHER CHURCHES. 

Many notable Bishops of the Episcopal Church of 
Scotland have been connected with Forfarshire, including 
the learned Bishop Forbes of Brechin, the present Bishop 
Robherds, who fills that diocese, and Bishop Guthrie, of 
Dunkeld one of the numerous Guthries whose names 
figure so largely in the history of the county, as may 
be inferred from the popular rhyme : 

" Guthrie of Guthrie and Guthrie of Gagie, 
Guthrie of Taybank and Guthrie of Craigie." 

The Roman Catholic Church also has had many devoted 
clergymen in Dundee, the most notable of them all being 
Bather Stephen Keenan, who during his long and laborious 

reer, idolised by his own people, cleared off large debts 
on the mission buildings, and built a new place of worship. 
He left nearly all his means to found an orphanage for 
female children connected with the Roman Catholics in 
Dundee. 



480 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 



MEN AND WOMEN OF LITERATURE AND ART. 

The authors, more especially the poets, of Forfarshire 
are, to quote Milton's famous lines : 

"Thick as autumnal leave:? that -straw the brooks 
In Vallombrosa." 

Some bold spirits, led by Mr. Alan Reid, the able 
compiler of "The Bards of the Angus and the Mearns," 
have been daring enough to trace a connection between 
Robert Burns and the Mearns, founded partly on the 
popular belief that the national poet once paid a visit to 
Fetteresso, and that when challenged by the proprietor 
for fishing without leave in the river there, exclaimed : 

" Your fish are scarce, your water's sma', 
There's my rod, and Rob's awa' ! " 

But no verification of the incident seems to be forth- 
coming. What can be relied upon is that Burns's grand- 
father, Robert Burness, sprang from the Mearns, and that 
his father, William Burness, removed from there in his 
nineteenth year, first to Edinburgh and afterwards to 
Ayrshire. If Forfarshire, however, cannot lay claim to 
this poet of the very first class, it has plenty other dis- 
guished men in every department of literature. 

ROBERT NICOLL. 

Without going so far back as John Barbour, who, in the 
fourteenth century, wrote that famous epic, " The Bruce," 
to the Wedderburns, whose " Guidly and Godly Ballads " 
played such an important part in! the Reformation ; or even 
to Sir George Mackenzie of Dundee, who towards the end 
of the seventeenth century gave so many indications, of 
poetic gifts, it will suffice to begin with Robert .Nicoll, the 
Dundee bookseller, who published his first volume of 
poems in 1835, and who was then acclaimed by Ebenezer 
Elliot, the Corn Law rhymer, as "Scotland's Second 
Burns." But he had a short if gifted career, dying of con- 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 481 

sumption in his twenty-fourth year. Many of the lyrics he 
wrote, like "Bonnie Bessie Lee," still survive, as do some 
of his humorous pieces like " Minister Tam " : 

" But his work noo is endit our Taramie has grown 
To a kirk wi' a steeple a black silken gown 
Sic a change frae our laddie wha barefooted cam', 
Wi' his wig white wi' pouther, is Minister Tam ! " 

AUTHOR OF "THE MITHERLESS BAIRN." 

Another Dundee poet who has also been compared to 
Burns is William Thorn, the author of those pathetic 
lyrics, " The Mitherless Bairn" and "The Blind Boy's 
Pranks," and of a volume of verses, " Rhymes and Recollec- 
tions," which were the means of getting him an invitation 
to London and introductions to Lady Blessington, Douglas 
Jerrold, the Howitts, and other literary celebrities. But 
he, too, came to an untimely end. A weaver by trade, he 
never overcame the privations and hardships of his early 
life, and though he hoped on returning to Dundee, "like a 
bird that flutters round her forsaken nest, to spend his 
latter days in comparative peace and quiet," this was not 
realised, and he died soon afterwards in very abject circum- 
stances. Still a third poet, characterised by a similar 
ability to express feeling and pathos in verse, is Alexander 
Smart, a pressman in the Dundee Courier office during 
the days before steam was applied to printing. Smart was 
a contributor to a volume of well-known Scottish verse 
called " Whistlebinkie," and his " Songs of Labour " were 
highly spoken of by Lord Jeffrey. In much the same 
category may be placed James Gow, the Dundee weaver 
poet ; Robert Mudie, also a weaver poet of Dundee ; and 
Robert Leighton of Dundee, author of "The Whittle." 



THOMAS HOOD. 

Thomas Hood spent some years of his early life in 
Dundee, and it was there that he made his first plunge 
into literature, manifesting in contributions to the Dundee 



482 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 

Advertiser the dawning of that genius which afterwards 
burst forth in " The Bridge of Sighs " and " The Song of 
the Shirt." All the circumstances connected with Hood's 
residence in Dundee, and of his subsequent return on a 
visit to relatives, have been admirably narrated lately by 
Mr. Walter Jerrold, a grandson of the great Douglas 
Jerrold. In Hood's " Memorials," published after his death, 
a rhyming description of Dundee is published, not always 
in the best taste, but very smart as, for example, the 
following skit on the economic habits of the people : 

" Beneath a theatre or chapel they'll pop 
A sale room, a warehouse, or mean little shop, 
Whose windows or rather no windows at all 
Are more like so many holes in the wall. 
And four churches together, with only one steeple, 
Is an emblem quite apt of the thrift of the people." 

SHELLEY'S WIFE. 

The first famous woman whose connection with Forfar- 
shire falls to be mentioned is Mary Wollstonecroft Godwin, 
the wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her friendship with 
the Baxter families of Dundee, and her romantic elopement 
with the poet, have recently been described by Dr. Millar, 
the City Librarian and one of the editors of this volume, 
but without trespassing unduly on the remarkable details 
he has unearthed, it may be stated that the gifted authoress 
of that weird novel, " Frankenstein," came to Dundee in 
July 1813, and resided with Mr. W. T. Baxter a relative 
of the late Sir David Baxter and of the present Sir George 
W. Baxter until March 1814, when she returned to 
London. Her elopement with Shelley took place in July 
of the same year. This event naturally shocked the 
Baxters, as the* poet's first wife was still alive, and served 
to break off to some extent the active correspondence 
between them and Mary Godwin, but it revived again on 
her marriage to Shelley on the death of Harriet Westbrooke. 
Christina Baxter, one of W. T. Baxter's daughters, 
always claimed that she was Mary's favourite friend. 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 483 

" Frankenstein " was begun in the Baxter's house at 
Broughty -Ferry Road, though it was not completed till 
long afterwards. 

BROWNING'S MOTHER. 

This reference to the interesting connection of one great 
poet with Dundee opens the way for the narration of 
another incident which relates Robert Browning very 
closely to the city. Towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, the proprietors of the Sugar House in the Seagate 
brought from Amsterdam as their manager, Mr. 
Wiedeman. He took up his duties in 1782, and was 
married soon after to Sarah Revel, whose previous history 
cannot be traced. To them were born in Dundee one son 
and one daughter, Sarah. When the boy grew up he went 
to sea and rose to the rank of a skipper. Sarah remained 
with her parents until first the one and then the other 
died. The skipper, who had by this time retired, then 
took his sister to live at Clapham, and it was there that 
she met and married the father of Robert Browning, thus 
becoming the mother of one of the most subtle and 
intellectual of modern poets. 

" THRUMS." 

Those members of the British Association who visit 
Kirriemuir during their stay in Dundee will find that, 
though the birthplace of J. M. Barrie has here and there 
been a good deal modernised, the Auld Licht Manse is 
very little changed, and that much remains to remind one of 
the scenes described in " A Window in Thrums," " Auld 
Licht Idylls," and " The Little Minister." They will also 
derive much pleasure from a " crack " with some of the 
natives of " Thrums," who, though naturally very proud 
of the fame to which their townsman has risen, are still 
critical enough to declare that " Gin Jimmie Barrie had 
come to us, we cud ha'e tell't him far better stories than 
ony he has." But as Dr. Alexander Whyte, himself a 
Kirriemuir man, says : 

" All of us in the town know the characters Mr. Barrie 



484 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 

describes, and had taken them and their eccentricities 
just as a complete part of our life, scarcely worth notice. 
But when a man of genius put them into print, that made 
all the difference. Some of the working men were deeply 
read in literature and philosophy. Mr. Barrie has 
thoroughly grasped the characters of the little community 
with all their humour and pathos. 'Thrums' is a true 
picture of my native place." 

U THE WIZARD OF THE NORTH." 

Besides paying several visits to Forfarshire, Sir Walter 
Scott conferred distinction on the county, first by selecting 
Arbroath as the " Fairport " of his delightful novel, " The 
Antiquary," and secondly, by sketching a Forfarshire 
"laird" as one of its principal characters. During one of 
his tours in the county, Sir Walter enjoyed the hospitality 
of the Earl of Strathmore at Glamis Castle, and drank 
from the old family silver cup, "The Lion of Glamis." 
It was from this same cup that the famous novelist took 
his idea of " The Bear of Bradwardine," mentioned in 
u Waverley." 

LADY AGITATORS AND OTHERS. 

A Dundee lady, Mrs. Alcock, earned notoriety as the 
heroine of as " guid a gangin law plea " as those referred 
to by Sir Walter Scott in " Redgauntlet." From one 
legal action she went on to so many others that her 
maiden name of Mary Ritchie became only too well 
known in the Court of Session. As a rule she was 
successful, but not before she had changed her lawyers 
as often as did "Peter Peebles," immortalised by Scott. 
She was singular in another respect, for she drew up a 
Marriage Contract long before she got a husband. After 
deserting Mr. Alcock and bringing a suit against him, she 
joined the Mormons, and became an ardent disciple of 
Prophet Joseph Smith. 

Fanny Wright, who was known through her marriage 
with a Frenchman as Madame D'Aursmont, was born 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 485 

in Dundee. There she distinguished herself as an author 
of no mean pretension, but on emigrating to America she 
made herself notorious as an agitator against the Slave trade 
and in favour of women's rights. 

Another lady whose fame was of quite a different kind 
was Lola Montez, brought up in Hontrose. For long she 
reigned all powerful in Liberia, through the ascend- 
ancy she gained in the middle of last century over 
Louis I., who created her Countess of Landsfield and 
allowed her 5000 a year. 

But apart from these are other ladies connected with 
Forfarshire with reputations of a more wholesome and 
valuable kind such as Elizabeth Soutar, a blind poetess ; 
Mrs. Agnes Lyon, authoress of the noted song, " Neil Gow's 
Farewell to Whisky " ; Clementina Stirling Graham, 
authoress of " Mystifications " ; Dorothea Ogilvy, who wrote 
" Scotland is calling you, swallows come home " ; and " Deas 
Cromarty," who, in addition to collaborating with her 
husband, Rev. Dr. Watson, in several works of note, has 
written many books of her own, and is a frequent 
contributor to religious and other journals. 

HISTORIANS. 

The most eminent historian connected with Forfarshire 
is Hector Boece. Born in Dundee, he was the first 
Principal of King's College, Aberdeen, and compiled one of 
the earliest books on Scottish History. It was originally 
written in Latin, and was translated into English by 
the learned poet, Bellenden. The first History of Dundee 
came from the pen of James Thomson, a native of the city, 
and his work was followed by Alexander Maxwell, belong- 
ing to a gifted family which numbered amongst its 
members Charles C. Maxwell, a litterateur of singular 
ability. The bearer of another worthy name, Mr. A. C. 
Lamb, devoted a huge volume to the Antiquities of 
Dundee, whilst his magnificent Dundee Collection was 
purchased by Mr. Edward Cox, and presented to the city. 
Then Mr. A. J. Warden wrote a book on " Angus and its 



486 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 

People," besides contributing to the meeting of the British 
Association in 1867 an exhaustive review of " The Linen 
Manufacture of Dundee." Nor should the fact be over- 
looked that Dr. Millar, the City Librarian, has written 
many historical works on Forfarshire, as well as on 
Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, and other Scottish counties. In 
connection with Dr. Millar should be coupled his pre- 
decessor in office, Mr. John Maclauchlan, described by Mr. 
Carnegie as " the Prince of Librarians." 

JOURNALISTS. 

This reference to Dr. Millar leads naturally to the 
Journalists, for he was connected with the Press long 
before he became a librarian. He occupied one of the 
chief posts in the Dundee Advertiser under Sir John 
Leng, and even since his appointment as chief of the 
City Library and Art Institute, he continues to write on 
such literary subjects as engage his special attention. 
Sir John himself was an able editor as well as a shrewd 
administrator. After coming to Dundee from Hull in 
the beginning of 1851, he laid the basis of his own and 
of the Advertiser's fortunes by starting The People's 
Journal, with separate editions for Forfarshire, Fifeshire, 
Aberdeenshire, and other counties. Not only, moreover, 
did he work hard and successfully himself even after his 
election to Parliament for Dundee, but he was the means 
of bringing to the city many distinguished journalists, 
like the late James F. Stewart, Sir Carlaw Martin, 
and the present editor of the Advertiser, Mr. Urquhart. 
Before the advent of Sir John Leng, the Advertiser had 
as its editor Mr. Robert Stephen Rintoul, the founder of 
The Spectator. Connected with the Dundee Courier 
there have also been several able journalists, including 
Dr. George Buist, Mr. David Hill, Mr. Charles Alexander, 
and the present editor, Mr. John Mitchell. 

ARTISTS. 

George Paul Chalmers, the brilliant member of the 
R.S.A., belonged to Montrose. Colvin Smith, one of the 



FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 487 

foremost portrait-painters of last century, and the painter 
of the well-known portrait of Sir Walter Scott, in the 
National Portrait Gallery of London, was born in Brechin. 
A noted pupil of his, James Irvine, also a portrait-painter 
of distinction, is claimed as a native of Forfarshire. 
Dundee has also produced numerous artists of eminence. 
Though Henry Harwood, the painter of " The Executive," 
a work widely known, not only in this city, but wherever 
Dundonians abound, came from England, he spent most 
of his life in this city. William Simson, whose famous 
picture, " Cimabue and Giotto," was highly praised by 
Wilkie, and purchased by Sir Robert Peel, was born in 
Dundee. So were Robert Gibb, Frank Laing, and James 
Douglas. The existing Art Circle in Dundee continues 
strong, and is dealt with in a special article. 



ACTORS AND VOCALISTS. 

The record of actors and vocalists belonging to or 
connected with Forfarshire is not a very voluminous one. 
Harry Lauder is claimed as a native of Arbroath, whilst 
John More Smieton, the composer of " King Arthur," hails 
from Dundee. It was in this town, also, that John 
Wilson, the eminent Scottish vocalist, first sung in public, 
giving his inimitable rendering of "The Flowers of the 
Forest." Two actors of note were also given by Dundee to 
the stage. First Tom Powrie, whose performances of 
" Rob Roy," not only in his native town but also in Drury 
Lane Theatre, London, gained him flattering opinions from 
the press and the public. Second, William Mollison, 
whose chief and favourite role was " Bailie Nicol Jarvie." 
Mr. Mollison, however, had histrionic gifts which extended 
beyond the personation of the pawky magistrate of 
Glasgow, having been at one time a worthy member of 
the talented company gathered under the wing of Sir 
Henry Irving. 



488 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 



MEN OF MEDICINE AND PHILANTHROPISTS. 

The famous Dr. Abercromby, physician to James II., 
was a native of Forfar, and so was Dr. Key, whose sister 
became the wife of Sir David Brewster. 

Dr. John Crichton, the eminent lithotomist, belonged to 
Dundee, and indeed was rarely out of it after settling 
down there at the end of his medical studies in Edinburgh. 
And, as matter of fact, he was never out of Scotland. As 
a surgeon he had an extensive practice, performing up- 
wards of two hundred times the then (before the days of 
chloroform) difficult and critical operation of lithotomy. 
Out of all these patients, varying in age from two to eighty- 
five, it is stated that only fourteen died ; the rest making 
excellent recoveries. 

Sir Morell Mackenzie, the eminent throat specialist, 
was at one time an assistant to Dr. Webster of Dundee, 
whilst Sir Andrew Clark Mr. Gladstone's physician- 
acted in a similar capacity to Dr. Patrick Nimmo. Other 
notable medical men connected with Dundee, besides the 
Nimmo's, Patrick and Matthew, were Dr. Arnot, Dr. 
Munro, Dr. Cook, Dr. Miller, Dr. Crockett, Dr. Pirie, Dr. 
Greig, whose son is now one of the leading surgeons in 
the city, which can also boast of practitioners like 
Professor MacEwen, Professor Stalker, Dr. Sinclair, Dr. 
Buist, Dr. Mackie Whyte, Dr. Kynoch, Dr. MacGillivray, 
Dr. Guild, Dr. Campbell, Dr. Templeman, Medical Officer 
of Health, and Dr. Tulloch. 

PHILANTHROPISTS. 

Amongst the philanthropists who have done so much 
for Forfarshire, a foremost place must be assigned to Lady 
Jane Ogilvy, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk, and wife of 
Sir John Ogilvy, Bart. It was to her exertions that two 
of the noblest charitable institutions in Dundee the 
Baldovan Orphanage and the Convalescent Hospital were 
established. But independent of this her private bene- 
factions were great. The Hon. Mrs. Ogilvy, daughter 






FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 48 & 

of Lord Kinnaird, and married to the eldest son of Sir 
John Ogilvy, was distinguished for many worthy acts of 
benevolence, while to still a third bearer of the name, 
widow of Sir George Ogilvy, Dundee is indebted for an 
hospital devoted to the maintenance, clothing, and educa- 
tion of poor boys. 

The late Provost Moncur gave many benefactions to the 
city and neighbourhood, including the sanatorium at 
Auchterhouse and the Bannatyne Convalescent Home at 
Newtyle. Two other philanthropists, still carrying on 
good work, are Sir W. Ogilvy Dalgleish and Mr. J K. Caird, 
the latter being the donor of the Cancer Hospital, of several 
gifts to University College, and of the mansion house 
and gardens of Springfield to the city as a haven of rest for 
old and young. Then the Morgan family, with a most 
romantic career behind them, are to be kept in grateful 
remembrance for their many noble donations to Dundee, 
including the magnificent educational institution, the 
Morgan Academy. 

A few lines ought to be given to a philanthropist of 
another kind, one who, in propagating the famed Victoria 
potato, bestowed a great gift on the human race. This 
is William Paterson, whose father was a market gardener 
in Dundee. Paterson began his experiments with the 
potato about 1826, and carried them on most successfully 
in Fifeshire as well as Forfarshire, producing first of all the 
Victoria, from which all the best potatoes of the present 
day are descended. It was on this potato that the bulk 
of the country people subsisted in Ireland during the 
famine caused by the failure of their own crops. Paterson 
belonged to an able family. One of his uncles was Dr. 
Alexander Paterson, noted as an orchid grower and 
antiquary, while his brother, who served his law 
apprenticeship in Dundee Mr. Duncan Wilkie Paterson 
became an eminent Solicitor to the Supreme Court in 
Edinburgh. 

Turning from Dundee to For far, there is no name or 
personality more highly honoured than that of the late 
Peter Reid. By outsiders, more especially by railway 

2H 



490 FAMOUS MEN AND WOMEN OF FORFARSHIRE. 

travellers in Scotland, he is known in connection with the 
" Forfar Rock," but in Forfar itself he is remembered as 
the " Grand Old Man " he lived to the long age of 
ninety- four as the giver of a public park, opened by 
Lord Morley ; of beautiful halls, which were handed over 
as a perpetual gift to the town ; and of a Convalescent 
Ward at the Infirmary. He was for many years Provost of 
Forfar, and besides being a keen student, possessed a most 
retentive memory, out of which he could pour rich stories, 
descriptive of the scenes and people of bygone days. 



MEN OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. 

As one reason for leaving Merchants, Manufacturers, and 
other captains of Commerce and Industry, to the close of 
this roll of fame, it may be pleaded that as the list begins 
with the patriot Wallace, so it may fittingly end with 
patriots of a different stamp men who have laid the 
foundations of and built up those Forfarshire trades and 
industries which are world-wide in their reputation. The 
names of Baxter, Edwards, Cox, Armitstead, Gilroy, Sharp, 
Scott, Grimond, Henderson, Caird, Gow, Fergussou, 
Keiller, Low, Halley, Thomson, Carmichael, and others 
connected with the Jute, Engineering, Shipbuilding, and 
Marmalade industries of Dundee and other parts of 
Forfarshire, are everywhere familiar as household words. 
Their manufactures go all over the globe, and their financial 
transactions are known in all markets and exchanges. 
Many of their works will no doubt be thrown open to the 
members of the British Association now, just as they were 
in 1867, and those who enjoyed the privilege of attending 
the meeting forty- five years ago, can have an opportunity 
of seeing the improvements that have been made in 
machinery and equipment improvements that conduce 
not only to more perfection in the materials produced, but 
to the greater comfort of the workers. 



491 



James Bowman Lindsay, Scientist and 
Philologer. 

By A. H. Millar, LL.D., Chief Librarian, Dundee. 

THE name of James Bowman Lindsay has lately come into 
prominence not only in Dundee but also on the European 
continent and in America, especially in connection with 
the subjects of Electric Lighting, Electric Traction and 
Motor-power, and Wireless Telegraphy. Fifty years have 
elapsed since he sank, almost unnoticed, into an undis- 
tinguished grave ; and a generation which was not worthy 
of him, which regarded him as a crank and a faddist, an 
uncommercial dreamer of dreams and seer of visions, 
suffered him to slip into oblivion. Few men of genius 
have been so indifferent to fame as was this humble 
scientist, who pursued his scientific and philological 
researches with unselfish devotion, caring little for the 
applause of his contemporaries, and willing to leave his 
work for the verdict of posterity. 

The life of Lindsay was not full of " loud and strange 
adventure," yet it is strikingly attractive as a record of 
constant self-denial, of the pursuit of knowledge under 
difficulties, and of the triumph of stern resolution over 
adverse circumstances. In one of the Supplementary 
Volumes of the "Dictionary of National Biography," I 
have given a necessarily brief outline of Lindsay's career ; 
and a slight sketch of his life is alone necessary here, so 
as to make his position intelligible. 

LINDSAY'S BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS. 

James Bowman Lindsay was born at Carmyllie on 8th 
September 1799. His father was engaged in agriculture, 
and he would certainly have been devoted to a farming 



492 JAMES BOWMAN LINDSAY. 

life had not the delicacy of his constitution forbidden this 
project. He was accordingly placed as a boy under the 
care of a local handloom-weaver, and was reared to follow 
that occupation. He had early shown a decided love of 
learning, and his calling did not hinder the prosecution of his 
studies. It is related that " often he would be seen on his 
way to Arbroath, his web of cloth firmly tied on his back, 
and his open book in his hand. After delivering his cloth 
and obtaining fresh material he returned to Carmyllie in 
the same fashion." His studious nature attracted the 
notice of his parents, and they decided, with true Scottish 
self-denial, to limit their expenses so that James might 
have the privilege of a regular College training. 

A STUDENT AT ST. ANDREWS. 

In 1821, when in the twenty-second year of his age, 
Lindsay matriculated at St. Andrews University. Up till 
that time he was entirely self-educated, yet with all the 
disadvantages thus entailed upon him he took a dis- 
tinguished place, especially in mathematics and physical 
science. At this time he did not display that linguistic 
faculty which latterly entitled him to rank high as a 
philologist. Following the ancient custom of the poor 
Scottish student, Lindsay spent the summer recess working 
at his trade as handloom-weaver; but in the later years of 
his curriculum he took private pupils, and was thus able 
to carry on his own studies. His intention was to devote 
himself to the ministry, and having completed his Arts 
course, he entered the Divinity Hall, and finished his 
curriculum as a student of theology. Before he sought 
the position of a licentiate of the Church of Scotland, 
however, a new career had opened to him. In 1829 he 
was appointed Lecturer on Science and Mathematics at 
the Watt Institution in Dundee. In 1833 Lindsay took 
up his residence in Dundee, and formed classes for 
instruction in science. The trend of his scientific 
investigations and the scope of his teaching is shown by 
the advertisement which appeared in the Dundee 
Advertiser of llth April 1834, which is as follows- 



JAMES BOWMAN LINDSAY. 493 

" J. B. Lindsay resumes classes for cultivating the intellectual 
and historical portions of knowledge and instruction on April 
14, 1834, in South Tay Street, Dundee. In a few weeks hence 
a course of lectures will be formed on frictional, galvanic, and 
voltaic electricity, magnetism, and electron! agnetism. The 
battery, already powerful, is undergoing daily augmentation. 
The light obtained from it is intensely bright, and the number 
of lights may be increased without limit. A great number of 
wheels may be turned (by electricity), and small weights raised 
over pulleys. Houses and towns will in a short time be lighted 
by electricity instead of gas, and heated by it instead of coal ; 
and machinery will be worked by it instead of steam all at 
a trifling expense. A miniature view of all these effects will 
be exhibited, besides a number of subordinate experiments, 
including the discoveries of Sir Humphry Davy." 

In March 1841 Lindsay was appointed teacher in the 
Dundee Prison, at a salary of 50 per annum; and he 
remained in this post for seventeen years, resigning it in 
October 1858. It is said that before he had entered on 
his duties he could have obtained a position on the 
scientific staff of the British Museum, but as this would 
have forced him to leave his aged mother, he gave up the 
brilliant prospects thus open to him, and remained in 
comparative obscurity, a willing martyr to filial devotion. 
Lindsay's skill as a teacher even among the fluctuating 
pupils in the Prison was so manifest that it is said one of 
the prisoners upon whom he bestowed especial pains 
afterwards became an astronomer of some note. The 
scientific discoveries of Lindsay, to which reference is made 
below, attracted the notice of several eminent men of 
science, and his case was mentioned to the Earl of Derby 
when Prime Minister, and in July 1858, on the recom- 
mendation of Lord Derby, he was granted an annual 
pension of 100 " in recognition of his great learning and 
extraordinary attainments/' This bounty enabled Lindsay 
to resign